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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542174/specification-and-spatial-arrangement-of-cells-in-the-germline-stem-cell-niche-of-the-drosophila-ovary-depend-on-the-maf-transcription-factor-traffic-jam
#1
Trupti Panchal, Xi Chen, Ekaterina Alchits, Youjin Oh, James Poon, Jane Kouptsova, Frank A Laski, Dorothea Godt
Germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary are maintained by a somatic niche. The niche is structurally and functionally complex and contains four cell types, the escort, cap, and terminal filament cells and the newly identified transition cell. We find that the large Maf transcription factor Traffic jam (Tj) is essential for determining niche cell fates and architecture, enabling each niche in the ovary to support a normal complement of 2-3 germline stem cells. In particular, we focused on the question of how cap cells form...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533229/intrinsic-regulation-of-enteroendocrine-fate-by-numb
#2
Jérémy Sallé, Louis Gervais, Benjamin Boumard, Marine Stefanutti, Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition...
May 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521941/developmental-mechanism-of-the-tarsus-in-insect-legs
#3
REVIEW
Tetsuya Kojima
Insects show a tremendous morphological variety and have been a subject of studying morphological evolution. In legs, the tarsus is especially variable in the number of subsegments (tarsal segments) and their proportion unlike other leg segments. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed details of the tarsal development: regionalization of the tarsal region through integration of regulatory network and its growth, determination of the joint-forming region in each segment through strict regulation of Notch activity, changes in tissue morphology through regulation of RhoGTPases regulators and localized cell death, and finally, the morphogenetic mechanism of the ball-and-socket joint between tarsal segments...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520736/the-bantam-microrna-acts-through-numb-to-exert-cell-growth-control-and-feedback-regulation-of-notch-in-tumor-forming-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-brain
#4
Yen-Chi Wu, Kyu-Sun Lee, Yan Song, Stephan Gehrke, Bingwei Lu
Notch (N) signaling is central to the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and other tissue stem cells. Its deregulation compromises tissue homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis and other diseases. How N regulates stem cell behavior in health and disease is not well understood. Here we show that N regulates bantam (ban) microRNA to impact cell growth, a process key to NSC maintenance and particularly relied upon by tumor-forming cancer stem cells. Notch signaling directly regulates ban expression at the transcriptional level, and ban in turn feedback regulates N activity through negative regulation of the Notch inhibitor Numb...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506995/apical-constriction-is-driven-by-a-pulsatile-apical-myosin-network-in-delaminating-drosophila-neuroblasts
#5
Yanru An, Guosheng Xue, Yang Shaobo, Deng Mingxi, Xiaowei Zhou, Weichuan Yu, Toyotaka Ishibashi, Lei Zhang, Yan Yan
Cell delamination is a conserved morphogenetic process important for generation of cell diversity and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here we used Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts as a model to study the apical constriction process during cell delamination. We observe dynamic myosin signals both around the cell adherens junctions and underneath the cell apical surface in the neuroectoderm. On the cell apical cortex the non-junctional myosin forms flows and pulses, which are termed as medial myosin pulses...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495961/an-evolutionarily-conserved-role-of-presenilin-in-neuronal-protection-in-the-aging-drosophila-brain
#6
Jongkyun Kang, Sarah Shin, Norbert Perrimon, Jie Shen
Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin and Nicastrin are essential components of γ-secretase, a multi-subunit protease that cleaves Type I transmembrane proteins. Genetic studies in mice previously demonstrated that conditional inactivation of Presenilin or Nicastrin in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain results in memory deficits, synaptic impairment and age-dependent neurodegeneration. The roles of Drosophila Presenilin (Psn) and Nicastrin (Nct) in the adult fly brain, however, are unknown...
May 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490499/development-of-an-optimized-synthetic-notch-receptor-as-an-in-vivo-cell-cell-contact-sensor
#7
Li He, Jiuhong Huang, Norbert Perrimon
Detection and manipulation of direct cell-cell contact in complex tissues is a fundamental and challenging problem in many biological studies. Here, we report an optimized Notch-based synthetic receptor (synNQ) useful to study direct cell-cell interactions in Drosophila With the synNQ system, cells expressing a synthetic receptor, which contains Notch activation machinery and a downstream transcriptional activator, QF, are activated by a synthetic GFP ligand expressed by contacting neighbor cells. To avoid cis-inhibition, mutually exclusive expression of the synthetic ligand and receptor is achieved using the "flippase-out" system...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475577/hairless-binding-deficient-suppressor-of-hairless-alleles-reveal-su-h-protein-levels-are-dependent-on-complex-formation-with-hairless
#8
Heiko Praxenthaler, Anja C Nagel, Adriana Schulz, Mirjam Zimmermann, Markus Meier, Hannes Schmid, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
Cell fate choices during metazoan development are driven by the highly conserved Notch signalling pathway. Notch receptor activation results in release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) that acts as transcriptional co-activator of the DNA-binding protein CSL. In the absence of signal, a repressor complex consisting of CSL bound to co-repressors silences Notch target genes. The Drosophila repressor complex contains the fly CSL orthologue Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and Hairless (H). The Su(H)-H crystal structure revealed a large conformational change within Su(H) upon H binding, precluding interactions with NICD...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461810/ancient-role-of-ten-m-odz-in-segmentation-and-the-transition-from-sequential-to-syncytial-segmentation
#9
Axel Hunding, Stefan Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: Until recently, mechanisms of segmentation established for Drosophila served as a paradigm for arthropod segmentation. However, with the discovery of gene expression waves in vertebrate segmentation, another paradigm based on oscillations linked to axial growth was established. The Notch pathway and hairy delay oscillator are basic components of this mechanism, as is the wnt pathway. With the establishment of oscillations during segmentation of the beetle Tribolium, a common segmentation mechanism may have been present in the last common ancestor of vertebrates and arthropods...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424321/the-drosophila-zo-1-protein-polychaetoid-suppresses-deltex-regulated-notch-activity-to-modulate-germline-stem-cell-niche-formation
#10
Hideyuki Shimizu, Marian B Wilkin, Simon A Woodcock, Alessandro Bonfini, Yvonne Hung, Sabine Mazaleyrat, Martin Baron
The developmental signalling protein Notch can be proteolytically activated following ligand-interaction at the cell surface, or can be activated independently of its ligands, following Deltex (Dx)-induced Notch endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosomal membrane. The means by which different pools of Notch are directed towards these alternative outcomes remains poorly understood. We found that the Drosophila ZO-1 protein Polychaetoid (Pyd) suppresses specifically the Dx-induced form of Notch activation both in vivo and in cell culture assays...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406397/evolutionary-changes-in-transcription-factor-coding-sequence-quantitatively-alter-sensory-organ-development-and-function
#11
Simon Weinberger, Matthew P Topping, Jiekun Yan, Annelies Claeys, Natalie De Geest, Duru Ozbay, Talah Hassan, Xiaoli He, Joerg T Albert, Bassem A Hassan, Ariane Ramaekers
Animals are characterized by a set of highly conserved developmental regulators. Changes in the cis-regulatory elements of these regulators are thought to constitute the major driver of morphological evolution. However, the role of coding sequence evolution remains unresolved. To address this question, we used the Atonal family of proneural transcription factors as a model. Drosophila atonal coding sequence was endogenously replaced with that of atonal homologues (ATHs) at key phylogenetic positions, non-ATH proneural genes, and the closest homologue to ancestral proneural genes...
April 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396507/regulation-of-notch-signaling-by-the-heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-hrp48-and-deltex-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Debdeep Dutta, Maimuna Sali Paul, Ankita Singh, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Ashim Mukherjee
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is found to be involved in a number of cellular events throughout development. The deployment of Notch signaling pathway in numerous cellular contexts is possible due to its regulation at multiple levels. In an effort to identify the novel components integrated into the molecular circuitry affecting Notch signaling, we carried out a protein-protein interaction screen based on the identification of cellular protein complexes using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass-spectrometry...
April 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394894/tissue-specific-enhancer-repression-through-molecular-integration-of-cell-signaling-inputs
#13
Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Mikhail H Benetah, Aissette Baanannou, Sandra Bernat-Fabre, Bart Deplancke, David L Cribbs, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Muriel Boube
Drosophila leg morphogenesis occurs under the control of a relatively well-known genetic cascade, which mobilizes both cell signaling pathways and tissue-specific transcription factors. However, their cross-regulatory interactions, deployed to refine leg patterning, remain poorly characterized at the gene expression level. Within the genetically interacting landscape that governs limb development, the bric-à-brac2 (bab2) gene is required for distal leg segmentation. We have previously shown that the Distal-less (Dll) homeodomain and Rotund (Rn) zinc-finger activating transcription factors control limb-specific bab2 expression by binding directly a single critical leg/antennal enhancer (LAE) within the bric-à-brac locus...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394891/xylosylation-of-the-notch-receptor-preserves-the-balance-between-its-activation-by-trans-delta-and-inhibition-by-cis-ligands-in-drosophila
#14
Tom V Lee, Ashutosh Pandey, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
The Drosophila glucoside xylosyltransferase Shams xylosylates Notch and inhibits Notch signaling in specific contexts including wing vein development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying context-specificity of the shams phenotype is not known. Considering the role of Delta-Notch signaling in wing vein formation, we hypothesized that Shams might affect Delta-mediated Notch signaling in Drosophila. Using genetic interaction studies, we find that altering the gene dosage of Delta affects the wing vein and head bristle phenotypes caused by loss of Shams or by mutations in the Notch xylosylation sites...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386027/self-organized-notch-dynamics-generate-stereotyped-sensory-organ-patterns-in-drosophila
#15
Francis Corson, Lydie Couturier, Hervé Rouault, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
The emergence of spatial patterns in developing multicellular organisms relies on positional cues and cell-cell communication. Drosophila sensory organs have informed a paradigm in which these operate in two distinct steps: Prepattern factors drive localized proneural activity, then Notch-mediated lateral inhibition singles out neural precursors. Here we show that self-organization through Notch signaling also establishes the proneural stripes that resolve into rows of sensory bristles on the fly thorax. Patterning, initiated by a gradient of Delta ligand expression, progresses through inhibitory signaling between and within stripes...
May 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355214/a-new-paramutation-like-example-at-the-delta-gene-of-drosophila
#16
Maria Capovilla, Alain Robichon, Minoo Rassoulzadegan
The hereditary transmission of a phenotype independent from DNA sequence implies epigenetic effects. Paramutation is a heritable epigenetic phenomenon observed in plants and animals. To investigate paramutation in Drosophila, we used the P{ry+t7.2 = PZ}Dl05151 P-element insertion in the Drosophila melanogaster genome that causes a dominant visible phenotype: the presence of characteristic extra-veins in the fly wings. This extra-vein phenotype presents variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. The insert is a PZ element located 680 bp upstream from the ATG of the Delta (Dl) gene, encoding the Notch ligand involved in wing vein development, and acts as a null allele...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350987/the-super-elongation-complex-drives-neural-stem-cell-fate-commitment
#17
Kun Liu, Dan Shen, Jingwen Shen, Shihong M Gao, Bo Li, Chouin Wong, Weidong Feng, Yan Song
Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347816/evolutionary-conservation-of-notch-signaling-inhibition-by-tmem131l-overexpression
#18
Sébastien Szuplewski, Nesrine Maharzi, Elisabeth Nelson, Kutaiba Alhaj Hussen, Bernard Mignotte, Isabelle Guénal, Bruno Canque
Human KIAA0922/TMEM131L encodes a transmembrane protein, TMEM131L, that regulates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by eliciting the lysosome-dependent degradation of phosphorylated LRP6 co-receptor. Here, we use a heterospecific Drosophila transgenic model to examine the potential evolutionary conservation of TMEM131L function. Analysis of TMEM131L transgenic flies shows that TMEM131L interference with the Wnt pathway results primarily from a Notch-dependent decrease in Wingless production. Consistently, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TMEM131L in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells leads to decreased susceptibility to Notch1 ligation and defective commitment toward the T lineage...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347671/deletion-of-numb-numblike-in-glutamatergic-neurons-leads-to-anxiety-like-behavior-in-mice
#19
Wenyu Qian, Yang Hong, Minyan Zhu, Liang Zhou, Hongchang Li, Huashun Li
Endocytic adaptor protein Numb is the first identified cell fate determinant in Drosophila melanogaster. It has been implicated in Notch signaling pathway and regulation of neural stem cells proliferation in the central nervous system. Numb is also expressed in postmitotic neurons, in vitro studies showed that Numb is involved in neuronal morphologic development, such as neurite growth, axonal growth and spine development. However, in vivo functions of Numb in the postmitotic neurons are largely unknown. Here we show that deletion of Numb/Numblike in glutamatergic neurons causes anxiety-like behavior in mouse...
March 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327288/atrophin-controls-developmental-signaling-pathways-via-interactions-with-trithorax-like
#20
Kelvin Yeung, Ann Boija, Edvin Karlsson, Per-Henrik Holmqvist, Yonit Tsatskis, Ilaria Nisoli, Damian Yap, Alireza Lorzadeh, Michelle Moksa, Martin Hirst, Samuel Aparicio, Manolis Fanto, Per Stenberg, Mattias Mannervik, Helen McNeill
Mutations in human Atrophin1, a transcriptional corepressor, cause dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, a neurodegenerative disease. Drosophila Atrophin (Atro) mutants display many phenotypes, including neurodegeneration, segmentation, patterning and planar polarity defects. Despite Atro's critical role in development and disease, relatively little is known about Atro's binding partners and downstream targets. We present the first genomic analysis of Atro using ChIP-seq against endogenous Atro. ChIP-seq identified 1300 potential direct targets of Atro including engrailed, and components of the Dpp and Notch signaling pathways...
March 22, 2017: ELife
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