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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899511/drosophila-crumbs-prevents-ectopic-notch-activation-in-developing-wings-by-inhibiting-ligand-independent-endocytosis
#1
Linda Nemetschke, Elisabeth Knust
Many signalling components are apically restricted in epithelial cells, and receptor localisation and abundance is key for morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Hence, controlling apicobasal epithelial polarity is crucial for proper signalling. Notch is a ubiquitously expressed, apically localised receptor, which performs a plethora of functions; therefore, its activity has to be tightly regulated. Here, we show that Drosophila Crumbs, an evolutionarily conserved polarity determinant, prevents Notch endocytosis in developing wings through direct interaction between the two proteins...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
November 23, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866148/identification-of-genes-mediating-drosophila-follicle-cell-progenitor-differentiation-by-screening-for-modifiers-of-gal4-uas-variegation
#3
Ming-Chia Lee, Andrew D Skora, Allan C Spradling
The Drosophila melanogaster ovarian follicle cell lineage provides a powerful system for investigating how epigenetic changes contribute to differentiation. Downstream from an epithelial stem cell, follicle progenitors undergo nine mitotic cell cycles before transitioning to the endocycle and initiating differentiation. During their proliferative phase, follicle progenitors experience Lsd1-dependent changes in epigenetic stability that can be monitored using GAL4::UAS variegation. Eventually, follicle progenitors acquire competence to respond to Delta, a Notch ligand present in the environment, which signals them to cease division and initiate differentiation...
November 18, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836963/phosphorylated-groucho-delays-differentiation-in-the-follicle-stem-cell-lineage-by-providing-a-molecular-memory-of-egfr-signaling-in-the-niche
#4
Michael J Johnston, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Ze'ev Paroush, Todd G Nystul
In the epithelial follicle stem cells (FSCs) of the Drosophila ovary, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling promotes self-renewal whereas Notch signaling promotes differentiation of the prefollicle cell (pFC) daughters. We have identified two proteins, Six4 and Groucho (Gro), that link the activity of these two pathways to regulate the earliest cell fate decision in the FSC lineage. Our data indicate that Six4 and Gro promote differentiation toward the polar cell fate by promoting Notch pathway activity...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830090/drosophila-enhancer-of-rudimentary-homolog-erh-is-a-binding-partner-of-rps3-rpl19-and-ddit4-suggesting-a-mechanism-for-the-nuclear-localization-of-erh
#5
Stuart I Tsubota, Anthony C Phillips
The protein enhancer of rudimentary homolog, ERH, is a small, highly conserved protein that has been found in animals, plants, and protists. Genetic and biochemical interactions have implicated ERH in the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis, DNA replication, transcription, mRNA splicing, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, and the Notch signaling pathway. In vertebrates and insects, ERH is nuclearly localized; however, an examination of the ERH amino-acid sequence does not reveal any nuclear localization signals...
2016: Molecular Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816064/increased-wnt-and-notch-signaling-a-clue-to-the-renal-disease-in-schimke-immuno-osseous-dysplasia
#6
Marie Morimoto, Clara Myung, Kimberly Beirnes, Kunho Choi, Yumi Asakura, Arend Bokenkamp, Dominique Bonneau, Milena Brugnara, Joel Charrow, Estelle Colin, Amira Davis, Georges Deschenes, Mattia Gentile, Mario Giordano, Andrew K Gormley, Rajeshree Govender, Mark Joseph, Kory Keller, Evelyne Lerut, Elena Levtchenko, Laura Massella, Christy Mayfield, Behzad Najafian, David Parham, Jurgen Spranger, Peter Stenzel, Uluc Yis, Zhongxin Yu, Jonathan Zonana, Glenda Hendson, Cornelius F Boerkoel
BACKGROUND: Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a multisystemic disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1 (SMARCAL1) gene. Changes in gene expression underlie the arteriosclerosis and T-cell immunodeficiency of SIOD; therefore, we hypothesized that SMARCAL1 deficiency causes the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) of SIOD by altering renal gene expression. We tested this hypothesis by gene expression analysis of an SIOD patient kidney and verified these findings through immunofluorescent analysis in additional SIOD patients and a genetic interaction analysis in Drosophila...
November 5, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782877/dpp-dependent-hematopoietic-stem-cells-give-rise-to-hh-dependent-blood-progenitors-in-larval-lymph-gland-of-drosophila
#7
Nidhi Sharma Dey, Parvathy Ramesh, Mayank Chugh, Sudip Mandal, Lolitika Mandal
Drosophila hematopoiesis bears striking resemblance with that of vertebrates, both in the context of distinct phases and the signaling molecules. Even though, there has been no evidence of Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Drosophila, the larval lymph gland with its Hedgehog dependent progenitors served as an invertebrate model of progenitor biology. Employing lineage-tracing analyses, we have now identified Notch expressing HSCs in the first instar larval lymph gland. Our studies clearly establish the hierarchical relationship between Notch expressing HSCs and the previously described Domeless expressing progenitors...
October 26, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764101/rare-functional-variant-in-tm2d3-is-associated-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Johanna Jakobsdottir, Sven J van der Lee, Joshua C Bis, Vincent Chouraki, David Li-Kroeger, Shinya Yamamoto, Megan L Grove, Adam Naj, Maria Vronskaya, Jose L Salazar, Anita L DeStefano, Jennifer A Brody, Albert V Smith, Najaf Amin, Rebecca Sims, Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas, Seung-Hoan Choi, Claudia L Satizabal, Oscar L Lopez, Alexa Beiser, M Arfan Ikram, Melissa E Garcia, Caroline Hayward, Tibor V Varga, Samuli Ripatti, Paul W Franks, Göran Hallmans, Olov Rolandsson, Jan-Håkon Jansson, David J Porteous, Veikko Salomaa, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Kenneth M Rice, Hugo J Bellen, Daniel Levy, Andre G Uitterlinden, Valur Emilsson, Jerome I Rotter, Thor Aspelund, Christopher J O'Donnell, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Lenore J Launer, Albert Hofman, Li-San Wang, Julie Williams, Gerard D Schellenberg, Eric Boerwinkle, Bruce M Psaty, Sudha Seshadri, Joshua M Shulman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Cornelia M van Duijn
We performed an exome-wide association analysis in 1393 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) cases and 8141 controls from the CHARGE consortium. We found that a rare variant (P155L) in TM2D3 was enriched in Icelanders (~0.5% versus <0.05% in other European populations). In 433 LOAD cases and 3903 controls from the Icelandic AGES sub-study, P155L was associated with increased risk and earlier onset of LOAD [odds ratio (95% CI) = 7.5 (3.5-15.9), p = 6.6x10-9]. Mutation in the Drosophila TM2D3 homolog, almondex, causes a phenotype similar to loss of Notch/Presenilin signaling...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734842/growth-arrest-specific-2-gas2-is-a-critical-mediator-of-germ-cell-cyst-breakdown-and-folliculogenesis-in-mice
#9
J Philippe York, Yi Athena Ren, Jie Zeng, Bin Zhang, Fang Wang, Rui Chen, Jianqiao Liu, Xuefeng Xia, Pumin Zhang
In the mouse ovary, the primordial follicle pool is established through a diverse array of signaling pathways and tissue remodeling events. Growth arrest specific gene two (GAS2) is a highly conserved cytoskeleton-associated protein whose in vivo function remains unclear. In Drosophila, loss of the GAS2 homolog, Pigs, results in infertility. We demonstrate herein that, in the mouse ovary, GAS2 is expressed in the stromal cells surrounding the oocyte cysts on 16.5 dpc, and in stromal cells surrounding growing follicles during juvenile and adult life...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713501/in-vivo-analysis-of-internal-ribosome-entry-at-the-hairless-locus-by-genome-engineering-in-drosophila
#10
Thomas K Smylla, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
Cell communication in metazoans requires the highly conserved Notch signaling pathway, which is subjected to strict regulation of both activation and silencing. In Drosophila melanogaster, silencing involves the assembly of a repressor complex by Hairless (H) on Notch target gene promoters. We previously found an in-frame internal ribosome entry site in the full length H transcript resulting in two H protein isoforms (H(p120) and H(p150)). Hence, H may repress Notch signalling activity in situations where cap-dependent translation is inhibited...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708688/the-csl-proteins-versatile-transcription-factors-and-context-dependent-corepressors-of-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#11
Humberto Contreras-Cornejo, Germán Saucedo-Correa, Javier Oviedo-Boyso, Juan José Valdez-Alarcón, Víctor Manuel Baizabal-Aguirre, Marcos Cajero-Juárez, Alejandro Bravo-Patiño
The Notch signaling pathway is a reiteratively used cell to cell communication pathway that triggers pleiotropic effects. The correct regulation of the pathway permits the efficient regulation of genes involved in cell fate decision throughout development. This activity relies notably on the CSL proteins, (an acronym for CBF-1/RBPJ-κ in Homo sapiens/Mus musculus respectively, Suppressor of Hairless in Drosophila melanogaster, Lag-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans) which is the unique transcription factor and DNA binding protein involved in this pathway...
2016: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702784/ebi-modulates-wing-growth-by-ubiquitin-dependent-downregulation-of-crumbs-in-drosophila
#12
Minh Binh Nguyen, Linh Thuong Vuong, Kwang-Wook Choi
Notch signaling at the dorsoventral (DV) boundary is essential for patterning and growth of wings in Drosophila The WD40 domain protein Ebi has been implicated in the regulation of Notch signaling at the DV boundary. Here we show that Ebi regulates wing growth by antagonizing the function of the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb). Ebi physically binds to the extracellular domain of Crb (Crb(ext)), and this interaction is specifically mediated by WD40 repeats 7-8 of Ebi and a laminin G domain of Crb(ext) Wing notching resulting from reduced levels of Ebi is suppressed by decreasing the Crb function...
October 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683892/developmental-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-first-synapse-of-the-drosophila-olfactory-circuit
#13
REVIEW
Randall M Golovin, Kendal Broadie
Evidence accumulating over the past 15 years soundly refutes the dogma that the Drosophila nervous system is hardwired. The preponderance of studies reveals activity-dependent neural circuit refinement driving optimization of behavioral outputs. We describe developmental, sensory input-dependent plasticity in the brain olfactory antennal lobe, which we term long-term central adaption (LTCA). LTCA is evoked by prolonged exposure to an odorant during the first week of posteclosion life, resulting in a persistently decreased response to aversive odors and an enhanced response to attractive odors...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623778/the-silent-information-regulator-1-sirt1-is-a-positive-regulator-of-the-notch-pathway-in-drosophila
#14
Matej Horvath, Zorana Mihajlovic, Vera Slaninova, Raquel Perez Gomez, Yuri Moshkin, Alena Krejci
The silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1) has previously been shown to have negative effects on the Notch pathway in several contexts. We bring evidence that Sirt1 has a positive effect on Notch activation in Drosophila, in the context of sensory organ precursor specification and during wing development. The phenotype of Sirt1 mutant resembles weak Notch loss of function phenotypes and genetic interactions of Sirt1 with the components of the Notch pathway also suggest a positive role of Sirt1 in Notch signalling...
September 13, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578794/sequoia-controls-the-type-i-0-daughter-proliferation-switch-in-the-developing-drosophila-nervous-system
#15
Erika Gunnar, Caroline Bivik, Annika Starkenberg, Stefan Thor
Neural progenitors typically divide asymmetrically to renew themselves, while producing daughters with more limited potential. In the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord, neuroblasts initially produce daughters that divide once to generate two neurons/glia (type I proliferation mode). Subsequently, many neuroblasts switch to generating daughters that differentiate directly (type 0). This programmed type I>0 switch is controlled by Notch signaling, triggered at a distinct point of lineage progression in each neuroblast...
August 30, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578786/the-evolutionarily-conserved-transcription-factor-sp1-controls-appendage-growth-through-notch-signaling
#16
Sergio Córdoba, David Requena, Aurelie Jory, Almudena Saiz, Carlos Estella
The appendages of arthropods and vertebrates are not homologous structures, although the underlying genetic mechanisms that pattern them are highly conserved. Members of the Sp family of transcription factors are expressed in the developing limbs and their function is required for limb growth in both insects and chordates. Despite the fundamental and conserved role that these transcription factors play during appendage development, their target genes and the mechanisms by which they participate in control limb growth are mostly unknown...
October 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573785/recapitulating-human-gastric-cancer-pathogenesis-experimental-models-of-gastric-cancer
#17
Lin Ding, Mohamad El Zaatari, Juanita L Merchant
This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552097/the-selector-gene-apterous-and-notch-are-required-to-locally-increase-mechanical-cell-bond-tension-at-the-drosophila-dorsoventral-compartment-boundary
#18
Marcus Michel, Maryam Aliee, Katrin Rudolf, Lisa Bialas, Frank Jülicher, Christian Dahmann
The separation of cells with distinct fates and functions is important for tissue and organ formation during animal development. Regions of different fates within tissues are often separated from another along straight boundaries. These compartment boundaries play a crucial role in tissue patterning and growth by stably positioning organizers. In Drosophila, the wing imaginal disc is subdivided into a dorsal and a ventral compartment. Cells of the dorsal, but not ventral, compartment express the selector gene apterous...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551055/molecular-mechanism-of-central-nervous-system-repair-by-the-drosophila-ng2-homologue-kon-tiki
#19
Maria Losada-Perez, Neale Harrison, Alicia Hidalgo
Neuron glia antigen 2 (NG2)-positive glia are repair cells that proliferate upon central nervous system (CNS) damage, promoting functional recovery. However, repair is limited because of the failure of the newly produced glial cells to differentiate. It is a key goal to discover how to regulate NG2 to enable glial proliferation and differentiation conducive to repair. Drosophila has an NG2 homologue called kon-tiki (kon), of unknown CNS function. We show that kon promotes repair and identify the underlying mechanism...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546574/occluding-junctions-maintain-stem-cell-niche-homeostasis-in-the-fly-testes
#20
Michael J Fairchild, Lulu Yang, Katharine Goodwin, Guy Tanentzapf
Stem cells can be controlled by their local microenvironment, known as the stem cell niche. The Drosophila testes contain a morphologically distinct niche called the hub, composed of a cluster of between 8 and 20 cells known as hub cells, which contact and regulate germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Both hub cells and CySCs originate from somatic gonadal precursor cells during embryogenesis, but whereas hub cells, once specified, cease all mitotic activity, CySCs remain mitotic into adulthood [1, 2]...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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