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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708823/notch-dependent-epithelial-fold-determines-boundary-formation-between-developmental-fields-in-the-drosophila-antenna
#1
Hui-Yu Ku, Y Henry Sun
Compartment boundary formation plays an important role in development by separating adjacent developmental fields. Drosophila imaginal discs have proven valuable for studying the mechanisms of boundary formation. We studied the boundary separating the proximal A1 segment and the distal segments, defined respectively by Lim1 and Dll expression in the eye-antenna disc. Sharp segregation of the Lim1 and Dll expression domains precedes activation of Notch at the Dll/Lim1 interface. By repressing bantam miRNA and elevating the actin regulator Enable, Notch signaling then induces actomyosin-dependent apical constriction and epithelial fold...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662029/a-genetic-framework-controlling-the-differentiation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-during-regeneration-in-drosophila
#2
Zongzhao Zhai, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
The speed of stem cell differentiation has to be properly coupled with self-renewal, both under basal conditions for tissue maintenance and during regeneration for tissue repair. Using the Drosophila midgut model, we analyze at the cellular and molecular levels the differentiation program required for robust regeneration. We observe that the intestinal stem cell (ISC) and its differentiating daughter, the enteroblast (EB), form extended cell-cell contacts in regenerating intestines. The contact between progenitors is stabilized by cell adhesion molecules, and can be dynamically remodeled to elicit optimal juxtacrine Notch signaling to determine the speed of progenitor differentiation...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656157/opportunities-lost-and-gained-changes-in-progenitor-competence-during-nervous-system-development
#3
REVIEW
Dylan R Farnsworth, Chris Q Doe
During development of the central nervous system, a small pool of stem cells and progenitors generate the vast neural diversity required for neural circuit formation and behavior. Neural stem and progenitor cells often generate different progeny in response to the same signaling cue (e.g. Notch or Hedgehog), including no response at all. How does stem cell competence to respond to signaling cues change over time? Recently, epigenetics particularly chromatin remodeling - has emerged as a powerful mechanism to control stem cell competence...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621429/the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-dgrn-is-essential-for-drosophila-innate-immunity
#4
Bella Koltun, Eliza Shackelford, François Bonnay, Nicolas Matt, Jean Marc Reichhart, Amir Orian
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase connecting the two pathways, is essential for the innate immunity response in Drosophila. dgrn(DK) null and heterozygous mutant adult flies are severely immune-compromised and succumb rapidly to both pathogenic bacteria and fungi infections...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620760/notch-an-interactive-player-in-neurogenesis-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Runrui Zhang, Anna Engler, Verdon Taylor
Notch signaling is evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to human. It plays critical roles in neural stem cell maintenance and neurogenesis in the embryonic brain as well as in the adult brain. Notch functions greatly depend on careful regulation and cross-talk with other regulatory mechanisms. Deregulation of Notch signaling is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases and brain disorders. Here, we summarize the fundamental role of Notch in neuronal development and specification and discuss how epigenetic regulation and pathway cross-talk contribute to Notch function...
June 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611255/a-kinome-rnai-screen-in-drosophila-identifies-novel-genes-interacting-with-lgl-apkc-and-crb-cell-polarity-genes-in-epithelial-tissues
#6
Linda M Parsons, Nicola A Grzeschik, Kasun Amaratunga, Peter Burke, Leonie M Quinn, Helena E Richardson
In both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian systems, epithelial structure and underlying cell polarity are essential for proper tissue morphogenesis and organ growth. Cell polarity interfaces with multiple cellular processes that are regulated by the phosphorylation status of large protein networks. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarity with tissue growth, we screened a boutique collection of RNAi stocks targeting the kinome for their capacity to modify Drosophila 'cell polarity' eye and wing phenotypes...
June 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598558/conserved-signaling-mechanisms-in-drosophila-heart-development
#7
REVIEW
Shaad M Ahmad
Signal transduction through multiple distinct pathways regulates and orchestrates the numerous biological processes comprising heart development. This review outlines the roles of the FGFR, EGFR, Wnt, BMP, Notch, Hedgehog, Slit/Robo and other signaling pathways during four sequential phases of Drosophila cardiogenesis-mesoderm migration, cardiac mesoderm establishment, differentiation of the cardiac mesoderm into distinct cardiac cell types, and morphogenesis of the heart and its lumen based on the proper positioning and cell shape changes of these differentiated cardiac cells-and illustrates how these same cardiogenic roles are conserved in vertebrates...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584125/drosophila-pax6-promotes-development-of-the-entire-eye-antennal-disc-thereby-ensuring-proper-adult-head-formation
#8
Jinjin Zhu, Sneha Palliyil, Chen Ran, Justin P Kumar
Paired box 6 (Pax6) is considered to be the master control gene for eye development in all seeing animals studied so far. In vertebrates, it is required not only for lens/retina formation but also for the development of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. Although Pax6 plays important roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and patterning during the development of these systems, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, Pax6 also functions in a range of tissues, including the eye and brain...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542174/specification-and-spatial-arrangement-of-cells-in-the-germline-stem-cell-niche-of-the-drosophila-ovary-depend-on-the-maf-transcription-factor-traffic-jam
#9
Trupti Panchal, Xi Chen, Ekaterina Alchits, Youjin Oh, James Poon, Jane Kouptsova, Frank A Laski, Dorothea Godt
Germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary are maintained by a somatic niche. The niche is structurally and functionally complex and contains four cell types, the escort, cap, and terminal filament cells and the newly identified transition cell. We find that the large Maf transcription factor Traffic jam (Tj) is essential for determining niche cell fates and architecture, enabling each niche in the ovary to support a normal complement of 2-3 germline stem cells. In particular, we focused on the question of how cap cells form...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533229/intrinsic-regulation-of-enteroendocrine-fate-by-numb
#10
Jérémy Sallé, Louis Gervais, Benjamin Boumard, Marine Stefanutti, Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition...
July 3, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521941/developmental-mechanism-of-the-tarsus-in-insect-legs
#11
REVIEW
Tetsuya Kojima
Insects show a tremendous morphological variety and have been a subject of studying morphological evolution. In legs, the tarsus is especially variable in the number of subsegments (tarsal segments) and their proportion unlike other leg segments. Recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster have revealed details of the tarsal development: regionalization of the tarsal region through integration of regulatory network and its growth, determination of the joint-forming region in each segment through strict regulation of Notch activity, changes in tissue morphology through regulation of RhoGTPases regulators and localized cell death, and finally, the morphogenetic mechanism of the ball-and-socket joint between tarsal segments...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520736/the-bantam-microrna-acts-through-numb-to-exert-cell-growth-control-and-feedback-regulation-of-notch-in-tumor-forming-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-brain
#12
Yen-Chi Wu, Kyu-Sun Lee, Yan Song, Stephan Gehrke, Bingwei Lu
Notch (N) signaling is central to the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and other tissue stem cells. Its deregulation compromises tissue homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis and other diseases. How N regulates stem cell behavior in health and disease is not well understood. Here we show that N regulates bantam (ban) microRNA to impact cell growth, a process key to NSC maintenance and particularly relied upon by tumor-forming cancer stem cells. Notch signaling directly regulates ban expression at the transcriptional level, and ban in turn feedback regulates N activity through negative regulation of the Notch inhibitor Numb...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506995/apical-constriction-is-driven-by-a-pulsatile-apical-myosin-network-in-delaminating-drosophila-neuroblasts
#13
Yanru An, Guosheng Xue, Yang Shaobo, Deng Mingxi, Xiaowei Zhou, Weichuan Yu, Toyotaka Ishibashi, Lei Zhang, Yan Yan
Cell delamination is a conserved morphogenetic process important for the generation of cell diversity and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here, we used Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts as a model to study the apical constriction process during cell delamination. We observe dynamic myosin signals both around the cell adherens junctions and underneath the cell apical surface in the neuroectoderm. On the cell apical cortex, the nonjunctional myosin forms flows and pulses, which are termed medial myosin pulses...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495961/an-evolutionarily-conserved-role-of-presenilin-in-neuronal-protection-in-the-aging-drosophila-brain
#14
Jongkyun Kang, Sarah Shin, Norbert Perrimon, Jie Shen
Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin and Nicastrin are essential components of γ-secretase, a multi-subunit protease that cleaves Type I transmembrane proteins. Genetic studies in mice previously demonstrated that conditional inactivation of Presenilin or Nicastrin in excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain results in memory deficits, synaptic impairment, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. The roles of Drosophila Presenilin (Psn) and Nicastrin (Nct) in the adult fly brain, however, are unknown...
July 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490499/development-of-an-optimized-synthetic-notch-receptor-as-an-in-vivo-cell-cell-contact-sensor
#15
Li He, Jiuhong Huang, Norbert Perrimon
Detection and manipulation of direct cell-cell contact in complex tissues is a fundamental and challenging problem in many biological studies. Here, we report an optimized Notch-based synthetic receptor (synNQ) useful to study direct cell-cell interactions in Drosophila With the synNQ system, cells expressing a synthetic receptor, which contains Notch activation machinery and a downstream transcriptional activator, QF, are activated by a synthetic GFP ligand expressed by contacting neighbor cells. To avoid cis-inhibition, mutually exclusive expression of the synthetic ligand and receptor is achieved using the "flippase-out" system...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475577/hairless-binding-deficient-suppressor-of-hairless-alleles-reveal-su-h-protein-levels-are-dependent-on-complex-formation-with-hairless
#16
Heiko Praxenthaler, Anja C Nagel, Adriana Schulz, Mirjam Zimmermann, Markus Meier, Hannes Schmid, Anette Preiss, Dieter Maier
Cell fate choices during metazoan development are driven by the highly conserved Notch signalling pathway. Notch receptor activation results in release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) that acts as transcriptional co-activator of the DNA-binding protein CSL. In the absence of signal, a repressor complex consisting of CSL bound to co-repressors silences Notch target genes. The Drosophila repressor complex contains the fly CSL orthologue Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and Hairless (H). The Su(H)-H crystal structure revealed a large conformational change within Su(H) upon H binding, precluding interactions with NICD...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461810/ancient-role-of-ten-m-odz-in-segmentation-and-the-transition-from-sequential-to-syncytial-segmentation
#17
Axel Hunding, Stefan Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: Until recently, mechanisms of segmentation established for Drosophila served as a paradigm for arthropod segmentation. However, with the discovery of gene expression waves in vertebrate segmentation, another paradigm based on oscillations linked to axial growth was established. The Notch pathway and hairy delay oscillator are basic components of this mechanism, as is the wnt pathway. With the establishment of oscillations during segmentation of the beetle Tribolium, a common segmentation mechanism may have been present in the last common ancestor of vertebrates and arthropods...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424321/the-drosophila-zo-1-protein-polychaetoid-suppresses-deltex-regulated-notch-activity-to-modulate-germline-stem-cell-niche-formation
#18
Hideyuki Shimizu, Marian B Wilkin, Simon A Woodcock, Alessandro Bonfini, Yvonne Hung, Sabine Mazaleyrat, Martin Baron
The developmental signalling protein Notch can be proteolytically activated following ligand-interaction at the cell surface, or can be activated independently of its ligands, following Deltex (Dx)-induced Notch endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosomal membrane. The means by which different pools of Notch are directed towards these alternative outcomes remains poorly understood. We found that the Drosophila ZO-1 protein Polychaetoid (Pyd) suppresses specifically the Dx-induced form of Notch activation both in vivo and in cell culture assays...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406397/evolutionary-changes-in-transcription-factor-coding-sequence-quantitatively-alter-sensory-organ-development-and-function
#19
Simon Weinberger, Matthew P Topping, Jiekun Yan, Annelies Claeys, Natalie De Geest, Duru Ozbay, Talah Hassan, Xiaoli He, Joerg T Albert, Bassem A Hassan, Ariane Ramaekers
Animals are characterized by a set of highly conserved developmental regulators. Changes in the cis-regulatory elements of these regulators are thought to constitute the major driver of morphological evolution. However, the role of coding sequence evolution remains unresolved. To address this question, we used the Atonal family of proneural transcription factors as a model. Drosophila atonal coding sequence was endogenously replaced with that of atonal homologues (ATHs) at key phylogenetic positions, non-ATH proneural genes, and the closest homologue to ancestral proneural genes...
April 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396507/regulation-of-notch-signaling-by-the-heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoprotein-hrp48-and-deltex-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Debdeep Dutta, Maimuna Sali Paul, Ankita Singh, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Ashim Mukherjee
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is found to be involved in a number of cellular events throughout development. The deployment of the Notch signaling pathway in numerous cellular contexts is possible due to its regulation at multiple levels. In an effort to identify the novel components integrated into the molecular circuitry affecting Notch signaling, we carried out a protein-protein interaction screen based on the identification of cellular protein complexes using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass-spectrometry...
June 2017: Genetics
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