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S K Srivastava, S Shinde, S K Singh, S Mehrotra, M R Verma, A K Singh, S Nandi, N Srivastava, S K Singh, T K Goswami, S K Bhure, H Kumar, S K Ghosh
Antisperm antibodies have been found in repeat-breeding(RB) cows, and those causing agglutination and/or immobilization of sperm are considered to be closely related to unexplained infertility. However, a standard protocol for identifying antisperm antibodies (ASA) in cattle is not validated. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to evaluate sperm immobilization (SIT), sperm agglutination (SAT) and immunoperoxidase (IPT)assays for detection of ASA in serum and their respective threshold levels for confirmation...
December 8, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Toshihisa Komori
Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. Although the inactivation of P53 and RB is involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas, the deletion of p53 and inactivation of Rb are insufficient to enhance chondrocyte proliferation, indicating the presence of multiple inhibitory mechanisms against sarcomagenesis in chondrocytes...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ali Fadlallah, Hong Zhu, Samer Arafat, Irene Kochevar, Samir Melki, Joseph B Ciolino
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance to degradation by collagenase A of corneas that have been crosslinked with Rose Bengal and green light (RGX). Methods: The ex vivo crosslinking procedure was performed on enucleated rabbit corneas. Corneas were deepithelialized after applying 30% alcohol. Corneas were stained with Rose Bengal (RB, 0.1%) for 2 minutes and then exposed to green light (532 nm) at 0.25 W/cm2 for times to deliver doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 J/cm2 (n = 5 per group)...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Tomomi Natori, Masachika Fujiyoshi, Masashi Uchida, Natsuki Abe, Tatsuro Kanaki, Yasunori Fukumoto, Itsuko Ishii
The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes restenosis in biomaterial vascular grafts. The purposes of this study were to establish a suspension culture system for SMCs by using a novel substrate, low-acyl gellan gum (GG) and to maintain SMCs in a state of growth inhibition. When SMCs were cultured in suspension with GG, their proliferation was inhibited. Their viability was 70% at day 2, which was maintained at more than 50% until day 5. In contrast, the viability of cells cultured in suspension without GG was 5...
December 6, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Chellappagounder Thangavel, Ettickan Boopathi, Yi Liu, Alex Haber, Adam Ertel, Anshul Bhardwaj, Sankar Addya, Noelle Williams, Steve Ciment, Paolo Cotzia, Jeffry L Dean, Adam E Snook, Chris McNair, Matthew A Price, James R Hernandez, Shuang G Zhao, Ruth Birbe, James B McCarthy, Eva A Turely, Kenneth J Pienta, Felix Y Feng, Adam P Dicker, Karen E Knudsen, Robert B Den
RB loss occurs commonly in neoplasia but its contributions to advanced cancer have not been assessed directly. Here we show that RB loss in multiple murine models of cancer produces a pro-metastatic phenotype. Gene expression analyses showed that regulation of the cell motility receptor RHAMM by the RB/E2F pathway was critical for epithelia-mesenchyme translation, motility and invasion by cancer cells. Genetic modulation or pharmacological inhibition of RHAMM activity was sufficient and necessary for metastatic phenotypes induced by RB loss in prostate cancer...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Research
Jiang-Ping Wang, Yong Jiao, Cheng-Yuan Wang, Zhi-Bin Xu, Bo Zhang
Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in the world and leads to significant mortality and morbidity among affected patients. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a main tumor suppressor, controlling cellular responses to potentially oncogenic stimulation. E2F3 was invariably disrupted in different human cancers for its central role in the control of cellular proliferation. Here, we investigated how Rb is integrated to control bladder cancer progression through E2F3 and p53 regulation. The results exhibit that Rb expression is lower in patients with bladder tumor, while E2F3 level is high...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Longyi Shao, Ying Hu, Rongrong Shen, Klaus Schäfer, Jing Wang, Jianying Wang, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Ralf Zimmermann, Kelly BéruBé, Peter Suppan
An in vitro plasmid scission assay (PSA), the cell apoptosis assay, and ICP-MS were employed to study the oxidative potentials and trace element compositions of the airborne particulate matter (PM) in Beijing during a one year-long field campaign from June 2010 to June 2011. The cell damages induced by PM reveled by the cell apoptosis assay showed a similar variation pattern to the DNA damages obtained by PSA, verifying the feasibility of the PSA in analyzing the oxidative capacity of PM samples. The PSA experiments showed that the particle-induced DNA damage was highest in summer, followed by spring, winter and autumn in descending order...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Christina K Bagas, Rachel L Scadding, Cameron J Scadding, R John Watling, Warren Roberts, Simon P B Ovenden
The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites...
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
Miho Fujieda, Tetsuya Ido, Hidekazu Hachisu, Tadahiro Gotoh, Hiroshi Takiguchi, Kazuhiro Hayasaka, Kenji Toyoda, Kenji Yonegaki, Utako Tanaka, Shinji Urabe
We developed a system for the remote frequency comparison of optical clocks. The system does not require a flywheel oscillator at the remote end, making it possible to evaluate optical frequencies even in laboratories, where no stable microwave reference, such as an Rb clock, a Cs clock, or a hydrogen maser exists. The system is established by the integration of several systems: a portable carrier-phase two-way satellite frequency transfer station and a microwave signal generation system by an optical frequency comb from an optical clock...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Wai Kit Chu, Ka Sin Law, Sun On Chan, Jason Cheuk Sing Yam, Li Jia Chen, Hao Zhang, Herman S Cheung, Norman L Block, Andrew V Schally, Chi Pui Pang
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular cancer in children worldwide. Current treatments mainly involve combinations of chemotherapies, cryotherapies, and laser-based therapies. Severe or late-stage disease may require enucleation or lead to fatality. Recently, RB has been shown to arise from cone precursor cells, which have high MDM2 levels to suppress p53-mediated apoptosis. This finding leads to the hypothesis that restoring apoptosis mechanisms in RBs could specifically kill the cancer cells without affecting other retinal cells...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jared T Broddrick, Benjamin E Rubin, David G Welkie, Niu Du, Nathan Mih, Spencer Diamond, Jenny J Lee, Susan S Golden, Bernhard O Palsson
The model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, is a genetically tractable obligate phototroph that is being developed for the bioproduction of high-value chemicals. Genome-scale models (GEMs) have been successfully used to assess and engineer cellular metabolism; however, GEMs of phototrophic metabolism have been limited by the lack of experimental datasets for model validation and the challenges of incorporating photon uptake. Here, we develop a GEM of metabolism in S. elongatus using random barcode transposon site sequencing (RB-TnSeq) essential gene and physiological data specific to photoautotrophic metabolism...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
E Civardi, M Moroni, M Babij, Z Bukowski, P Carretta
^{75}As, ^{87}Rb, and ^{85}Rb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and ^{87}Rb nuclear magnetic resonance measurements in a RbFe_{2}As_{2} iron-based superconductor are presented. We observe a marked broadening of the ^{75}As NQR spectrum below T_{0}≃140  K which is associated with the onset of a charge order in the FeAs planes. Below T_{0} we observe a power-law decrease in the ^{75}As nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate down to T^{*}≃20  K. Below T^{*} the nuclei start to probe different dynamics owing to the different local electronic configurations induced by the charge order...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
S Jyothi, Tridib Ray, Sourav Dutta, A R Allouche, Romain Vexiau, Olivier Dulieu, S A Rangwala
The direct photodissociation of trapped ^{85}Rb_{2}^{+} (rubidium) molecular ions by the cooling light for the ^{85}Rb magneto-optical trap (MOT) is studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Vibrationally excited Rb_{2}^{+} ions are created by photoionization of Rb_{2} molecules formed photoassociatively in the Rb MOT and are trapped in a modified spherical Paul trap. The decay rate of the trapped Rb_{2}^{+} ion signal in the presence of the MOT cooling light is measured and agreement with our calculated rates for molecular ion photodissociation is observed...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Yan Guo, Zara Mehrabian, Steven L Bernstein
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a focal ischemic lesion of the optic nerve that affects 1/700 individuals throughout their lifetime. NAION results in optic nerve edema, selective loss of the retinal ganglion cell neurons (RGCs) and atrophy of the optic nerve. A rodent model of NAION that expresses most NAION features and sequelae has been developed, which is applicable to both rats and mice. This model utilizes a focal laser application of 532 nm wavelength to illuminate a photoactive dye, Rose Bengal (RB), to cause capillary damage and leakage at the targeted anterior optic nerve (the laminar region)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Liming Wu, Hua Lin, Yu-Jun Zheng, Xiao-Ning Hu, Hong Chen, Ju-Song Yu
Two new non-centrosymmetric polar quaternary selenides, namely, RbZn4In5Se12 and CsZn4In5Se12, have been synthesized and structurally characterized. They exhibit 3D diamond-like framework (DLF) consisting of corner shared MSe4 (M = Zn/In) tetrahedra, in which the A+ ions are located. Both compounds are thermally stable up to 1300 K and exhibit large transmittance in the infrared region (0.65-25 μm) with measured optical band gaps of 2.06 eV for RbZn4In5Se12 and 2.11 eV for CsZn4In5Se12. Inspiringly, they exhibit good balance between strong second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency (3...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Hai-Tao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yi Gao, Chen-Long Li, Hong-Jun Wang, Ling-Chao Chen, Yan Feng, Rui-Yan Li, Yong-Li Li, Chuan-Lu Jiang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90‑min period, either an anti‑VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB‑222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Volker Nischwitz, Richard Mogwasi, Salim Zor, Zachary Getenga, David K Kariuki, Klaus Günther
A large number of medicinal plants is traditionally known in Kenya and used for treatment of various diseases, for example diabetes, where metals are supposed to be involved in pathogenesis and therapy. Therefore, detailed investigation of the concentration of a large number of metals in medicinal plants is required for improved understanding and optimisation of the therapeutic role of metals and also to exclude potentially toxic effects. Our study focused on the determination of 30 selected elements in 19 medicinal plant species each collected from 3 sampling locations in Nyamira County, Kenya...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yoon-Seok Lee, Sang Min Lee, Heonoh Kim, Han Seb Moon
We report a bright photon-pair source with a coincidence counting rate per input power (cps/mW) of tens of thousands, obtained via spontaneous four-wave mixing from a Doppler-broadened atomic ensemble of the 5S<sub>1/2</sub>-5P<sub>3/2</sub>-5D<sub>5/2</sub> transition of <sup>87</sup>Rb. The photon-pair generation rate is enhanced by the two-photon coherence contributions from almost all the atomic velocity groups in the Doppler-broadened ladder-type atomic system...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Pingping Jia, Megan Chastain, Ying Zou, Chengtao Her, Weihang Chai
Aberrant formation of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) promotes genome instabilities. However, it is unclear how aberrant ITS formation is suppressed in human cells. Here, we report that MLH1, a key protein involved in mismatch repair (MMR), suppresses telomeric sequence insertion (TSI) at intra-chromosomal regions. The frequency of TSI can be elevated by double-strand break (DSB) inducer and abolished by ATM/ATR inhibition. Suppression of TSI requires MLH1 recruitment to DSBs, indicating that MLH1's role in DSB response/repair is important for suppressing TSI...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Yi Chen, Jingkun Ma, Anthony J Miller, Bingbing Luo, Mei Wang, Zhen Zhu, Pieter B F Ouwerkerk
Previously we showed in the osjar1 mutants that the lodicule senescence which controls the closing of rice flowers was delayed. This resulted in florets staying open longer when compared with the wild type. The gene OsJAR1 is silenced in osjar1 mutants and is a key member of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. We found that K concentrations in lodicules and flowers of osjar1-2 were significantly elevated compared with the wild type, indicating that K(+) homeostasis may play a role in regulating the closure of rice flowers...
July 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
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