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Jingshan Han, Thibault Vogt, Christian Gross, Dieter Jaksch, Martin Kiffner, Wenhui Li
We present an experimental demonstration of converting a microwave field to an optical field via frequency mixing in a cloud of cold ^{87}Rb atoms, where the microwave field strongly couples to an electric dipole transition between Rydberg states. We show that the conversion allows the phase information of the microwave field to be coherently transferred to the optical field. With the current energy level scheme and experimental geometry, we achieve a photon-conversion efficiency of ∼0.3% at low microwave intensities and a broad conversion bandwidth of more than 4 MHz...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Daniel Amgar, Tal Binyamin, Vladimir Uvarov, Lioz Etgar
One of the most attractive features of perovskite materials is their chemical flexibility. Due to innovative chemical compositions of perovskites, their optical and structural properties, and functionalities have become more advanced, enabling better solar performance in photovoltaics, as well as robustness and excellent properties in the nanoscale for optoelectronics. The quest for novel perovskite compositions in the nano-scale is significantly important. This paper reports on a mixed-cation system of RbxCs1-xPbX3 (where X = Cl or Br) nanoparticles...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Anna King, Anna Brain, Kelsey Hanson, Justin Dittmann, James Vickers, Carmen Fernandez-Martos
Disruption of leptin signalling has been implicated as playing a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Leptin has previously been shown to be affected by amyloid-beta (Aβ)-related signalling; however, pathways that link leptin to the disease pathogenesis have not been determined. To characterize the association between increasing age-dependent Aβ levels with leptin signalling and the vulnerable brain regions in AD, we assessed the mRNA and protein expression profile of leptin and leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) at 9 and 18-month-age in APP/PS1 mice...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Hisao Tsukamoto, Masahiro Higashi, Hideyoshi Motoki, Hiroki Watanabe, Christian Ganser, Koichi Nakajo, Yoshihiro Kubo, Takayuki Uchihashi, Yuji Furutani
Canonical K+ channels are tetrameric and highly K+ selective, whereas two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels form dimers, but with a similar pore architecture. A two-pore domain potassium channel TWIK1 (KCNK1 or K2P1) allows permeation of Na+ and other monovalent ions, resulting mainly from the presence of Thr118 in the P1 domain. However, the mechanistic basis for this reduced selectivity is unclear. Using ion-exchange-induced difference infrared spectroscopy, we analyzed WT TWIK1 and T118I (highly K+ selective) and L228F (substitution in the P2 domain) TWIK1 variants and found that in the presence of K+ ions, WT and both variants exhibit an amide-I band at 1680 cm-1 This band corresponds to interactions of the backbone carbonyls in the selectivity filter with K+ , a feature very similar to that of the canonical K+ channel KcsA...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
K N Jarvis, J A Devlin, T E Wall, B E Sauer, M R Tarbutt
We present the properties and advantages of a new magneto-optical trap (MOT) where blue-detuned light drives "type-II" transitions that have dark ground states. Using ^{87}Rb, we reach a radiation-pressure-limited density exceeding 10^{11}  cm^{-3} and a temperature below 30  μK. The phase-space density is higher than in normal atomic MOTs and a million times higher than comparable red-detuned type-II MOTs, making the blue-detuned MOT particularly attractive for molecular MOTs, which rely on type-II transitions...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Antoneicka L Harris, Samantha E Lee, Louis K Dawson, Laura A Marlow, Brandy H Edenfield, William F Durham, Thomas J Flotte, Michael Thompson, Daniel L Small, Aidan J Synnott, Svetomir N Markovic, John A Copland
Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) mouse models were used to discover new therapies for naïve and drug resistant BRAF V600E -mutant melanoma. Tumor histology, oncogenic protein expression, and antitumor activity were comparable between patient and PDTX-matched models thereby validating PDTXs as predictive preclinical models of therapeutic response in patients. PDTX models responsive and non-responsive to BRAF/MEK standard of care (SOC) therapy were used to identify efficacious combination therapies. One such combination includes a CDK4/6 inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Dong-Wook Kim, Keun-Cheol Kim, Kee-Beom Kim, Colin T Dunn, Kwon-Sik Park
The discovery of recurrent alterations in genes encoding transcription regulators and chromatin modifiers is one of the most important recent developments in the study of the small cell lung cancer (SCLC) genome. With advances in models and analytical methods, the field of SCLC biology has seen remarkable progress in understanding the deregulated transcription networks linked to the tumor development and malignant progression. This review will discuss recent discoveries on the roles of RB and P53 family of tumor suppressors and MYC family of oncogenes in tumor initiation and development...
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Simona Ceccarelli, Cristina Nodale, Enrica Vescarelli, Paola Pontecorvi, Valeria Manganelli, Giovanni Casella, Maria Giuseppina Onesti, Maurizio Sorice, Ferdinando Romano, Antonio Angeloni, Cinzia Marchese
Adipogenesis is regulated by a complex network of molecules, including fibroblast growth factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been previously reported to promote proliferation on rat preadipocytes, although the expression of its specific receptor, FGFR2-IIIb/KGFR, is not actually detected in mesenchymal cells. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show increased expression of KGF during adipogenic differentiation, especially in the early steps. Moreover, KGF is able to induce transient activation of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways in these cells...
2018: Stem Cells International
Bo Ling, Xiaoli Liu, Lihui Zhang, Shaojin Wang
Dielectric heating including microwave (MW) and radio frequency (RF) energy has been regarded as alternative thermal treatments for food processing. To develop effective rice bran (RB) stabilization treatments based on RF and MW heating, dielectric properties (DPs) with dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) of RB samples at frequencies (10-3000 MHz), temperatures (25-100 °C), moisture content (MC, 10.36-24.69% w.b.) and three metal salt levels (0.05-2.00%) were determined by an open-ended coaxial probe and impedance analyzer...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chao Qin, Cheng-Hua Wang, Ying-Ying Wang, Shi-Qing Sun, Huan-Huan Wang, Chao-Bin Xue
Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.; Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of diamide insecticides has led to P. xylostella resistance and this presents a serious threat to vegetable production. We selected chlorantraniliprole (Rf) and flubendiamide (Rh) resistance strains of P. xylostella with resistance ratios of 684.54-fold and 677.25-fold, respectively. The Rf and Rh strains underwent 46 and 36 generations of lab-selection for resistance, respectively...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Karolina Nemes, Michael C Frühwald
Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor (MRT) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy primarily affecting infants and young children. The most common anatomic locations are the central nervous system (AT/RT), the kidneys (RTK) and other soft tissues (eMRT). The genetic origin of this disease is linked to mutations in SMARCB1, a gene encoding a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Areas covered: Conventional multimodal treatment may offer a significant survival benefit to certain patients. It remains to be determined, however, which patients will prove resistant to chemotherapy and need novel therapeutic approaches...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Qing Hu, Qing Chen, Xiuyun Yan, Bomei Ding, Dawei Chen, Lifang Cheng
AIM: To develop a nanocarrier for targeted delivery of agents to the cartilage. MATERIALS & METHODS: Chondrocyte affinity peptide modified PEGylated polyamidoamine conjugates (CAP-PEG-PAMAM) were prepared and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RB) fluorophore was linked on them for comparative biological tracing and profiling. RESULTS: CAP4-PP-RB exhibited much more efficient cellular uptake in vitro than that of PEG-PAMAM-RB. Both the conjugates were likely internalized by chondrocytes via clathrin and caveolin co-mediated endocytosis, and delivered to lysosomes...
March 12, 2018: Nanomedicine
Lili Zhang, Tao Gao, Yi Shen
OBJECTIVE: To study the quality of life of Chinese pediatric patients with retinoblastoma (RB) after enucleation and the influencing factors. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was performed on 71 cases of pediatric patients with RB after enucleation and 80 cases of healthy children, using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™ 4.0). RESULTS: The social dimension scores, school dimension scores, and total scores for the PedsQL™ 4...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Christos Malliakas, Duck Young Chung, Helmut Claus, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
Superconductivity in the two-dimensional AMmBi3Q5+m family of semimetals is reported. The AMBi3Te6 (m = 1) and AM2Bi3Te7 (m = 2) members of the homologous series with A = Rb, Cs and M = Pb, Sn undergo a bulk superconducting transition ranging from 2.7 to 1.4 K depending on the composition. The estimated superconducting volume fraction is about 90%. Superconducting phase diagrams as a function of chemical pressure are constructed for the solid solution products of each member of the homologous series, AMBi3-xSbxTe6-ySey and AM2Bi3-xSbxTe7-ySey (0 ≤ x ≤ 3 or 0 ≤ y ≤ 2)...
March 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tapas Kumar Aich, Basudeb Das, T Sudhakar Bhat
A fictional journey was planned and carried out in a time machine, to know and understand the glorious past of Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP), Ranchi. As Dr. Anand, the protagonist, went through different periods in the history of CIP, he narrated his experiences while meeting different peoples in different clinical settings. In this journey, he met Lt. Col Berkeley-Hill at European Mental Hospital, as it was in the 1930s. He tried to understand the relevance of Professor Mapother's report and its essence in relation to European and Indian psychiatric scenario during inter-war period, the significance of Moore-Taylor's report, and the direction of psychiatric training and teaching during postindependence era under Major RB Davis as the superintendent of Hospital for Mental Diseases (HMD)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Éva Marjorie Couture, Maud-Christine Chouinard, Martin Fortin, Catherine Hudon
BACKGROUND: Frequent users of healthcare services are a vulnerable population that deserves attention due to high costs and negative outcomes such as lower quality of life and higher mortality. Healthcare systems should offer interventions tailored to their needs and to their level of health literacy, including strategies to promote activation. The relationship between health literacy and patient activation remains to be explored. The aim of this study was to examine the association between health literacy and patient activation in a population of frequent users of healthcare services with chronic diseases...
March 9, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Shailja Kumar, Virendra Kumar Meena, Puja Panwar Hazari, Surinder Kumar Sharma, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
We report here, reverse micelle mediated synthesis of multifunctional dextran (dex) coated Gd2 O3 nanoparticles (NPs) carrying rose bengal (RB) dye for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. The diameter of these RB attached dex coated Gd2 O3 NPs (Gd-dex-RB NPs) was found to be ~17 nm as measured by TEM. NMR line broadening effect on the surrounding water protons affirmed the paramagnetic nature of these NPs. Optical properties of Gd-dex-RB NPs were validated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Time dependent release profile of RB from NPs at two different pH of 7...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Chi-Han Wu, Fon-Chang Liu, Chun-Hsu Pan, Ming-Tsung Lai, Shou-Jen Lan, Chieh-Hsi Wu, Ming-Jyh Sheu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activities of ethanolic extracts from Antrodia cinnamomea (EEAC) on lung cancer. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were analyzed using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Wound-healing assay, Western blotting, and a murine tumor model were separately used to examine cell migration, protein expression, and tumor repression. Our results showed that EEAC induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase resulting decreased cell viability in A549 cells...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lihong Duan, Wei Quan, Yao Chen, Liwei Jiang, Wenfeng Fan, Ming Ding, Zhuo Wang, Jiancheng Fang
A dual-axis atomic comagnetometer can sense the angular rotation of two measurement axes simultaneously and independently. However, there is a cross-talk coupling effect between the two axes because of the residual magnetic field and the light shift arising from the pumping laser. Here, we propose a scheme to eliminate the rotation coupling of dual-axis K-Rb-N21e atomic comagnetometers. The residual magnetic field can be effectively removed by controlling the comagnetometer at the magnetic compensation point and the magnetic shielding layer...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
David R Martin, Elisa LaBauve, Joseph M Pomo, Vi K Chiu, Joshua A Hanson, Rama R Gullapalli
The major categories of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) are well-differentiated NET and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Sequencing of these tumors has identified multiple important genes in the pathogenesis of PanNETs, such as DAXX/ATRX, MEN1, TP53, RB, and mTOR pathway genes. We identified a case of well-differentiated PanNET with high-grade progression with simultaneous low- and high-grade histologic regions containing variable genomic profiles. We performed tumor microdissection and analyzed both regions using a 409-gene comprehensive cancer panel using next-generation sequencing in addition to immunohistochemical and morphologic studies...
April 2018: Pancreas
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