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Melanie L Chang, April Nowell
For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Harry T Mai, Robert J Burgmeier, Sean M Mitchell, Andrew C Hecht, Joseph C Maroon, Gordon W Nuber, Wellington K Hsu
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To determine if the level of a cervical disc herniation (CDH) procedure will uniquely impact performance-based outcomes in elite athletes of the National Football League (NFL). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Comparative assessments of post-surgical outcomes in NFL athletes with CDH at different levels are unknown. Further, the surgical decision making for these types of injuries in professional football athletes remains controversial...
September 30, 2016: Spine
C Steingröver, N Wattie, J Baker, J Schorer
BACKGROUND: Relative age effects (RAEs) typically favour older members within a cohort; however, research suggests that younger players may experience some long-term advantages, such as longer career length. The purposes of this study were to replicate previous findings on RAEs among National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey players, National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball players and National Football League (NFL) football players and to investigate the influence of relative age on career length in all three sports...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Oriana Trubiani, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models. Given the difficulty to harvest MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissues, research has been focused to find alternative resources for MSCs, such as oral-derived tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated the protective effects of MSCs obtained from healthy human periodontal ligament tissue (hPDLSCs) in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of conditioned medium obtained from hPDLSCs of Relapsing Remitting- Multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients on NSC34 mouse motoneurons stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Eric C McCarty, Matthew J Kraeutler, Paula Langner, Shane Cook, Byron Ellis, Jenna M Godfrey
We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Tua Vinther-Jensen, Lars Börnsen, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Cecilie Ammitzbøll, Ida U Larsen, Lena E Hjermind, Finn Sellebjerg, Jørgen E Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD) gene-expansion carriers compared to controls and to investigate these biomarkers in association with clinical HD rating scales and disease burden score. METHODS: We collected CSF from 32 premanifest and 48 manifest HD gene-expansion carriers and 24 gene-expansion negative at-risk controls. We examined biomarkers of neuroinflammation (matrix metalloproteinase 9, C-X-C motif chemokine 13, terminal complement complex, chitinase-3-like-protein 1 [CHI3L1], and osteopontin [OPN]) and neurodegeneration (microtubule-associated protein tau, neurofilament light polypeptide [NFL], and myelin basic protein [MBP])...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
M Alba Mañé-Martínez, Bob Olsson, Laura Bau, Elisabet Matas, Álvaro Cobo-Calvo, Ulf Andreasson, Kaj Blennow, Lucia Romero-Pinel, Sergio Martínez-Yélamos, Henrik Zetterberg
In the present study, CSF concentrations of NFL, t-tau, p-tau, GFAP, S-100B, YKL-40, MCP-1, α-sAPP, β-sAPP, and Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42 were measured in 324 MS patients to test whether a correlation among the biomarkers exists and whether the profile of CSF biomarkers varies among the different types of MS. The CSF concentrations of NFL were significantly higher in RRMS while CSF concentrations of GFAP were higher in PPMS. CSF concentrations of NFL correlated with YKL-40 in CIS patients while CSF concentrations of GFAP correlated with YKL-40 in RRMS patients...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Yang Bai, Pedro F Saint-Maurice, Gregory J Welk, Kelly Allums-Featherston, Norma Candelaria
BACKGROUND: To advance research on youth fitness promotion it is important to understand factors that may explain the disparities in fitness. METHODS: We evaluated data from the FitnessGram NFL PLAY60 Partnership Project to examine school factors influencing aerobic capacity (AC) and body mass index (BMI) in schoolchildren. Individual observations for AC (157,971 students from 675 schools) and BMI (178,274 students from 630 schools) were aggregated to compute the percentage of students achieving the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ)...
November 2016: Journal of School Health
Nancy A McNamara, Shaokui Ge, Salena M Lee, Alison M Enghauser, Lindsey Kuehl, Feeling Y-T Chen, Marianne Gallup, Robert L McKown
Purpose: To determine whether levels of endogenous tear protein, lacritin, are linked to altered corneal innervation and dry eye severity in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Methods: Clinical data were obtained from 10 SS and 10 age-matched controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess total tear lacritin extracted from Schirmer strips. Western blot was used to detect active lacritin monomer (∼25 kDa), active lacritin fragment (∼12-15 kDa), and inactive tissue transglutaminase-generated lacritin (≥40 kDa)...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Alan J Lockett, Risto Miikkulainen
No Free Lunch (NFL) theorems have been developed in many settings over the last two decades. Whereas NFL is known to be possible in any domain based on settheoretic concepts, probabilistic versions of NFL are presently believed to be impossible in continuous domains. This article develops a new formalization of probabilistic NFL that is sufficiently expressive to prove the existence of NFL in large search domains, such as continuous spaces or function spaces. This formulation is arguably more complicated than its set-theoretic variants, mostly as a result of the numerous technical complications within probability theory itself...
October 4, 2016: Evolutionary Computation
J Mellergård, A Tisell, I Blystad, A Grönqvist, K Blennow, B Olsson, C Dahle, M Vrethem, P Lundberg, J Ernerudh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain atrophy is related to clinical deterioration in multiple sclerosis (MS) but its association with intrathecal markers of inflammation or neurodegeneration is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of inflammation or neurodegeneration are associated with brain volume change in natalizumab-treated MS and whether this change is reflected in non-lesional white matter metabolites. METHODS: About 25 patients with natalizumab-treated MS were followed for 3 years with assessment of percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and absolute quantification of metabolites with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS)...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Paramita Basu, Camelia Maier
BACKGROUND: Fruits are considered one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Their consumption has been linked to the prevention of oxidative stress-induced diseases. OBJECTIVE: In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities of blueberry, jackfruit, blackberry, black raspberry, red raspberry, strawberry, and California table grape extracts were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2(-)) scavenging assays, and ferric reducing power...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Anne-Marie Miller, Aleksandra Rutkowska, Justyna M Bahl, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Marleen Ja Koel-Simmelink, Niels Kruse, Brit Mollenhauer, Maritta Siloaho, Anders Skinningsrud, Henrik Zetterberg, Charlotte E Teunissen, Brian A Lawlor
AIM: Neurofilament light (NfL) chain, a putative cerebrospinal fluid biomarker, can support neurodegenerative disease diagnosis and indicate disease severity and prognosis. Universal validation protocols when used to measure biomarkers can reduce pre and analytical laboratory variation, thus increasing end-user confidence in the consistency of validation data across sites. METHODOLOGY: Here, a commercially available NfL ELISA (UmanDiagnostics, Umeå, Sweden) was validated in a multicentered setting using comprehensive newly developed standard operating procedures...
November 2016: Bioanalysis
Xinbo Zhang, Anna Dastiridou, Brian A Francis, Ou Tan, Rohit Varma, David S Greenfield, Joel S Schuman, Mitra Sehi, Vikas Chopra, David Huang
PURPOSE: To identify baseline structural parameters that predict the progression of visual field (VF) loss in patients with open angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. METHODS: Participants from Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma (AIG) study were enrolled and followed-up. VF progression is defined as either a confirmed progression event on Humphrey Progression Analysis or a significant (p<0.05) negative slope for VF index (VFI). Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) was used to measure optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness parameters...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Johan Lindström, Anna Grahn, Henrik Zetterberg, Marie Studahl
Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) can manifest with facial palsy diagnosed as Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) or Ramsay Hunt Syndrome zoster sine herpete (RHS-ZSH). These syndromes are associated with poor prognosis despite treatment with antivirals and corticosteroids. Concentrations of biomarkers such as neurofilament protein (NFL), S-100β protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) have previously been measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to assess neuronal damage and glial pathology. We employed immunochemical methods to measure concentrations of NFL, S-100β protein and GFAp in CSF from patients with RHS (n = 15) and RHS-ZSH (n = 13) diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA in the CSF by quantitative PCR, and compared with a control group (n = 52)...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Eric S Secrist, Suneel B Bhat, Christopher C Dodson
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can have negative consequences on the careers of National Football League (NFL) players, however no study has ever analyzed the financial impact of these injuries in this population. PURPOSE: To quantify the impact of ACL injuries on salary and career length in NFL athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Any player in the NFL suffering an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013 was identified using a comprehensive online search...
August 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Aidong Yuan, Ralph A Nixon
Neurofilaments are uniquely complex among classes of intermediate filaments in being composed of four subunits (NFL, NFM, NFH and alpha-internexin in the CNS) that differ in structure, regulation, and function. Although neurofilaments have been traditionally viewed as axonal structural components, recent evidence has revealed that distinctive assemblies of neurofilament subunits are integral components of synapses, especially at postsynaptic sites. Within the synaptic compartment, the individual subunits differentially modulate neurotransmission and behavior through interactions with specific neurotransmitter receptors...
September 5, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Lieke H Meeter, Elise G Dopper, Lize C Jiskoot, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Caroline Graff, Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni, Yolande A Pijnenburg, Barbara Borroni, Daniela Galimberti, Robert Jr Laforce, Mario Masellis, Rik Vandenberghe, Isabelle Le Ber, Markus Otto, Rick van Minkelen, Janne M Papma, Serge A Rombouts, Mircea Balasa, Linn Öijerstedt, Vesna Jelic, Katrina M Dick, David M Cash, Sophie R Harding, M Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, Martin N Rossor, Alessandro Padovani, Elio Scarpini, Chiara Fenoglio, Maria C Tartaglia, Foudil Lamari, Christian Barro, Jens Kuhle, Jonathan D Rohrer, Charlotte E Teunissen, John C van Swieten
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in genetic frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as a potential biomarker in the presymptomatic stage and during the conversion into the symptomatic stage. Additionally, to correlate NfL levels to clinical and neuroimaging parameters. METHODS: In this multicenter case-control study, we investigated CSF NfL in 174 subjects (48 controls, 40 presymptomatic carriers and 86 patients with microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), progranulin (GRN), and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) mutations), and serum NfL in 118 subjects (39 controls, 44 presymptomatic carriers, 35 patients)...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Jonathan D Rohrer, Ione O C Woollacott, Katrina M Dick, Emilie Brotherhood, Elizabeth Gordon, Alexander Fellows, Jamie Toombs, Ronald Druyeh, M Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, Jennifer M Nicholas, Niklas Norgren, Simon Mead, Ulf Andreasson, Kaj Blennow, Jonathan M Schott, Nick C Fox, Jason D Warren, Henrik Zetterberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and to see whether they are associated with the severity of disease. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 74 participants (34 with behavioral variant FTD [bvFTD], 3 with FTD and motor neuron disease and 37 with primary progressive aphasia [PPA]) and 28 healthy controls. Twenty-four of the FTD participants carried a pathogenic mutation in C9orf72 (9), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT; 11), or progranulin (GRN; 4)...
September 27, 2016: Neurology
Brian C Werner, Nicole S Belkin, Steve Kennelly, Leigh Weiss, Ronnie P Barnes, Scott A Rodeo, Russell F Warren, Robert N Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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