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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904988/neurite-dispersion-a-new-marker-of-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-pathology
#1
Francesco Grussu, Torben Schneider, Carmen Tur, Richard L Yates, Mohamed Tachrount, Andrada Ianuş, Marios C Yiannakas, Jia Newcombe, Hui Zhang, Daniel C Alexander, Gabriele C DeLuca, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
OBJECTIVE: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the multiple sclerosis spinal cord is limited by low specificity regarding the underlying pathological processes, and new MRI metrics assessing microscopic damage are required. We aim to show for the first time that neurite orientation dispersion (i.e., variability in axon/dendrite orientations) is a new biomarker that uncovers previously undetected layers of complexity of multiple sclerosis spinal cord pathology. Also, we validate against histology a clinically viable MRI technique for dispersion measurement (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, NODDI), to demonstrate the strong potential of the new marker...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887429/nfm-cross-reactivity-to-mog-does-not-expand-a-critical-threshold-level-of-high-affinity-t-cells-necessary-for-onset-of-demyelinating-disease
#2
Lori Blanchfield, Joseph J Sabatino, Laurel Lawrence, Brian D Evavold
Of interest to the etiology of demyelinating autoimmune disease is the potential to aberrantly activate CD4(+) T cells due to cross-recognition of multiple self-epitopes such as has been suggested for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein epitope 35-55 (MOG35-55) and neurofilament medium protein epitope 15-35 (NFM15-35). NFM15-35 is immunogenic in C57BL/6 mice but fails to induce demyelinating disease by polyclonal T cells despite having the same TCR contact residues as MOG35-55, a known encephalitogenic Ag...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882840/influence-of-a-gsk3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-site-within-the-proximal-c-terminus-of-neurofilament-h-on-neurofilament-dynamics
#3
Rishel Brenna Vohnoutka, Edward F Boumil, Yuguan Liu, Atsuko Uchida, Harish C Pant, Thomas B Shea
Phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of the heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H) impacts NF axonal transport and residence within axons by fostering NF-NF associations that compete with transport. We tested the role of phosphorylation of a GSK-3β consensus site (S493) located in the proximal portion of the NF-H tail, in NF dynamics by transfection of NB2a/d1 cells with NF-H where S493 was mutated to aspartic acid (S493D) or to alanine (S493A) to mimic constitutive phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation. S493D underwent increased transport into axonal neurites, while S493A displayed increased perikaryal NF aggregates that were decorated by anti-kinesin...
September 7, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878627/optic-nerve-degeneration-after-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-a-rodent-model
#4
Marina Renner, Gesa Stute, Mohammad Alzureiqi, Jacqueline Reinhard, Susanne Wiemann, Heiko Schmid, Andreas Faissner, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
Retinal ischemia is a common pathomechanism in many ocular disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma or retinal vascular occlusion. Several studies demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to morphological and functional changes of different retinal cell types. However, little is known about the ischemic effects on the optic nerve. The goal of this study was to evaluate these effects. Ischemia was induced by raising the intraocular pressure (IOP) in one eye of rats to 140 mmHg for 1 h followed by natural reperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875469/a-panel-of-autoantibodies-against-neural-proteins-as-peripheral-biomarker-for-pesticide-induced-neurotoxicity
#5
Heba Allah Abd El Rahman, Mohamed Salama, Seham A Gad El-Hak, Mona A El-Harouny, Passent ElKafrawy, Mohamed B Abou-Donia
In the present study, we screened the sera of subjects chronically exposed to mixtures of pesticides (composed mainly of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) and others) and developed neurological symptoms for the presence of autoantibodies against cytoskeletal neural proteins. OPs have a well-characterized clinical profile resulting from acute cholinergic crisis. However, some of these compounds cause neuronal degeneration and demyelination known as organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) and/or organophosphorus compound-induced chronic neurotoxicity (OPICN)...
September 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865131/quercetin-reduces-neural-tissue-damage-and-promotes-astrocyte-activation-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#6
Yeyang Wang, Wenjun Li, Mingsen Wang, Chuangxin Lin, Guitao Li, Xiaozhong Zhou, Junnan Luo, Dadi Jin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is lead to locomotor impairment because of neurological damage after following trauma. Quercetin (Que) has been confirmed have a neuro-protective effect during nerve damage processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of Que in functional recovery, cavity formation, astrocyte activation and nerve regeneration following SCI. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham group, SCI group and Que + SCI group. A rat model of SCI was made at T10 using the modified Allen's method...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861035/molecular-disorganization-of-axons-adjacent-to-human-cortical-microinfarcts
#7
Hamza Coban, Spencer Tung, Bryan Yoo, Harry V Vinters, Jason D Hinman
Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are microscopically identified wedge-shaped ischemic lesions that occur at or near the cortical surface and result from occlusion of penetrating arterioles. These microscopic lesions can be observed with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in aging brains and in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Recent studies have suggested that strategically located microinfarcts strongly correlate with cognitive deficits, which can contribute to Alzheimer's disease as well as other forms of dementia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860425/marked-expression-of-tnf-receptors-in-human-peritendinous-tissues-including-in-nerve-fascicles-with-axonal-damage-studies-on-tendinopathy-and-tennis-elbow
#8
C Spang, L Renström, H Alfredson, S Forsgren
BACKGROUND: The peritendinous connective tissues can have importance in chronic tendon pain. Recently cytokine TNF-α has been suggested to be involved in tendinopathic processes. It is not known how TNF-α and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed in peritendinous tissues. METHODS: The objective for this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression patterns of these in the peritendinous tissue located between the plantaris and Achilles tendons and the one located superficially to the extensor origin at the elbow region for patients with tendinopathy/tennis elbow...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855426/neural-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-induced-by-intracellular-co-delivery-of-ascl1-brn2-and-foxa1-via-a-non-viral-vector-of-cationic-polysaccharide
#9
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Michael Adu-Frimpong, Jiangnan Yu, Xi-Ming Xu
Direct reprogramming of other somatic cells into neurons is an alternative strategy for the recovery of injured nervous system. In this work we developed a new non-viral gene carrier based on Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP). After modification with ethylenediamine, the cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (Ed-PYP) was combined with plasmids encoding Ascl1, Brn2 and FoxA1 to form spherical nanoscale particles (Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles). Cytotoxicity assay proved that Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles had a safer property than Lipofectamine2000 and polyetherimide (PEI)...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844827/beh%C3%A3-et-disease-serum-is-immunoreactive-to-neurofilament-medium-which-share-common-epitopes-to-bacterial-hsp-65-a-putative-trigger
#10
S Lule, A I Colpak, B Balci-Peynircioglu, Y Gursoy-Ozdemir, S Peker, U Kalyoncu, A Can, N Tekin, D Demiralp, T Dalkara
Autoimmune and dysimmune inflammatory mechanisms on a genetically susceptible background are implicated in the etiology of Behçet's Disease (BD). Heat-shock protein-65 (HSP-65) derived from Streptococcus sanguinis was proposed as a triggering factor based on its homology with human HSP-60. However, none of the autoantigens identified so far in sera from BD share common epitopes with bacterial HSP-65 or has a high prevalence. Here, we report that sera from BD patients are immunoreactive against filamentous neuronal processes in the mouse brain, retina and scrotal skin in great majority of patients...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840512/sub-micromolar-concentrations-of-retinoic-acid-induce-morphological-and-functional-neuronal-phenotypes-in-sk-n-sh-neuroblastoma-cells
#11
Emily Harasym, Nicole McAndrew, George Gomez
Neuroblastoma cells are neural crest derivatives that can differentiate into neuron-like cells in response to exogenous agents, and are known to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid. The spectrum of neuroblastoma responses, ranging from proliferation, migration, differentiation, or apoptosis, is difficult to predict due to the heterogeneity of these tumors and to the broad effective range of retinoic acid. Our study focused on the effects of nanomolar concentrations of retinoic acid on neuroblastoma differentiation in two cell lines cells: SK-N-SH (HTB-11) and IMR-32...
August 24, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835663/choroid-plexitis-and-ependymitis-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-biomarkers-of-neuronal-damage-and-inflammation-in-hiv-negative-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis
#12
Dima A Hammoud, Eman Mahdi, Anil A Panackal, Paul Wakim, Virginia Sheikh, Irini Sereti, Bibi Bielakova, John E Bennett, Peter R Williamson
CNS cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in both HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) subjects is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal antifungal therapy. We thus conducted a detailed analysis of the MR imaging findings in 45 HIV- and 11 HIV+ patients to identify imaging findings associated with refractory disease. Ventricular abnormalities, namely ependymitis and choroid plexitis were seen in HIV- but not in HIV+ subjects. We then correlated the imaging findings in a subset of HIV- subjects (n = 17) to CSF levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL), reflective of axonal damage and sCD27, known to best predict the presence of intrathecal T-cell mediated inflammation...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833756/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumours-in-epilepsy-dysplasia-or-neoplasia
#13
Maria Thom, Joan Liu, Anika Bongaarts, Roy J Reinten, Beatrice Paradiso, Hans Rolf Jäger, Cheryl Reeves, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Derek Marsdon, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Lewis Thorne, Fay Newman, Sorin Bucur, Mrinalini Honavar, Tom Jacques, Eleonora Aronica
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumour (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumours of the CNS. There are fifteen reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic versus malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterised epilepsy associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low-grade epilepsy associated tumours (LEAT)...
August 19, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833752/comparative-study-of-different-acorus-species-in-potentiating-neuronal-differentiation-in-cultured-pc12-cells
#14
Kelly Y C Lam, Yun Huang, Ping Yao, Huaiyou Wang, Tina T X Dong, Zhongyu Zhou, Karl W K Tsim
Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR), the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, is a common traditional Chinese medicine being used clinically for mental disorder. However, other Acorus species herbs are all having the same Chinese name 'Chang Pu', making the confusion in herbal market. Acori Graminei Rhizoma (AGR) and Acori Calami Rhizoma (ACR) are common adulterants of ATR. Here, we aim to provide a comparative analysis between ATR, AGR, and ACR in potentiating neuronal differentiation. Volatile oil, derived from Acorus species, was applied onto cultured PC12 cells, and various parameters were determined: (i) transcriptional activation of neurofilament promoters was determined by the promoter-driven luciferase activity assay; (ii) the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells was captured and measured; and (iii) the neurofilament expression and its underlying mechanism were analyzed by western blotting...
August 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833372/axonal-components-of-nerves-innervating-the-human-arm
#15
Bernhard Gesslbauer, Laura A Hruby, Aidan D Roche, Dario Farina, Roland Blumer, Oskar C Aszmann
OBJECTIVE: Axons traveling within the brachial plexus are responsible for the dexterous control of human arm and hand movements. Despite comprehensive knowledge on the topographical anatomy of nerves innervating the human upper limbs, the definite quantity of sensory and motor axons within this neural network remains elusive. Our aim was to perform a quantitative analysis of the axonal components of human upper limb nerves based on highly specific molecular features from spinal cord level to the terminal nerves at wrist level...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831853/defining-active-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Finn Sellebjerg, Lars Börnsen, Cecilie Ammitzbøll, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Tua Vinther-Jensen, Lena Elisabeth Hjermind, Marina von Essen, Rikke Lenhard Ratzer, Per Soelberg Sørensen, Jeppe Romme Christensen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive progressive MS according to consensus criteria. METHODS: Neurofilament light chain (NFL), myelin basic protein (MBP), IgG-index, chitinase-3-like-1 (CHI3L1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), chemokine CXCL13, terminal complement complex, leukocyte counts and nitric oxide metabolites were measured in primary ( n = 26) and secondary progressive MS ( n = 26) and healthy controls ( n = 24)...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827919/cerebellar-molecular-and-cellular-characterization-in-rat-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-garcinia-biflavonoid-complex
#17
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Anita Temi Ugbosanmi, Bernard Ufuoma Enaibe, Kehinde Yomi Ogunrinola, Susan Folashade Lewu, Nnaemeka Tobechukwu Asogwa, Tosan Akapa, Aminu Imam, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Emmanuel Olusola Yawson
BACKGROUND: Recent evidences suggest that cerebellar degeneration may be associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, previous reports were mainly observational, lacking substantial characterization of cellular and molecular cerebellar features during AD progression. PURPOSE: This study is aimed at characterizing the cerebellum in rat models of AD and assessing the corresponding neuroprotective mechanisms of Garcinia biflavonoid complex (GBc)...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821999/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-the-hippocampus-following-in-utero-exposure-to-methylmercury-impairment-in-cell-signaling
#18
Luana Heimfarth, Jeferson Delgado, Moara Rodrigues Mignori, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
In this study, we assessed some hippocampal signaling cascades and behavioral impairments in 30-day-old rat pups prenatally exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Pregnant rats were exposed to 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg MeHg by gavage in alternated days from gestational day 5 until parturition. We found increased anxiety-like and decreased exploration behavior evaluated by open field test and deficit of both short- and long-term memories by novel object recognition task, respectively, in MeHg-treated pups. Downregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and activated/hypophosphorylated (Ser9) GSK3β in MeHg-treated pups could be upstream of hyperphosphorylated Tau (Ser396) destabilizing microtubules and contributing to neural dysfunction in the hippocampus of these rats...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816001/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-tau-and-neurofilament-concentrations-in-rapidly-progressive-neurological-syndromes-a-neuropathology-based-cohort
#19
G G Kovacs, U Andreasson, V Liman, G Regelsberger, M I Lutz, K Danics, E Keller, H Zetterberg, K Blennow
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) proteins have proved to be reliable biomarkers for neuronal damage; however, there is a strong need for blood-based tests. METHODS: The present study included 132 autopsy cases with rapidly progressive neurological syndromes, including Alzheimer disease (AD) (21), sporadic (65) and genetic (21) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 25 cases with vascular, neoplastic and inflammatory alterations, and additionally 18 healthy control individuals...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813619/age-related-changes-in-the-chorioretinal-junction-an-immunohistochemical-study
#20
Tulika Gupta, Narbada Saini, Jasbir Arora, Daisy Sahni
The chorioretinal junction comprises the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane (BM), and adjacent choroidal capillaries. Its significance lies in its ability to support the retina mechanically and metabolically. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to record the senescent changes affecting all the constituents of the chorioretinal junction in 40 histological specimens across the whole spectrum of the adult age range. This study included light microscopy, with hematoxylin and eosin and PAS stains, and fluorescent microscopy...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
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