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Thanh D Do, Joseph F Ellis, Elizabeth K Neumann, Troy J Comi, Emily G Tillmaand, Ashley E Lenhart, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan Sweedler
The mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and contain cell bodies of primary sensory neurons. DRG cells have been classified into subpopulations based on their size, morphology, intracellular markers, response to stimuli, and neuropeptides. To understand the connections between DRG chemical heterogeneity and cellular function, we performed optically guided, high-throughput single cell profiling using sequential matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to detect lipids, peptides, and several proteins in individual DRG cells...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Nelly Siller, Jens Kuhle, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Christian Barro, Timo Uphaus, Sergiu Groppa, Ludwig Kappos, Frauke Zipp, Stefan Bittner
BACKGROUND: Monitoring neuronal injury remains one key challenge in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Upon axonal damage, neurofilament - a major component of the neuro-axonal cytoskeleton - is released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and subsequently peripheral blood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) for acute and chronic axonal damage in early RRMS. METHODS: sNfL levels were determined in 74 patients (63 therapy-naive) with recently diagnosed clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or RRMS using Single Molecule Array technology...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Tanchen Ren, Anne Faust, Yolandi van der Merwe, Bo Xiao, Scott Johnson, Apoorva Kandakatla, Vijay S Gorantla, Stephen F Badylak, Kia M Washington, Michael B Steketee
In peripheral nerve (PN) injuries requiring surgical repair, as in PN transection, cellular and ECM remodeling at PN epineurial repair sites is hypothesized to reduce PN functional outcomes by slowing, misdirecting, or preventing axons from regrowing appropriately across the repair site. Herein this study reports on deriving and analyzing fetal porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix (fUB-ECM) by vacuum assisted decellularization, fabricating fUBM-ECM nerve wraps, and testing fUB-ECM nerve wrap biocompatibility and bioactivity in a trigeminal, infraorbital nerve (ION) branch transection and direct end-to-end repair model in rat...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Etta Y L Liu, Miranda L Xu, Yan Jin, Qiyun Wu, Tina T X Dong, Karl W K Tsim
Genistein, 4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, is a major isoflavone in soybean, which is known as phytestrogen having known benefit to brain functions. Being a common phytestrogen, the possible role of genistein in the brain protection needs to be further explored. In cultured PC12 cells, application of genistein significantly induced the expression of neurofilaments (NFs), markers for neuronal differentiation. In parallel, the expression of tetrameric form of proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked acetyl-cholinesterase (G4 AChE), a key enzyme to hydrolyze acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, was induced in a dose-dependent manner: this induction included the associated protein PRiMA...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Antonio Tancredi, Paolo Graziano, Lucia Dimitri, Elvira Impagnatiello, Marco Taurchini
A sclerosing perineurioma presents as a single asymptomatic papule or nodule located on the hands of adult patients; approximately 60 cases have been reported in medical literature since 1997. Histologically, it originates from the perineural cells of the peripheral nerves and presents epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) positivity and S100 protein negativity. Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old male admitted to our surgery unit complaining of left supraclavicular swelling of 1-cm in size, having no significant past medical history...
February 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
A Srivastava, S Singh, A Pandey, D Kumar, C S Rajpurohit, V K Khanna, A B Pant
The secretome-mediated responses over cellular physiology are well documented. Stem cells have been ruling the field of secretomics and its role in regenerative medicine since the past few years. However, the mechanistic aspects of secretome-mediated responses and the role of other cells in this area remain somewhat elusive. Here, we investigate the effects of secretome-enriched conditioned medium (CM) of neuronally differentiated PC12 cells on the neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Chun-Ho Park, Nozomi Shiwa, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Takehito Kakizaki, Daisaku Watanabe
This case report describes a congenital ganglioneuroblastoma in a 38-day-old male Japanese Black calf. The cervical multinodular mass was present at birth and grew rapidly. The cut surface was pale gray-to-yellow and had a gelatinous appearance. Hemorrhagic cysts of various sizes were observed in the nodule. Histologically, the mass contained clusters of neuroblastic cells, ganglionic cells, and Schwann-like cells. Immunohistochemically, the ganglionic cells showed strong positivity for neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A, whereas the Schwann-like cells strongly expressed S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and vimentin...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Bong-Geum Jang, Boyoung Choi, Suyeon Kim, Jae-Yong Lee, Min-Ju Kim
Neuroblastoma cell differentiation is a valuable model for studying therapeutic methods in neuroblastoma and the mechanisms of neuronal differentiation. Here, we used trichostatin A (TSA) and sirtinol, which are inhibitors of cHDACs and sirtuins, respectively, to show that classical histone deacetylases (cHDACs) and sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog; SIRTs) affect all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. After first determining neurite elongation and expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and high size neurofilament as useful differentiation markers, we observed that TSA increased neuroblastoma cell differentiation, while sirtinol had the antagonistic effect of decreasing it...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Lieke H H Meeter, Everard G Vijverberg, Marta Del Campo, Annemieke J M Rozemuller, Laura Donker Kaat, Frank Jan de Jong, Wiesje M van der Flier, Charlotte E Teunissen, John C van Swieten, Yolande A L Pijnenburg
OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical value of neurofilament light chain (NfL) and the phospho-tau/total tau ratio (p/t-tau) across the entire frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum in a large, well-defined cohort. METHODS: CSF NfL and p/t-tau levels were studied in 361 patients with FTD: 179 behavioral variant FTD, 17 FTD with motor neuron disease (FTD-MND), 36 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA), 19 nonfluent variant PPA, 4 logopenic variant PPA (lvPPA), 42 corticobasal syndrome, and 64 progressive supranuclear palsy...
March 7, 2018: Neurology
Priyanka Chauhan, Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is currently the most common neurological complication in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in 35-50% of patients undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy. Data have shown that distal symmetric polyneuropathy develops in mice by 6 weeks following infection with the LP-BM5 retrovirus mixture. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that glial cells modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the programmed death (PD)-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Luzzi Sabino, Crovace Alberto Maria, Lacitignola Luca, Valentini Valerio, Francioso Edda, Rossi Giacomo, Invernici Gloria, Galzio Renato Juan, Crovace Antonio
Background: Proof of the efficacy and safety of a xenogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) transplant for spinal cord injury (SCI) may theoretically widen the spectrum of possible grafts for neuroregeneration. Methods: Twenty rats were submitted to complete spinal cord transection. Ovine bone marrow MSCs, retrovirally transfected with red fluorescent protein and not previously induced for neuroglial differentiation, were applied in 10 study rats (MSCG). Fibrin glue was injected in 10 control rats (FGG)...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Katerina Koussoulas, Mathusi Swaminathan, Candice Fung, Joel C Bornstein, Jaime P P Foong
γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and its receptors, GABAA,B,C , are expressed in several locations along the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, a role for GABA in enteric synaptic transmission remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the expression and function of GABA in the myenteric plexus of the mouse ileum. About 8% of all myenteric neurons were found to be GABA-immunoreactive (GABA+) including some Calretinin+ and some neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+) neurons. We used Wnt1-Cre;R26R-GCaMP3 mice, which express a genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator in all enteric neurons and glia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrew Geoffrey Bourne Thompson, Connie Luk, Amanda J Heslegrave, Henrik Zetterberg, Simon H Mead, John Collinge, Graham S Jackson
OBJECTIVES: A blood-based biomarker of neuronal damage in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) will be extremely valuable for both clinical practice and research aiming to develop effective therapies. METHODS: We used an ultrasensitive immunoassay to measure two candidate biomarkers, tau and neurofilament light (NfL), in serum from patients with sCJD and healthy controls. We tested longitudinal sample sets from six patients to investigate changes over time, and examined correlations with rate of disease progression and associations with known phenotype modifiers...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Malin Säflund, Christina Sjöstrand, Olafur Sveinsson
The syndrome of transient headache and neurologic deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is a self-limited disorder with an unknown pathogenesis, characterized by one or more transient episodes of severe headache accompanied with neurologic deficits, and lymphocytic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Despite being uncommon and benign it is important for clinicians to identify and differentiate HaNDL from other potentially fatal neurologic disorders. We present six HaNDL patients from our institution...
February 26, 2018: Läkartidningen
Qiang Wu, Zhen-Jian Zhuo, Jixiao Zeng, Jiao Zhang, Jinhong Zhu, Yan Zou, Ruizhong Zhang, Tianyou Yang, Deli Zhu, Jing He, Huimin Xia
Neuroblastoma is a lethal tumor that mainly occurs in children. To date, the genetic etiology of sporadic neuroblastoma remains obscure. A previous study identified three neuroblastoma susceptibility loci (rs11994014 G>A, rs2979704 T>C, rs1059111 A>T) in neurofilament light ( NEFL ) gene. Here, we attempted to evaluate the contributions of these three single nucleotide polymorphisms to neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese children. We genotyped these three polymorphisms using subjects from Guangdong province (256 cases and 531 controls) and Henan province (118 cases and 281 controls)...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Natalia Chmielewska, Janusz Szyndler, Karolina Makowska, Dawid Wojtyna, Piotr Maciejak, Adam Płaźnik
The role of blood brain barrier (BBB) is to preserve a precisely regulated environment for proper neuronal signaling. In many of the central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, the function of BBB is altered. Thus, there is a necessity to evaluate a fast, noninvasive and reliable method for monitoring of BBB condition. It seems that revealing the peripheral diagnostic biomarker whose release pattern (concentration, dynamics) will be correlated with clinical symptoms of neurological disorders offers significant hope...
February 13, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Tsugunobu Andoh, Yuta Asakawa, Yasushi Kuraishi
Chronic skin diseases with itch and dry skin show increased peripheral nerve fiber elongation into the epidermis. However, the characteristics of the elongated nerve fibers remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of the elongated nerve fibers using a dry skin mouse model with itch. In this mouse model, prepared via repetitive treatments with an acetone/ether mixture and water, the stratum corneum water content was decreased, whereas spontaneous scratching and epidermal hyperplasia were increased...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Valter Niemelä, Joachim Burman, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Anders Larsson, Jimmy Sundblom
INTRODUCTION: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, but evidence also suggests neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis. The immune mechanisms involved and the timing of their activation need further clarification. METHODS: A clinically well-characterized HD cohort and gene negative controls were enrolled. YKL-40 reflecting innate immunity and sCD27, a marker of adaptive immunity, were measured across disease stages. Comparisons were made with markers of neurodegeneration: neurofilament light (NFL), total-tau (T-tau), and phospho-tau (P-tau)...
2018: PloS One
Henrietta Wellington, Ross W Paterson, Aida Suárez-González, Teresa Poole, Chris Frost, Ulrika Sjöbom, Catherine F Slattery, Nadia K Magdalinou, Manja Lehmann, Eric Portelius, Nick C Fox, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan M Schott
Objective: To assess whether high levels of cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin are found in atypical as well as typical Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Immunoassays were used to measure cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin in 114 participants including healthy controls ( n  = 27), biomarker-proven amnestic Alzheimer's disease ( n  = 68), and the atypical visual variant of Alzheimer's ( n  = 19) according to international criteria. CSF total-tau, Aβ42, and neurofilament light concentrations were investigated using commercially available assays...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Samuela Cataldi, Cataldo Arcuri, Stéphane Hunot, Carmen Mecca, Michela Codini, Maria E Laurenti, Ivana Ferri, Elisabetta Loreti, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Giovanna Traina, Carmela Conte, Francesco S Ambesi-Impiombato, Tommaso Beccari, Francesco Curcio, Elisabetta Albi
It has long been proven that neurogenesis continues in the adult brains of mammals in the dentatus gyrus of the hippocampus due to the presence of neural stem cells. Although a large number of studies have been carried out to highlight the localization of vitamin D receptor in hippocampus, the expression of vitamin D receptor in neurogenic dentatus gyrus of hippocampus in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the molecular mechanisms triggered by vitamin D underlying the production of differentiated neurons from embryonic cells remain unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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