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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937253/sirt1-mediates-improvement-in-cognitive-defects-induced-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-following-hyperbaric-oxygen-preconditioning-in-rats
#1
P Ding, D Ren, S He, M He, G Zhang, Y Chen, H Sang, Z Peng, W Yan
Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has been proposed as a safe and practical approach for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. However, it is not known whether HPO-PC can improve cognitive deficits induced by cerebral ischemia, and the mechanistic basis for any beneficial effects remains unclear. We addressed this in the present study using rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) as an ischemic stroke model following HBO-PC. Cognitive function and expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy polypeptide (pNF-H) and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were evaluated 14 days after reperfusion and after short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of sirtuin1 (Sirt1)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932862/tailored-release-of-triiodothyronine-and-retinoic-acid-from-a-spatio-temporally-fabricated-nanofiber-composite-instigating-neuronal-differentiation
#2
Aishwarya Satish, Purna Sai Korrapati
Regeneration of the central and peripheral nervous system is challenging since the functional restoration of injured nerves is an incredible task. The fabrication of an ideal nerve guide that fulfills the requirement to regenerate nerve tissue is a herculean challenge requiring a combination of both biochemical and topographical cues. The present study explores the combinatorial effect of aligned nanofibers and the regulated delivery of triiodothyronine and retinoic acid on nerve regeneration. A sequential release mechanism is adopted in fabricating the nanofiber scaffold, with triiodothyronine incorporated into the nanofiber shell ensuring its prior release, followed by retinoic acid (entrapped within zein nanoparticles) from the core...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929183/altered-neurofilament-protein-expression-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Thomas P Wellings, Alan M Brichta, Rebecca Lim
A major cause of morbidity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is postural instability. The neuropathology underlying postural instability is unknown. Postural control is mediated by Deiters' neurons of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which are the brainstem origin of descending vestibulospinal reflexes. Deiters' neurons express the cytostructural protein, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP). In PD, reduced expression of NPNFP in substantia nigra (SN) neurons is believed to contribute to dysfunction...
September 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927918/the-safety-of-irreversible-electroporation-on-nerves-adjacent-to-treated-tumors
#4
Xiaomei Luo, Zilin Qin, Huimin Tao, Jian Shi, Gang Fang, Zhonghai Li, Xulong Zhou, Jibing Chen, Kecheng Xu, Jianying Zeng, Lizhi Niu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the sciatic nerve after IRE ablation of adjacent tumor. METHODS: and analysis In this study, VX2 tumors were implanted adjacent to the sciatic nerves in 26 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three groups 10 days after implantation, with two treatment groups of ten rabbits each and a control group of six rabbits. In one of the treatment groups (IRE-S group), the rabbits underwent ablation with a single IRE application, and in the other group (IRE-D group) the rabbits underwent two IRE applications...
September 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926211/kymograph-analysis-with-high-temporal-resolution-reveals-new-features-of-neurofilament-transport-kinetics
#5
J Daniel Fenn, Christopher M Johnson, Juan Peng, Peter Jung, Anthony Brown
We have used kymograph analysis combined with edge detection and an automated computational algorithm to analyze the axonal transport kinetics of neurofilament polymers in cultured neurons at 30 ms temporal resolution. We generated 301 kymographs from 136 movies and analyzed 726 filaments ranging from 0.6 to 42 µm in length, representing ∼37,000 distinct moving and pausing events. We found that the movement is even more intermittent than previously reported and that the filaments undergo frequent, often transient, reversals which suggests that they can engage simultaneously with both anterograde and retrograde motors...
September 19, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925503/quantitative-analysis-of-mouse-dural-afferent-neurons-expressing-trpm8-vglut3-and-nf200
#6
Lynn Ren, Michelle Jaehee Chang, Zhiyu Zhang, Ajay Dhaka, Zhaohua Guo, Yu-Qing Cao
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the abundance of dural afferent neurons expressing transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8), vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), and neurofilament 200 (NF200) in adult mice. BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of mice as a model system to study headache mechanisms, it is important to understand the composition of dural afferent neurons in mice. In a previous study, we have measured the abundance of mouse dural afferent neurons that express neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide as well as two TRP channels TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904988/neurite-dispersion-a-new-marker-of-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-pathology
#7
Francesco Grussu, Torben Schneider, Carmen Tur, Richard L Yates, Mohamed Tachrount, Andrada Ianuş, Marios C Yiannakas, Jia Newcombe, Hui Zhang, Daniel C Alexander, Gabriele C DeLuca, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
OBJECTIVE: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the multiple sclerosis spinal cord is limited by low specificity regarding the underlying pathological processes, and new MRI metrics assessing microscopic damage are required. We aim to show for the first time that neurite orientation dispersion (i.e., variability in axon/dendrite orientations) is a new biomarker that uncovers previously undetected layers of complexity of multiple sclerosis spinal cord pathology. Also, we validate against histology a clinically viable MRI technique for dispersion measurement (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, NODDI), to demonstrate the strong potential of the new marker...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887429/nfm-cross-reactivity-to-mog-does-not-expand-a-critical-threshold-level-of-high-affinity-t-cells-necessary-for-onset-of-demyelinating-disease
#8
Lori Blanchfield, Joseph J Sabatino, Laurel Lawrence, Brian D Evavold
Of interest to the etiology of demyelinating autoimmune disease is the potential to aberrantly activate CD4(+) T cells due to cross-recognition of multiple self-epitopes such as has been suggested for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein epitope 35-55 (MOG35-55) and neurofilament medium protein epitope 15-35 (NFM15-35). NFM15-35 is immunogenic in C57BL/6 mice but fails to induce demyelinating disease by polyclonal T cells despite having the same TCR contact residues as MOG35-55, a known encephalitogenic Ag...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882840/influence-of-a-gsk3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-site-within-the-proximal-c-terminus-of-neurofilament-h-on-neurofilament-dynamics
#9
Rishel Brenna Vohnoutka, Edward F Boumil, Yuguan Liu, Atsuko Uchida, Harish C Pant, Thomas B Shea
Phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of the heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H) impacts NF axonal transport and residence within axons by fostering NF-NF associations that compete with transport. We tested the role of phosphorylation of a GSK-3β consensus site (S493) located in the proximal portion of the NF-H tail, in NF dynamics by transfection of NB2a/d1 cells with NF-H where S493 was mutated to aspartic acid (S493D) or to alanine (S493A) to mimic constitutive phosphorylation and non-phosphorylation. S493D underwent increased transport into axonal neurites, while S493A displayed increased perikaryal NF aggregates that were decorated by anti-kinesin...
September 7, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878627/optic-nerve-degeneration-after-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-a-rodent-model
#10
Marina Renner, Gesa Stute, Mohammad Alzureiqi, Jacqueline Reinhard, Susanne Wiemann, Heiko Schmid, Andreas Faissner, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
Retinal ischemia is a common pathomechanism in many ocular disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma or retinal vascular occlusion. Several studies demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to morphological and functional changes of different retinal cell types. However, little is known about the ischemic effects on the optic nerve. The goal of this study was to evaluate these effects. Ischemia was induced by raising the intraocular pressure (IOP) in one eye of rats to 140 mmHg for 1 h followed by natural reperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875469/a-panel-of-autoantibodies-against-neural-proteins-as-peripheral-biomarker-for-pesticide-induced-neurotoxicity
#11
Heba Allah Abd El Rahman, Mohamed Salama, Seham A Gad El-Hak, Mona A El-Harouny, Passent ElKafrawy, Mohamed B Abou-Donia
In the present study, we screened the sera of subjects chronically exposed to mixtures of pesticides (composed mainly of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) and others) and developed neurological symptoms for the presence of autoantibodies against cytoskeletal neural proteins. OPs have a well-characterized clinical profile resulting from acute cholinergic crisis. However, some of these compounds cause neuronal degeneration and demyelination known as organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) and/or organophosphorus compound-induced chronic neurotoxicity (OPICN)...
September 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865131/quercetin-reduces-neural-tissue-damage-and-promotes-astrocyte-activation-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#12
Yeyang Wang, Wenjun Li, Mingsen Wang, Chuangxin Lin, Guitao Li, Xiaozhong Zhou, Junnan Luo, Dadi Jin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is lead to locomotor impairment because of neurological damage after following trauma. Quercetin (Que) has been confirmed have a neuro-protective effect during nerve damage processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of Que in functional recovery, cavity formation, astrocyte activation and nerve regeneration following SCI. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham group, SCI group and Que + SCI group. A rat model of SCI was made at T10 using the modified Allen's method...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861035/molecular-disorganization-of-axons-adjacent-to-human-cortical-microinfarcts
#13
Hamza Coban, Spencer Tung, Bryan Yoo, Harry V Vinters, Jason D Hinman
Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are microscopically identified wedge-shaped ischemic lesions that occur at or near the cortical surface and result from occlusion of penetrating arterioles. These microscopic lesions can be observed with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging in aging brains and in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Recent studies have suggested that strategically located microinfarcts strongly correlate with cognitive deficits, which can contribute to Alzheimer's disease as well as other forms of dementia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860425/marked-expression-of-tnf-receptors-in-human-peritendinous-tissues-including-in-nerve-fascicles-with-axonal-damage-studies-on-tendinopathy-and-tennis-elbow
#14
C Spang, L Renström, H Alfredson, S Forsgren
BACKGROUND: The peritendinous connective tissues can have importance in chronic tendon pain. Recently cytokine TNF-α has been suggested to be involved in tendinopathic processes. It is not known how TNF-α and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed in peritendinous tissues. METHODS: The objective for this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression patterns of these in the peritendinous tissue located between the plantaris and Achilles tendons and the one located superficially to the extensor origin at the elbow region for patients with tendinopathy/tennis elbow...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855426/neural-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-induced-by-intracellular-co-delivery-of-ascl1-brn2-and-foxa1-via-a-non-viral-vector-of-cationic-polysaccharide
#15
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Michael Adu-Frimpong, Jiangnan Yu, Xi-Ming Xu
Direct reprogramming of other somatic cells into neurons is an alternative strategy for the recovery of injured nervous system. In this work we developed a new non-viral gene carrier based on Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP). After modification with ethylenediamine, the cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (Ed-PYP) was combined with plasmids encoding Ascl1, Brn2 and FoxA1 to form spherical nanoscale particles (Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles). Cytotoxicity assay proved that Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles had a safer property than Lipofectamine2000 and polyetherimide (PEI)...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844827/beh%C3%A3-et-disease-serum-is-immunoreactive-to-neurofilament-medium-which-share-common-epitopes-to-bacterial-hsp-65-a-putative-trigger
#16
S Lule, A I Colpak, B Balci-Peynircioglu, Y Gursoy-Ozdemir, S Peker, U Kalyoncu, A Can, N Tekin, D Demiralp, T Dalkara
Autoimmune and dysimmune inflammatory mechanisms on a genetically susceptible background are implicated in the etiology of Behçet's Disease (BD). Heat-shock protein-65 (HSP-65) derived from Streptococcus sanguinis was proposed as a triggering factor based on its homology with human HSP-60. However, none of the autoantigens identified so far in sera from BD share common epitopes with bacterial HSP-65 or has a high prevalence. Here, we report that sera from BD patients are immunoreactive against filamentous neuronal processes in the mouse brain, retina and scrotal skin in great majority of patients...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840512/sub-micromolar-concentrations-of-retinoic-acid-induce-morphological-and-functional-neuronal-phenotypes-in-sk-n-sh-neuroblastoma-cells
#17
Emily Harasym, Nicole McAndrew, George Gomez
Neuroblastoma cells are neural crest derivatives that can differentiate into neuron-like cells in response to exogenous agents, and are known to be particularly sensitive to retinoic acid. The spectrum of neuroblastoma responses, ranging from proliferation, migration, differentiation, or apoptosis, is difficult to predict due to the heterogeneity of these tumors and to the broad effective range of retinoic acid. Our study focused on the effects of nanomolar concentrations of retinoic acid on neuroblastoma differentiation in two cell lines cells: SK-N-SH (HTB-11) and IMR-32...
August 24, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835663/choroid-plexitis-and-ependymitis-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-biomarkers-of-neuronal-damage-and-inflammation-in-hiv-negative-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis
#18
Dima A Hammoud, Eman Mahdi, Anil A Panackal, Paul Wakim, Virginia Sheikh, Irini Sereti, Bibi Bielakova, John E Bennett, Peter R Williamson
CNS cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in both HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) subjects is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal antifungal therapy. We thus conducted a detailed analysis of the MR imaging findings in 45 HIV- and 11 HIV+ patients to identify imaging findings associated with refractory disease. Ventricular abnormalities, namely ependymitis and choroid plexitis were seen in HIV- but not in HIV+ subjects. We then correlated the imaging findings in a subset of HIV- subjects (n = 17) to CSF levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL), reflective of axonal damage and sCD27, known to best predict the presence of intrathecal T-cell mediated inflammation...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833756/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumours-in-epilepsy-dysplasia-or-neoplasia
#19
Maria Thom, Joan Liu, Anika Bongaarts, Roy J Reinten, Beatrice Paradiso, Hans Rolf Jäger, Cheryl Reeves, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Derek Marsdon, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Lewis Thorne, Fay Newman, Sorin Bucur, Mrinalini Honavar, Tom Jacques, Eleonora Aronica
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumour (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumours of the CNS. There are fifteen reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic versus malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterised epilepsy associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low-grade epilepsy associated tumours (LEAT)...
August 19, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833752/comparative-study-of-different-acorus-species-in-potentiating-neuronal-differentiation-in-cultured-pc12-cells
#20
Kelly Y C Lam, Yun Huang, Ping Yao, Huaiyou Wang, Tina T X Dong, Zhongyu Zhou, Karl W K Tsim
Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ATR), the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, is a common traditional Chinese medicine being used clinically for mental disorder. However, other Acorus species herbs are all having the same Chinese name 'Chang Pu', making the confusion in herbal market. Acori Graminei Rhizoma (AGR) and Acori Calami Rhizoma (ACR) are common adulterants of ATR. Here, we aim to provide a comparative analysis between ATR, AGR, and ACR in potentiating neuronal differentiation. Volatile oil, derived from Acorus species, was applied onto cultured PC12 cells, and various parameters were determined: (i) transcriptional activation of neurofilament promoters was determined by the promoter-driven luciferase activity assay; (ii) the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells was captured and measured; and (iii) the neurofilament expression and its underlying mechanism were analyzed by western blotting...
August 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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