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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806498/pacinian-corpuscles-in-human-lymph-nodes
#1
J Feito, J L Cobo, A Santos-Briz, J A Vega
The occurrence of Pacinian corpuscles associated to lymph nodes is an anatomical rarity and very scarce information exists in this regard. Here we examined immunohistochemically four Pacinian corpuscles found in the close vicinity of the hiliar blood vessels of lymph nodes (2 cervical, 1 axillary, and 1 inguinal) during routine surgical pathology. Pacinian corpuscles were normally arranged and displayed a pattern of protein distribution as follows: the axon was positive for neurofilament proteins and neuron specific enolase, the inner core cells showed intense S100 protein and vimentin immunostaining while they were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein, type IV collagen and glucose transporter 1; vimentin, type IV collagen, and glucose transporter 1 were also observed also in the outer-core and the capsule...
August 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800073/electronegative-low-density-lipoprotein-l5-impairs-viability-and-ngf-induced-neuronal-differentiation-of-pc12-cells-via-lox-1
#2
Jiz-Yuh Wang, Chiou-Lian Lai, Ching-Tien Lee, Chen-Yen Lin
There have been striking associations of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis) and hypercholesterolemia with increased risk of neurodegeneration including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a cardiovascular risk factor, plays a crucial role in AD pathogenesis; further, L5, a human plasma LDL fraction with high electronegativity, may be a factor contributing to AD-type dementia. Although L5 contributing to atherosclerosis progression has been studied, its role in inducing neurodegeneration remains unclear...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800009/pathologic-prognostic-factors-of-pineal-parenchymal-tumor-of-intermediate-differentiation
#3
Debajyoti Chatterjee, Khushboo Lath, Navneet Singla, Narendra Kumar, Bishan D Radotra
INTRODUCTION: Pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) is an uncommon tumor of the pineal gland. Although this behaves as a grade II/III tumor, the exact clinical behavior is not well known. There is no well-established pathologic factor that can predict the behavior of PPTID. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the pathologic prognostic factors in PPTID. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All PPTID cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed retrospectively...
August 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799062/long-term-epilepsy-associated-tumor-in-the-amygdala-of-a-16-year-old-boy-report-of-a-rare-case-having-intranuclear-filaments
#4
Yoon Jin Cha, Dong-Seok Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang, Se Hoon Kim
The term "long-term epilepsy-associated tumor (LEAT)" encompasses brain lesions associated with drug-resistant epilepsy over a long duration (≥2 years). Notably, some LEATs do not fit into any of the classifications of the World Health Organization (WHO). Herein, we report a LEAT that occurred in the left amygdala of a 16-year-old patient with intractable epilepsy. Histological examination of the resected amygdala revealed diffusely infiltrating tumor cells in the cortex. Perineuronal satellitosis and perivascular aggregation of tumor cells were apparent, along with mild nuclear enlargement and cytologic atypia...
August 10, 2017: Brain Tumor Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796418/role-of-the-gm1-ganglioside-oligosaccharide-portion-in-the-trka-dependent-neurite-sprouting-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#5
Elena Chiricozzi, Diego Yuri Pomè, Margherita Maggioni, Erika Di Biase, Chiara Parravicini, Luca Palazzolo, Nicoletta Loberto, Ivano Eberini, Sandro Sonnino
GM1 ganglioside (II(3) NeuAc-Gg4 Cer) is known to promote neurite formation in neuroblastoma cells by activating TrkA-MAPK pathway. The molecular mechanism by which GM1 is involved in the neurodifferentiation process is still unknown, however, in vitro and in vivo evidences have suggested that the oligosaccharide portion of this ganglioside could be involved. Here, we report that, similarly to the entire GM1 molecule, its oligosaccharide II(3) NeuAc-Gg4, rather than its ceramide (Cer) portion is responsible for the neurodifferentiation process by augmenting neurite elongation and increasing the neurofilament protein expression in murine neuroblastoma cells, Neuro2a...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795017/malignant-renal-schwannoma-in-a-cat
#6
Monier Sharif, Adel Mohamed, Manfred Reinacher
A nine-year-old male European shorthair cat with rapidly enlarging mass at the left kidney doubted to be malignant was presented. The purpose of this study is to present the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of a primary renal tumor in the cat. Grossly, the mass mostly encapsulated the kidney. Histologically, excisional biopsy showed worrying histological features. A sarcoma-like tumor composed mainly of neoplastic spindle-shaped cells. Neoplastic nodules of aggregations of fusiform cells arranged in multidirectional bundles...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757081/geographic-tongue-assessment-of-peripheral-nerve-status-langerhans-cell-and-hla-dr-expression
#7
Mark Roger Darling, Nan Su, Sherry Masen, Paul Kwon, Daniel Fortino, Taylor McKerlie, Miriam Grushka
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine whether geographic tongue (GT) is an antigen-driven condition by assessing Langerhans cell numbers and the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP, -DQ, and -DR in the epithelium of GT and to assess peripheral nerve status for any possible damage/injury association by quantifying neurite area in connective tissue in GT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomly selected samples of GT were examined by using routine immunoperoxidase staining methods to S100 protein, neurofilament, CD1a, and HLA class II...
June 7, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753612/four-alpha-ganglion-cell-types-in-mouse-retina-function-structure-and-molecular-signatures
#8
Brenna Krieger, Mu Qiao, David L Rousso, Joshua R Sanes, Markus Meister
The retina communicates with the brain using ≥30 parallel channels, each carried by axons of distinct types of retinal ganglion cells. In every mammalian retina one finds so-called "alpha" ganglion cells (αRGCs), identified by their large cell bodies, stout axons, wide and mono-stratified dendritic fields, and high levels of neurofilament protein. In the mouse, three αRGC types have been described based on responses to light steps: On-sustained, Off-sustained, and Off-transient. Here we employed a transgenic mouse line that labels αRGCs in the live retina, allowing systematic targeted recordings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750210/phosphorylated-neurofilament-h-pnf-h-as-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-for-neurological-disorders-in-horses
#9
A R Intan-Shameha, Thomas J Divers, Jennifer K Morrow, Amy Graves, Emil Olsen, Amy L Johnson, Hussni O Mohammed
The current study aimed at the investigating the potential use of phosphorylated neurofilament H (pNF-H) as a diagnostic biomarker for neurologic disorders in the horse. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (n=88) and serum only (n=30) were obtained from horses diagnosed with neurologic disorders and clinically healthy horses as control. The neurologic horses consisted of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) (38 cases) and cervical vertebral malformation (CVM) (23 cases). Levels of pNF-H were determined using an ELISA...
July 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748102/kamishoyosan-and-shakuyakukanzoto-promote-recovery-from-paclitaxel-induced-neurite-retraction-in-pc12-cells
#10
Ken Konaka, Kota Moriyama, Takumi Sakurada, Naoto Okada, Masaki Imanishi, Yoshito Zamami, Kazuyoshi Kawazoe, Shuji Fushitani, Keisuke Ishizawa
BACKGROUND: In chemotherapy, the full round of treatment must be completed as scheduled to achieve the strongest therapeutic effect. However, peripheral neuropathy, a severe side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, can force the premature discontinuation of treatment. As some kampo practitioners have suggested that it may be possible to counteract such side effects, we analyzed the effects of Kamishoyosan, Shakuyakukanzoto, and Goshajinkigan in an in vitro model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#11
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
July 25, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736850/progressive-ataxia-and-palatal-tremor-two-autopsy-cases-of-a-novel-tauopathy
#12
Andrew F Gao, Achinoam Faust-Socher, Maryam Al-Murshed, Marc R Del Bigio, Anthony E Lang, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Sporadic progressive ataxia and palatal tremor is a rare syndrome characterized by mid- to late-adult-onset symptomatic palatal tremor and slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. To date, there has been only one autopsy report, which described a novel 4-repeat tauopathy with hypertrophic olivary degeneration and tau-positive inclusions in olivary neurons and dystrophic neuritic processes termed glomeruloid bodies. We report on 2 additional autopsy cases. METHODS: Sections from selected paraffin-embedded brain regions were stained with hematoxylin and eosin/Luxol fast blue and processed for phosphorylated tau, 3-repeat tau, 4-repeat tau, neurofilament, glial fibrillary acid protein, phosphorylated α-synuclein, phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43, beta-amyloid, and p62 immunohistochemistry...
July 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733960/a-review-of-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-moving-from-csf-to-blood
#13
REVIEW
Kaj Blennow
A set of core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). These biomarkers reflect some of the key aspects of AD pathophysiology, including neuronal degeneration, tau phosphorylation with tangle formation, and Aβ aggregation with deposition of the peptide into plaques. The core AD CSF biomarkers have been validated clinically in numerous studies, and found to have a very high diagnostic performance to identify AD, both in the dementia and in the mild cognitive impairment stages of the disease...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728117/alzheimer-s-disease-markers-in-the-aged-sheep-ovis-aries
#14
Suzanne J Reid, Natasha E Mckean, Kristen Henty, Erik Portelius, Kaj Blennow, Skye R Rudiger, C Simon Bawden, Renee R Handley, Paul J Verma, Richard L M Faull, Henry J Waldvogel, Henrik Zetterberg, Russell G Snell
This study reports the identification and characterization of markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in aged sheep (Ovis aries) as a preliminary step toward making a genetically modified large animal model of AD. Importantly, the sequences of key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis are highly conserved between sheep and human. The processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein is conserved between sheep and human, and sheep Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are also very similar to human. In addition, total tau and neurofilament light levels in CSF are comparable with those found in human...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#15
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunization with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light (NF-L), a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, although antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717351/serial-sampling-of-serum-protein-biomarkers-for-monitoring-human-traumatic-brain-injury-dynamics-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Eric Peter Thelin, Frederick Adam Zeiler, Ari Ercole, Stefania Mondello, András Büki, Bo-Michael Bellander, Adel Helmy, David K Menon, David W Nelson
BACKGROUND: The proteins S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and neurofilament light (NF-L) have been serially sampled in serum of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to assess injury severity and tissue fate. We review the current literature of serum level dynamics of these proteins following TBI and used the term "effective half-life" (t1/2) in order to describe the "fall" rate in serum...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715117/differential-activation-of-neuronal-and-glial-stat3-in-the-spinal-cord-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Tomohiro Ohgomori, Ryo Yamasaki, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Kenji Kadomatsu, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shozo Jinno
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are activated by phosphorylation in the spinal cord of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The major scope of our study is a comprehensive histological characterization of the mechanisms underlying neuronal and glial STAT3 activation in the pathogenesis of ALS using SOD1(G93A) mice. We calculated the fold changes (FCs, ratios vs. appropriate controls) of the numerical densities of the following phosphorylated STAT3-positive (pSTAT3)(+) cells - choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(+) α-motoneurons, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1)(+) microglia, and S100β(+) astrocytes in SOD1(G93A) mice...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711740/early-manifestations-of-epileptic-encephalopathy-brain-atrophy-and-elevation-of-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-in-a-boy-with-beta-propeller-protein-associated-neurodegeneration
#18
Kyoko Takano, Kazuya Goto, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Keiko Wakui, Rie Kawamura, Tomomi Yamaguchi, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Tomoki Kosho
Mutations in WDR45 are responsible for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), which is an X-linked form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. BPAN mainly affects females and is characterized by seizures and developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. However, rare male patients have recently been reported with hemizygous germline mutations in WDR45 and severe clinical manifestations, such as epileptic encephalopathies...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709447/cryptic-amyloidogenic-elements-in-mutant-nefh-causing-charcot-marie-tooth-2-trigger-aggresome-formation-and-neuronal-death
#19
Arnaud Jacquier, Cécile Delorme, Edwige Belotti, Raoul Juntas-Morales, Guilhem Solé, Odile Dubourg, Marianne Giroux, Claude-Alain Maurage, Valérie Castellani, Adriana Rebelo, Alexander Abrams, Stephan Züchner, Tanya Stojkovic, Laurent Schaeffer, Philippe Latour
Neurofilament heavy chain (NEFH) gene was recently identified to cause autosomal dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2cc). However, the clinical spectrum of this condition and the physio-pathological pathway remain to be delineated. We report 12 patients from two French families with axonal dominantly inherited form of CMT caused by two new mutations in the NEFH gene. A remarkable feature was the early involvement of proximal muscles of the lower limbs associated with pyramidal signs in some patients...
July 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702437/treadmill-exercise-with-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-transplantation-potentiates-recovery-of-locomotor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#20
You-Mi Kim, Tae-Beom Seo, Chang-Ju Kim, Eun-Sang Ji
Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is regarded as a promising candidate for the spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present study, we investigated whether treadmill exercise potentiate the effect of BM-SCs transplantation on the functional recovery in the SCI rats. The spinal cord contusion injury applied at the T9-T10 level using the impactor. Cultured BMSCs were transplanted into the lesion at 1 week after SCI induction. Treadmill exercise was conducted for 6 weeks. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scale for locomotor function was determined...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
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