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artificial intelligence

Fernando Yepes-Calderon, Marvin D Nelson, J Gordon McComb
The picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is currently the standard platform to manage medical images but lacks analytical capabilities. Staying within PACS, the authors have developed an automatic method to retrieve the medical data and access it at a voxel level, decrypted and uncompressed that allows analytical capabilities while not perturbing the system's daily operation. Additionally, the strategy is secure and vendor independent. Cerebral ventricular volume is important for the diagnosis and treatment of many neurological disorders...
2018: PloS One
Rensheng Cao, Mingyi Fan, Jiwei Hu, Wenqian Ruan, Xianliang Wu, Xionghui Wei
Highly promising artificial intelligence tools, including neural network (ANN), genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), were applied in the present study to develop an approach for the evaluation of Se(IV) removal from aqueous solutions by reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) composites. Both GA and PSO were used to optimize the parameters of ANN. The effect of operational parameters (i.e., initial pH, temperature, contact time and initial Se(IV) concentration) on the removal efficiency was examined using response surface methodology (RSM), which was also utilized to obtain a dataset for the ANN training...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Vineet M Arora
With the advent of electronic medical records (EMRs) fueling the rise of big data, the use of predictive analytics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence are touted as transformational tools to improve clinical care. While major investments are being made in using big data to transform health care delivery, little effort has been directed toward exploiting big data to improve graduate medical education (GME). Because our current system relies on faculty observations of competence, it is not unreasonable to ask whether big data in the form of clinical EMRs and other novel data sources can answer questions of importance in GME such as when is a resident ready for independent practice...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Tianzhao Bu, Tianxiao Xiao, Zhiwei Yang, Guoxu Liu, Xianpeng Fu, Jinhui Nie, Tong Guo, Yaokun Pang, Junqing Zhao, Fengben Xi, Chi Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang
Smart skin is expected to be stretchable and tactile for bionic robots as the medium with the ambient environment. Here, a stretchable triboelectric-photonic smart skin (STPS) is reported that enables multidimensional tactile and gesture sensing for a robotic hand. With a grating-structured metal film as the bioinspired skin stripe, the STPS exhibits a tunable aggregation-induced emission in a lateral tensile range of 0-160%. Moreover, the STPS can be used as a triboelectric nanogenerator for vertical pressure sensing with a maximum sensitivity of 34 mV Pa-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Xin Sun, Jennifer Young, Jeng-Hung Liu, David Newman
The objective of this project was to develop a computer vision system (CVS) for objective measurement of pork loin under industry speed requirement. Color images of pork loin samples were acquired using a CVS. Subjective color and marbling scores were determined according to the National Pork Board standards by a trained evaluator. Instrument color measurement and crude fat percentage were used as control measurements. Image features (18 color features; 1 marbling feature; 88 texture features) were extracted from whole pork loin color images...
March 7, 2018: Meat Science
Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Roland Lindh, Markus Reiher
To date, the program for the development of methods and models for atomistic and continuum simulation directed toward chemicals and materials has reached an incredible degree of sophistication and maturity. Currently, one can witness an increasingly rapid emergence of advances in computing, artificial intelligence, and robotics. This drives us to consider the future of computer simulation of matter from the molecular to the human length and time scales in a radical way that deliberately dares to go beyond the foreseeable next steps in any given discipline...
February 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Stuart Keel, Pei Ying Lee, Jane Scheetz, Zhixi Li, Mark A Kotowicz, Richard J MacIsaac, Mingguang He
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and patient acceptability of a novel artificial intelligence (AI)-based diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening model within endocrinology outpatient settings. Adults with diabetes were recruited from two urban endocrinology outpatient clinics and single-field, non-mydriatic fundus photographs were taken and graded for referable DR ( ≥ pre-proliferative DR). Each participant underwent; (1) automated screening model; where a deep learning algorithm (DLA) provided real-time reporting of results; and (2) manual model where retinal images were transferred to a retinal grading centre and manual grading outcomes were distributed to the patient within 2 weeks of assessment...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiuming He, Luojiao Huang, Runtao Tian, Tiegang Li, Chenglong Sun, Xiaowei Song, Yiwei Lv, Zhigang Luo, Xin Li, Zeper Abliz
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become a powerful tool to probe molecule events in biological tissue. However, it is a widely held viewpoint that one of the biggest challenges is an easy-to-use data processing software for discovering the underlying biological information from complicated and huge MSI dataset. Here, a user-friendly and full-featured MSI software including three subsystems, Solution, Visualization and Intelligence, named MassImager, is developed focusing on interactive visualization, in-situ biomarker discovery and artificial intelligent pathological diagnosis...
July 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Les R Folio, Laura B Machado, Andrew J Dwyer
Multimedia-enhanced radiology report (MERR) development is defined and described from an informatics perspective, in which the MERR is seen as a superior information-communicating entity. Recent technical advances, such as the hyperlinking of report text directly to annotated images, improve MERR information content and accessibility compared with text-only reports. The MERR is analyzed by its components, which include hypertext, tables, graphs, embedded images, and their interconnections. The authors highlight the advantages of each component for improving the radiologist's communication of report content information and the user's ability to extract information...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Payal Dande, Purva Samant
Tuberculosis [TB] has afflicted numerous nations in the world. As per a report by the World Health Organization [WHO], an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015 and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with HIV, were observed. Most of the TB deaths can be prevented if it is detected at an early stage. The existing processes of diagnosis like blood tests or sputum tests are not only tedious but also take a long time for analysis and cannot differentiate between different drug resistant stages of TB...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Jiaxing Ye, Takumi Kobayashi, Masaya Iwata, Hiroshi Tsuda, Masahiro Murakawa
Developing efficient Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled systems to substitute the human role in non-destructive testing is an emerging topic of considerable interest. In this study, we propose a novel hammering response analysis system using online machine learning, which aims at achieving near-human performance in assessment of concrete structures. Current computerized hammer sounding systems commonly employ lab-scale data to validate the models. In practice, however, the response signal patterns can be far more complicated due to varying geometric shapes and materials of structures...
March 9, 2018: Sensors
Ramachandran Rajalakshmi, Radhakrishnan Subashini, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of artificial intelligence (AI)-based automated software for detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and sight-threatening DR (STDR) by fundus photography taken using a smartphone-based device and validate it against ophthalmologist's grading. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients with type 2 diabetes underwent retinal photography with Remidio 'Fundus on phone' (FOP), a smartphone-based device, at a tertiary care diabetes centre in India...
March 9, 2018: Eye
Neil Mehta, Murthy V Devarakonda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Pravin Shende, Bernice Rodrigues, R S Gaud
Transplantation is considered as one of the methods for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. There are different sorts of transplantation which improved the situation for the cure of different kinds of autoimmune diseases. Cord blood transplantation is favored over other transplant techniques. The propelled treatments incorporate interferon administrative elements and mesenchymal stromal cells for the management of immune system issue particularly in the treatment of rheumatoid joint inflammation. According to the studies conducted, it was proven that cord blood/UC mesenchymal cells along with DMARDs, without consistent organization expanded the level of administrative regulatory T-cells of the peripheral blood which might be a protected and huge technique for the treatment of patients experiencing rheumatoid joint inflammation...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Erynn S Gordon, Deepti Babu, Dawn A Laney
Smartphones, artificial intelligence, automation, digital communication, and other types of technology are playing an increasingly important role in our daily lives. It is no surprise that technology is also shaping the practice of medicine, and more specifically the practice of genetic counseling. While digital tools have been part of the practice of medical genetics for decades, such as internet- or CD-ROM-based tools like Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man and Pictures of Standard Syndromes and Undiagnosed Malformations in the 1980s, the potential for emerging tools to change how we practice and the way patients consume information is startling...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Gelayol Golkarnarenji, Minoo Naebe, Khashayar Badii, Abbas S Milani, Reza N Jazar, Hamid Khayyam
To produce high quality and low cost carbon fiber-based composites, the optimization of the production process of carbon fiber and its properties is one of the main keys. The stabilization process is the most important step in carbon fiber production that consumes a large amount of energy and its optimization can reduce the cost to a large extent. In this study, two intelligent optimization techniques, namely Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN), were studied and compared, with a limited dataset obtained to predict physical property (density) of oxidative stabilized PAN fiber (OPF) in the second zone of a stabilization oven within a carbon fiber production line...
March 5, 2018: Materials
Barış Akça, Nevzat Erdil, Mehmet Cengiz Colak, Olcay Murat Disli, Bektas Battaloglu, Cemil Colak
BACKGROUND:  We aimed to investigate the risk factors of post-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) atrial fibrillation (AF) in male and female patients without any history of AF, to identify the sex-specific risk factors, and to examine the effect of sex-specific risk factors on the overall population. METHODS:  This retrospective study was conducted using the hospital database with 4,758 patients who underwent CABG surgery. Among them, 2,836 patients with complete data participated in this study...
March 6, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Fei Jiang, Yong Jiang, Hui Zhi, Yi Dong, Hao Li, Sufeng Ma, Yilong Wang, Qiang Dong, Haipeng Shen, Yongjun Wang
Artificial intelligence (AI) aims to mimic human cognitive functions. It is bringing a paradigm shift to healthcare, powered by increasing availability of healthcare data and rapid progress of analytics techniques. We survey the current status of AI applications in healthcare and discuss its future. AI can be applied to various types of healthcare data (structured and unstructured). Popular AI techniques include machine learning methods for structured data, such as the classical support vector machine and neural network, and the modern deep learning, as well as natural language processing for unstructured data...
December 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Mengshan Li, Huaijing Zhang, Bingsheng Chen, Yan Wu, Lixin Guan
The pKa value of drugs is an important parameter in drug design and pharmacology. In this paper, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed based on the population entropy diversity. In the improved algorithm, when the population entropy was higher than the set maximum threshold, the convergence strategy was adopted; when the population entropy was lower than the set minimum threshold the divergence strategy was adopted; when the population entropy was between the maximum and minimum threshold, the self-adaptive adjustment strategy was maintained...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vedran Dunjko, Hans J Briegel
Quantum information technologies, on the one side, and intelligent learning
 systems, on the other, are both emergent technologies that will likely have a
 transforming impact on our society in the future.
 The respective underlying fields of basic research -- quantum information (QI) versus
 machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI)
 -- have their own specific questions and challenges, which have hitherto been
 investigated largely independently. However, in a growing body of recent work,
 researchers have been probing the question to what extent these fields can indeed
 learn and benefit from each other...
March 5, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
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