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artificial intelligence

Farzaneh Karimi-Alavijeh, Saeed Jalili, Masoumeh Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome...
May 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Yi Yang, Juan Wen, Liqiang Guo, Xiang Wan, Peifu Du, Ping Feng, Yi Shi, Qing Wan
Emulating neural behaviors at the synaptic level is of great significance for building neuromorphic computational systems and realizing artificial intelligence. Here, oxide-based electric-double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors were fabricated by using 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine modified graphene oxide (KH550-GO) electrolyte as the gate dielectrics. Resulting from the EDL effect and electrochemical doping between mobile protons and the indium-zinc-oxide channel layer, long-term synaptic plasticity was emulated in our devices...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Satish Kumar, Abu Rustum, Nilusha Padivitage
Afoxolaner is a new antiparasitic molecule from the isoxazoline family that acts on insect acarine γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors. Afoxolaner is a racemic mixture, which has a chiral center at the isoxazoline ring. A reversed-phase chiral HPLC method has been developed to determine the chiral purity of bulk batches of (S)-enantiomer in afoxolaner for the first time. This method can also be used to verify that afoxolaner is a racemic mixture, which was demonstrated by specific rotation. ChromSword, an artificial intelligence method development tool, was used for initial method development...
October 13, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Soumya Swaminathan, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The role of drug concentrations in clinical outcomes in children with tuberculosis is unclear. Target concentrations for dose optimization are unknown. METHODS:  Plasma drug concentrations measured in Indian children with tuberculosis were modeled using compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses. The children were followed until end of therapy to ascertain therapy failure or death. An ensemble of artificial intelligence algorithms, including random forests, was used to identify predictors of clinical outcome from among 30 clinical, laboratory, and pharmacokinetic variables...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Herbert Jaeger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Nature
Stefano Vassanelli, Mufti Mahmud
Future technologies aiming at restoring and enhancing organs function will intimately rely on near-physiological and energy-efficient communication between living and artificial biomimetic systems. Interfacing brain-inspired devices with the real brain is at the forefront of such emerging field, with the term "neurobiohybrids" indicating all those systems where such interaction is established. We argue that achieving a "high-level" communication and functional synergy between natural and artificial neuronal networks in vivo, will allow the development of a heterogeneous world of neurobiohybrids, which will include "living robots" but will also embrace "intelligent" neuroprostheses for augmentation of brain function...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M Vadiati, A Asghari-Moghaddam, M Nakhaei, J Adamowski, A H Akbarzadeh
Due to inherent uncertainties in measurement and analysis, groundwater quality assessment is a difficult task. Artificial intelligence techniques, specifically fuzzy inference systems, have proven useful in evaluating groundwater quality in uncertain and complex hydrogeological systems. In the present study, a Mamdani fuzzy-logic-based decision-making approach was developed to assess groundwater quality based on relevant indices. In an effort to develop a set of new hybrid fuzzy indices for groundwater quality assessment, a Mamdani fuzzy inference model was developed with widely-accepted groundwater quality indices: the Groundwater Quality Index (GQI), the Water Quality Index (WQI), and the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Vedran Dunjko, Jacob M Taylor, Hans J Briegel
The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Weiwei Zhang, Jingjing Lin, Honglei Jing, Qiuwen Zhang
Artificial immune system is one of the most recently introduced intelligence methods which was inspired by biological immune system. Most immune system inspired algorithms are based on the clonal selection principle, known as clonal selection algorithms (CSAs). When coping with complex optimization problems with the characteristics of multimodality, high dimension, rotation, and composition, the traditional CSAs often suffer from the premature convergence and unsatisfied accuracy. To address these concerning issues, a recombination operator inspired by the biological combinatorial recombination is proposed at first...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Hamed Asadi, Hong Kuan Kok, Seamus Looby, Paul Brennan, Alan O'Hare, John Thornton
PURPOSE: This study aims to identify factors influencing outcome in brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) treated with endovascular embolisation. We also assessed the feasibility of using machine learning techniques to prognosticate and predict outcome and compared this to conventional statistical analyses. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of BAVM over a 22-year period in a national neuroscience centre was performed...
September 28, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Michiel Hermans, Piotr Antonik, Marc Haelterman, Serge Massar
Delay-coupled electro-optical systems have received much attention for their dynamical properties and their potential use in signal processing. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated, using the artificial intelligence algorithm known as reservoir computing, that photonic implementations of such systems solve complex tasks such as speech recognition. Here, we show how the backpropagation algorithm can be physically implemented on the same electro-optical delay-coupled architecture used for computation with only minor changes to the original design...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, C Matthew Hawkins
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Twitter polls to assess public opinion regarding session content at a national specialty society meeting. METHODS: Twitter polls allow users to embed multiple-choice questions within tweets and automatically aggregate responses. Two radiologists attending the 2016 annual meeting of the ACR posted a Twitter poll containing the hashtag #ACR2016 during 10 meeting sessions addressing socioeconomics/advocacy, patient experience, and social media/informatics (20 polls total)...
September 24, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Ata Allah Nadiri, Maryam Gharekhani, Rahman Khatibi, Sina Sadeghfam, Asghar Asghari Moghaddam
This research presents a Supervised Intelligent Committee Machine (SICM) model to assess groundwater vulnerability indices of an aquifer. SICM uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to overarch three Artificial Intelligence (AI) models: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP). Each model uses the DRASTIC index, the acronym of 7 geological, hydrological and hydrogeological parameters, which collectively represents intrinsic (or natural) vulnerability and gives a sense of contaminants, such as nitrate-N, penetrating aquifers from the surface...
September 20, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Alessio Bottrighi, Paolo Terenziani
CONTEXT: Several different computer-assisted management systems of computer interpretable guidelines (CIGs) have been developed by the Artificial Intelligence in Medicine community. Each CIG system is characterized by a specific formalism to represent CIGs, and usually provides a manager to acquire, consult and execute them. Though there are several commonalities between most formalisms in the literature, each formalism has its own peculiarities. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our work is to provide a flexible support to the extension or definition of CIGs formalisms, and of their acquisition and execution engines...
September 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Miroslav B Milovanović, Dragan S Antić, Marko T Milojković, Saša S Nikolić, Staniša Lj Perić, Miodrag D Spasić
A new intelligent hybrid structure used for online tuning of a PID controller is proposed in this paper. The structure is based on two adaptive neural networks, both with built-in Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. First substructure network is a regular orthogonal neural network with implemented artificial endocrine factor (OENN), in the form of environmental stimuli, to its weights. It is used for approximation of control signals and for processing system deviation/disturbance signals which are introduced in the form of environmental stimuli...
September 5, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Alex Gillespie, Kevin Corti
This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Steven Steinhubl
Despite having the basic tools necessary to appropriately identify and manage individuals with hypertension for over half a century it remains the single greatest contributing risk factor to morbidity and mortality worldwide today. Since diagnosis and effective treatment availability are not issues, this major failing in care can be attributed to inadequate systems of care: systems that have led to only <20% of hypertensive individuals globally having their blood pressure adequately controlled. Even in the US, where it is one of the most common reasons for a primary care visit, and with over $42...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Damien Jeannerat
The introduction of a universal data format to report the correlation data of 2D NMR spectra such as COSY, HSQC and HMBC spectra will have a large impact on the reliability of structure determination of small organic molecules. These lists of assigned cross peaks will bridge signals found in NMR 1D and 2D spectra and the assigned chemical structure. The record could be very compact, human and computer readable so that it can be included in the supplementary material of publications and easily transferred into databases of scientific literature and chemical compounds...
September 18, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Connie Duer, Tom Tomasi, Charles I Abramson
Even in the best situations, the artificial social constructs of captivity alter natural elephant behavior and unfortunately create distress. Asian elephants are powerful and intelligent animals that require consideration for their well-being and prudent management. The males present particular difficulties due to a temporary state of heightened aggressive behavior unique to male elephants called "musth." When he is in this state, the danger the elephant poses to other animals and the people around him is considerable...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Reports
A Miernik, S Hein, F Adams, J Halbritter, M Schoenthaler
Urological and surgical treatment of urinary stones are highly technological and technology-driven disciplines in present-day surgery. German medical engineering has always been recognized for its technical innovations in endoscopic surgery. Current and future trends are indicative of further miniaturization and automation of surgical instruments and assist systems to facilitate endourological procedures as well as improvements in the quality of results and ergonomics. These technologies include, e. g. 3D-tracking to facilitate access to the pelvicaliceal system for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) or robotic master-slave systems for endourology...
October 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
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