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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708639/the-distribution-of-active-iron-cycling-bacteria-in-marine-and-freshwater-sediments-is-decoupled-from-geochemical-gradients
#1
Julia M Otte, Johannes Harter, Katja Laufer, Nia Blackwell, Daniel Straub, Andreas Kappler, Sara Kleindienst
Microaerophilic, phototrophic, and nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizers co-exist in coastal marine and littoral freshwater sediments. However, the in situ abundance, distribution, and diversity of metabolically active Fe(II)-oxidizers remained largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the microbial community composition at the oxic-anoxic interface of littoral freshwater (Lake Constance, Germany) and coastal marine sediments (Kalø Vig and Norsminde Fjord, Denmark) using DNA-/RNA-based next-generation 16S rRNA (gene) amplicon sequencing...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507645/overexpression-of-uhrf1-promotes-silencing-of-tumor-suppressor-genes-and-predicts-outcome-in-hepatoblastoma
#2
Alexander Beck, Franziska Trippel, Alexandra Wagner, Saskia Joppien, Max Felle, Christian Vokuhl, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Tim M Strom, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Gernot Längst, Roland Kappler
Background: Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common liver tumor of childhood and occurs predominantly within the first 3 years of life. In accordance to its early manifestation, HB has been described to display an extremely low mutation rate. As substitute, epigenetic modifiers seem to play an exceptional role in its tumorigenesis, which holds promise to develop targeted therapies and establish biomarkers for patient risk stratification. Results: We examined the role of a newly described protein complex consisting of three epigenetic regulators, namely E3 ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1), ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7), and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), in HB...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489754/the-landscape-of-genomic-alterations-across-childhood-cancers
#3
Susanne N Gröbner, Barbara C Worst, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Ivo Buchhalter, Kortine Kleinheinz, Vasilisa A Rudneva, Pascal D Johann, Gnana Prakash Balasubramanian, Maia Segura-Wang, Sebastian Brabetz, Sebastian Bender, Barbara Hutter, Dominik Sturm, Elke Pfaff, Daniel Hübschmann, Gideon Zipprich, Michael Heinold, Jürgen Eils, Christian Lawerenz, Serap Erkek, Sander Lambo, Sebastian Waszak, Claudia Blattmann, Arndt Borkhardt, Michaela Kuhlen, Angelika Eggert, Simone Fulda, Manfred Gessler, Jenny Wegert, Roland Kappler, Daniel Baumhoer, Stefan Burdach, Renate Kirschner-Schwabe, Udo Kontny, Andreas E Kulozik, Dietmar Lohmann, Simone Hettmer, Cornelia Eckert, Stefan Bielack, Michaela Nathrath, Charlotte Niemeyer, Günther H Richter, Johannes Schulte, Reiner Siebert, Frank Westermann, Jan J Molenaar, Gilles Vassal, Hendrik Witt, Birgit Burkhardt, Christian P Kratz, Olaf Witt, Cornelis M van Tilburg, Christof M Kramm, Gudrun Fleischhack, Uta Dirksen, Stefan Rutkowski, Michael Frühwald, Katja von Hoff, Stephan Wolf, Thomas Klingebiel, Ewa Koscielniak, Pablo Landgraf, Jan Koster, Adam C Resnick, Jinghui Zhang, Yanling Liu, Xin Zhou, Angela J Waanders, Danny A Zwijnenburg, Pichai Raman, Benedikt Brors, Ursula D Weber, Paul A Northcott, Kristian W Pajtler, Marcel Kool, Rosario M Piro, Jan O Korbel, Matthias Schlesner, Roland Eils, David T W Jones, Peter Lichter, Lukas Chavez, Marc Zapatka, Stefan M Pfister
Pan-cancer analyses that examine commonalities and differences among various cancer types have emerged as a powerful way to obtain novel insights into cancer biology. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of genetic alterations in a pan-cancer cohort including 961 tumours from children, adolescents, and young adults, comprising 24 distinct molecular types of cancer. Using a standardized workflow, we identified marked differences in terms of mutation frequency and significantly mutated genes in comparison to previously analysed adult cancers...
March 15, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465223/magnetite-and-green-rust-synthesis-properties-and-environmental-applications-of-mixed-valent-iron-minerals
#4
M Usman, J M Byrne, A Chaudhary, S Orsetti, K Hanna, C Ruby, A Kappler, S B Haderlein
Mixed-valent iron [Fe(II)-Fe(III)] minerals such as magnetite and green rust have received a significant amount of attention over recent decades, especially in the environmental sciences. These mineral phases are intrinsic and essential parts of biogeochemical cycling of metals and organic carbon and play an important role regarding the mobility, toxicity, and redox transformation of organic and inorganic pollutants. The formation pathways, mineral properties, and applications of magnetite and green rust are currently active areas of research in geochemistry, environmental mineralogy, geomicrobiology, material sciences, environmental engineering, and environmental remediation...
April 11, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314711/mir-492-regulates-metastatic-properties-of-hepatoblastoma-via-cd44
#5
Julia von Frowein, Stefanie M Hauck, Roland Kappler, Philipp Pagel, Katrin K Fleischmann, Thomas Magg, Stefano Cairo, Adelbert Roscher, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Irene Schmid
BACKGROUND & AIMS: MicroRNAs are important genetic regulators of physiological and pathophysiological processes including cancer initiation and progression of hepatoblastoma, the most common liver tumour in childhood. We aimed to identify malignant and metastasis promoting effects of miR-492, a miRNA, previously reported to be overexpressed in metastatic hepatoblastoma. Furthermore, we intended to evaluate its diagnostic and prognostic potential. METHODS: Stable and transient overexpression of miR-492 in two liver tumour cell lines HepT1 and HUH7 was used to analyse features of metastatic tumour progression such as proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion...
January 3, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188837/synthesis-spectroscopic-characterisation-and-transmetalation-of-lithium-and-potassium-diaminophosphanide-boranes
#6
M Blum, J Kappler, S H Schlindwein, M Nieger, D Gudat
A secondary diaminophosphane-borane (Et2 N)2 PH(BH3 ) was prepared from a chlorophosphane precursor and LiBH4 and metalated by reaction with anion bases (n-BuLi, KN(SiMe3 )2 ) to yield the corresponding metal diaminophosphanide-boranes [(Et2 N)2 P(BH3 )]M (M = Li, K). Multinuclear NMR studies permitted the first spectroscopic characterisation of the metalation products and revealed the presence of monomeric (for M = Li) contact ion pairs in solution. NMR spectroscopic evidence that the ions in each pair interact via LiP- rather than LiH3 B-interactions as had been inferred for a Ph-substituted analogue was confirmed by DFT studies, which revealed also that the borane coordination plays a decisive role in boosting the PH-acidity of the original secondary diaminophosphane precursor...
December 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982793/photon-counting-ct-of-the-brain-in-vivo-human-results-and-image-quality-assessment
#7
A Pourmorteza, R Symons, D S Reich, M Bagheri, T E Cork, S Kappler, S Ulzheimer, D A Bluemke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Photon-counting detectors offer the potential for improved image quality for brain CT but have not yet been evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to compare photon-counting detector CT with conventional energy-integrating detector CT for human brains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiation dose-matched energy-integrating detector and photon-counting detector head CT scans were acquired with standardized protocols (tube voltage/current, 120 kV(peak)/370 mAs) in both an anthropomorphic head phantom and 21 human asymptomatic volunteers (mean age, 58...
December 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943700/dual-energy-ct-kidney-stone-differentiation-in-photon-counting-computed-tomography
#8
R Gutjahr, C Polster, A Henning, S Kappler, S Leng, C H McCollough, M U Sedlmair, B Schmidt, B Krauss, T G Flohr
This study evaluates the capabilities of a whole-body photon counting CT system to differentiate between four common kidney stone materials, namely uric acid (UA), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), cystine (CYS),and apatite (APA) ex vivo . Two different x-ray spectra (120 kV and 140 kV) were applied and two acquisition modes were investigated; The macro-mode generates two energy threshold based image-volumes and two energy bin based image-volumes. In the chesspattern-mode, however, four energy thresholds are applied...
March 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753389/feasibility-of-dose-reduced-chest-ct-with-photon-counting-detectors-initial-results-in-humans
#9
Rolf Symons, Amir Pourmorteza, Veit Sandfort, Mark A Ahlman, Tracy Cropper, Marissa Mallek, Steffen Kappler, Stefan Ulzheimer, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Elizabeth C Jones, Ashkan A Malayeri, Les R Folio, David A Bluemke
Purpose To investigate whether photon-counting detector (PCD) technology can improve dose-reduced chest computed tomography (CT) image quality compared with that attained with conventional energy-integrating detector (EID) technology in vivo. Materials and Methods This was a HIPAA-compliant institutional review board-approved study, with informed consent from patients. Dose-reduced spiral unenhanced lung EID and PCD CT examinations were performed in 30 asymptomatic volunteers in accordance with manufacturer-recommended guidelines for CT lung cancer screening (120-kVp tube voltage, 20-mAs reference tube current-time product for both detectors)...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695710/current-and-future-microbiological-strategies-to-remove-as-and-cd-from-drinking-water
#10
James M Byrne, Andreas Kappler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615129/the-domestic-cat-antibody-response-to-feline-herpesvirus-1-increases-with-age
#11
Michael W Munks, Alana M Montoya, Cameron M Pywell, Garrick Talmage, Anna Forssen, Teresa L Campbell, Donald D Dodge, John W Kappler, Philippa Marrack
Herpesviruses establish lifelong infections, normally characterized by prolonged periods of latency with intermittent episodes of viral reactivation. Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infects domestic cats, and epidemiological studies indicate that many or most domestic cats are exposed to FHV-1, but the strength and longevity of the antibody response to FHV-1 is not fully characterized. Here we describe development of an ELISA, using lysates of cat cells infected with FHV-1, that measure feline antibodies against FHV-1...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455336/insights-into-nitrate-reducing-fe-ii-oxidation-mechanisms-through-analysis-of-cell-mineral-associations-cell-encrustation-and-mineralogy-in-the-chemolithoautotrophic-enrichment-culture-ks
#12
M Nordhoff, C Tominski, M Halama, J M Byrne, M Obst, S Kleindienst, S Behrens, A Kappler
Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans ) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions...
July 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431154/physiological-characterization-of-a-halotolerant-anoxygenic-phototrophic-fe-ii-oxidizing-green-sulfur-bacterium-isolated-from-a-marine-sediment
#13
Katja Laufer, Annika Niemeyer, Verena Nikeleit, Maximilian Halama, James M Byrne, Andreas Kappler
Anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacteria which use light energy and electrons from Fe(II) for growth, so-called photoferrotrophs, are suggested to have been amongst the first phototrophic microorganisms on Earth and to have contributed to the deposition of sedimentary iron mineral deposits, i.e. banded iron formations. To date only two isolates of marine photoferrotrophic bacteria exist, both of which are closely related purple non-sulfur bacteria. Here we present a novel green-sulfur photoautotrophic Fe(II) oxidizer isolated from a marine coastal sediment, Chlorobium sp...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240602/b-cells-expressing-the-transcription-factor-t-bet-drive-lupus-like-autoimmunity
#14
Kira Rubtsova, Anatoly V Rubtsov, Joshua M Thurman, Johanna M Mennona, John W Kappler, Philippa Marrack
B cells contribute to multiple aspects of autoimmune disorders and may play a role in triggering disease. Thus, targeting B cells may be a promising strategy for treating autoimmune disorders. Better understanding of the B cell subsets that are responsible for the development of autoimmunity will be critical for developing efficient therapies. Here we have reported that B cells expressing the transcription factor T-bet promote the rapid appearance of autoantibodies and germinal centers in spontaneous murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199354/nitrate-capture-and-slow-release-in-biochar-amended-compost-and-soil
#15
Nikolas Hagemann, Claudia I Kammann, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Slow release of nitrate by charred organic matter used as a soil amendment (i.e. biochar) was recently suggested as potential mechanism of nutrient delivery to plants which may explain some agronomic benefits of biochar. So far, isolated soil-aged and composted biochar particles were shown to release considerable amounts of nitrate only in extended (>1 h) extractions ("slow release"). In this study, we quantified nitrate and ammonium release by biochar-amended soil and compost during up to 167 h of repeated extractions in up to six consecutive steps to determine the effect of biochar on the overall mineral nitrogen retention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168833/childhood-cancer-predisposition-syndromes-a-concise-review-and-recommendations-by-the-cancer-predisposition-working-group-of-the-society-for-pediatric-oncology-and-hematology
#16
REVIEW
Tim Ripperger, Stefan S Bielack, Arndt Borkhardt, Ines B Brecht, Birgit Burkhardt, Gabriele Calaminus, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Hedwig Deubzer, Uta Dirksen, Cornelia Eckert, Angelika Eggert, Miriam Erlacher, Gudrun Fleischhack, Michael C Frühwald, Astrid Gnekow, Gudrun Goehring, Norbert Graf, Helmut Hanenberg, Julia Hauer, Barbara Hero, Simone Hettmer, Katja von Hoff, Martin Horstmann, Juliane Hoyer, Thomas Illig, Peter Kaatsch, Roland Kappler, Kornelius Kerl, Thomas Klingebiel, Udo Kontny, Uwe Kordes, Dieter Körholz, Ewa Koscielniak, Christof M Kramm, Michaela Kuhlen, Andreas E Kulozik, Britta Lamottke, Ivo Leuschner, Dietmar R Lohmann, Andrea Meinhardt, Markus Metzler, Lüder H Meyer, Olga Moser, Michaela Nathrath, Charlotte M Niemeyer, Rainer Nustede, Kristian W Pajtler, Claudia Paret, Mareike Rasche, Dirk Reinhardt, Olaf Rieß, Alexandra Russo, Stefan Rutkowski, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Dominik Schneider, Reinhard Schneppenheim, Martin Schrappe, Christopher Schroeder, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Thorsten Simon, Monika Sparber-Sauer, Claudia Spix, Martin Stanulla, Doris Steinemann, Brigitte Strahm, Petra Temming, Kathrin Thomay, Andre O von Bueren, Peter Vorwerk, Olaf Witt, Marcin Wlodarski, Willy Wössmann, Martin Zenker, Stefanie Zimmermann, Stefan M Pfister, Christian P Kratz
Heritable predisposition is an important cause of cancer in children and adolescents. Although a large number of cancer predisposition genes and their associated syndromes and malignancies have already been described, it appears likely that there are more pediatric cancer patients in whom heritable cancer predisposition syndromes have yet to be recognized. In a consensus meeting in the beginning of 2016, we convened experts in Human Genetics and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology to review the available data, to categorize the large amount of information, and to develop recommendations regarding when a cancer predisposition syndrome should be suspected in a young oncology patient...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159791/microaerophilic-fe-ii-oxidizing-zetaproteobacteria-isolated-from-low-fe-marine-coastal-sediments-physiology-and-composition-of-their-twisted-stalks
#17
K Laufer, M Nordhoff, M Halama, R E Martinez, M Obst, M Nowak, H Stryhanyuk, H H Richnow, A Kappler
Microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers are commonly found in habitats containing elevated Fe(II) and low O2 concentrations and often produce characteristic Fe mineral structures, so-called twisted stalks or tubular sheaths. Isolates originating from freshwater habitats are all members of the Betaproteobacteria , while isolates from marine habitats belong almost exclusively to the Zetaproteobacteria So far, only a few isolates of marine microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers have been described, all of which are obligate microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers and have been thought to be restricted to Fe-rich systems...
April 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933034/a-novel-molybdenum-containing-methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-supports-survival-of-haemophilus-influenzae-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-infection
#18
Rabeb Dhouib, Dk Seti Maimonah Pg Othman, Victor Lin, Xuanjie J Lai, Hewa G S Wijesinghe, Ama-Tawiah Essilfie, Amanda Davis, Marufa Nasreen, Paul V Bernhardt, Philip M Hansbro, Alastair G McEwan, Ulrike Kappler
Haemophilus influenzae is a host adapted human mucosal pathogen involved in a variety of acute and chronic respiratory tract infections, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, all of which rely on its ability to efficiently establish continuing interactions with the host. Here we report the characterization of a novel molybdenum enzyme, TorZ/MtsZ that supports interactions of H. influenzae with host cells during growth in oxygen-limited environments. Strains lacking TorZ/MtsZ showed a reduced ability to survive in contact with epithelial cells as shown by immunofluorescence microscopy and adherence/invasion assays...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824887/the-bacteriohopanepolyol-inventory-of-novel-aerobic-methane-oxidising-bacteria-reveals-new-biomarker-signatures-of-aerobic-methanotrophy-in-marine-systems
#19
Darci Rush, Kate A Osborne, Daniel Birgel, Andreas Kappler, Hisako Hirayama, Jörn Peckmann, Simon W Poulton, Julia C Nickel, Kai Mangelsdorf, Marina Kalyuzhnaya, Frances R Sidgwick, Helen M Talbot
Aerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is one of the primary biologic pathways regulating the amount of methane (CH4) released into the environment. AMO acts as a sink of CH4, converting it into carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. It is of interest for (paleo)climate and carbon cycling studies to identify lipid biomarkers that can be used to trace AMO events, especially at times when the role of methane in the carbon cycle was more pronounced than today. AMO bacteria are known to synthesise bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP) lipids...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760342/antiviral-cd8-t-cells-restricted-by-human-leukocyte-antigen-class-ii-exist-during-natural-hiv-infection-and-exhibit-clonal-expansion
#20
Srinika Ranasinghe, Pedro A Lamothe, Damien Z Soghoian, Samuel W Kazer, Michael B Cole, Alex K Shalek, Nir Yosef, R Brad Jones, Faith Donaghey, Chioma Nwonu, Priya Jani, Gina M Clayton, Frances Crawford, Janice White, Alana Montoya, Karen Power, Todd M Allen, Hendrik Streeck, Daniel E Kaufmann, Louis J Picker, John W Kappler, Bruce D Walker
CD8+ T cell recognition of virus-infected cells is characteristically restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, although rare examples of MHC class II restriction have been reported in Cd4-deficient mice and a macaque SIV vaccine trial using a recombinant cytomegalovirus vector. Here, we demonstrate the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD8+ T cell responses with antiviral properties in a small subset of HIV-infected individuals. In these individuals, T cell receptor β (TCRβ) analysis revealed that class II-restricted CD8+ T cells underwent clonal expansion and mediated killing of HIV-infected cells...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
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