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Tests antisocial personality disorder

Flor A Espinoza, Victor M Vergara, Daisy Reyes, Nathaniel E Anderson, Carla L Harenski, Jean Decety, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Barnaly Rashid, Robyn L Miller, Michael Koenigs, David S Kosson, Keith Harenski, Kent A Kiehl, Vince D Calhoun
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior, lack of remorse and empathy, and impaired decision making. The disproportionate amount of crime committed by psychopaths has severe emotional and economic impacts on society. Here we examine the neural correlates associated with psychopathy to improve early assessment and perhaps inform treatments for this condition. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in psychopathy have primarily focused on regions of interest...
March 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ela Polek, Peter B Jones, Pasco Fearon, Jeannette Brodbeck, Michael Moutoussis, Nspn Consortium, Ray Dolan, Peter Fonagy, Edward T Bullmore, Ian M Goodyer
BACKGROUND: Personality with stable behavioural traits emerges in the adolescent and young adult years. Models of putatively distinct, but correlated, personality traits have been developed to describe behavioural styles including schizotypal, narcissistic, callous-unemotional, negative emotionality, antisocial and impulsivity traits. These traits have influenced the classification of their related personality disorders. We tested if a bifactor model fits the data better than correlated-factor and orthogonal-factor models and subsequently validated the obtained factors with mental health measures and treatment history...
January 26, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Nathan A Gillespie, Steven H Aggen, Amanda E Gentry, Michael C Neale, Gun P Knudsen, Robert F Krueger, Susan C South, Nikolai Czajkowski, Ragnar Nesvåg, Eivind Ystrom, Tom H Rosenström, Fartein A Torvik, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Kenneth S Kendler
Until now, data have not been available to elucidate the genetic and environmental sources of comorbidity between all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) and cocaine use. Our aim was to determine which PD traits are linked phenotypically and genetically to cocaine use. Cross-sectional data were obtained in a face-to-face interview between 1999 and 2004. Subjects were 1,419 twins (µage = 28.2 years, range = 19-36) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel, with complete lifetime cocaine use and criteria for all 10 DSM-IV PDs...
February 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Benjamin B Lahey, Quetzal A Class, David H Zald, Paul J Rathouz, Brooks Applegate, Irwin D Waldman
BACKGROUND: The developmental propensity model of antisocial behavior posits that several dispositional characteristics of children transact with the environment to influence the likelihood of learning antisocial behavior across development. Specifically, greater dispositional negative emotionality, greater daring, and lower prosociality-operationally, the inverse of callousness- and lower cognitive abilities are each predicted to increase risk for developing antisocial behavior. METHODS: Prospective tests of key predictions derived from the model were conducted in a high-risk sample of 499 twins who were assessed on dispositions at 10-17 years of age and assessed for antisocial personality disorder (APD) symptoms at 22-31 years of age...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Joshua D Miller, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Chelsea E Sleep, Donald R Lynam
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) introduced a psychopathy specifier (DSM-5 PS) as part of the Section III diagnostic model of antisocial personality disorder. Designed to capture the construct of fearless dominance/boldness, the DSM-5 PS is assessed on the basis of the presence of low scores on traits of withdrawal and anxiousness, and high scores on attention seeking. These constructs have garnered attention in the past decade but are the subject of substantial debate as to their role in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy, given their limited relations to the maladaptive outcomes typically associated with this personality disorder...
November 13, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Mark Olfson, Carlos Blanco, Melanie Wall, Shang-Min Liu, Tulshi D Saha, Roger P Pickering, Bridget F Grant
Importance: A recent increase in suicide in the United States has raised public and clinical interest in determining whether a coincident national increase in suicide attempts has occurred and in characterizing trends in suicide attempts among sociodemographic and clinical groups. Objective: To describe trends in recent suicide attempts in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data came from the 2004-2005 wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and the 2012-2013 NESARC-III...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
G Maniaci, C La Cascia, F Picone, A Lipari, C Cannizzaro, D La Barbera
Several treatment options for gambling disorder (GD) have been tested in recent years; however dropout levels still remain high. This study aims to evaluate whether the presence of psychiatric comorbidities predicts treatment outcome according to Millon's evolutionary theory, following a six-month therapy for GD. The role of severity, duration of the disorder, typology of gambling (mainly online or offline) and pharmacological treatment were also analysed. The recruitment included 194 pathological gamblers (PGs) to be compared with 78 healthy controls (HCs)...
August 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Laura W Wesseldijk, Meike Bartels, Jacqueline M Vink, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Lannie Ligthart, Dorret I Boomsma, Christel M Middeldorp
Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors on variation in conduct problems measured at childhood and adolescence and antisocial personality problems measured at adulthood and on the covariation across ages. We also tested whether these estimates differed by sex...
June 21, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A psychometric investigation of gender differences and common processes across borderline and antisocial personality disorders" by Seokjoon Chun, Alexa Harris, Margely Carrion, Elizabeth Rojas, Stephen Stark, Carl Lejuez, William V. Lechner and Marina A. Bornovalova (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2017[Jan], Vol 126[1], 76-88). In the original record, there were two errors in the article's suppemental material. The supplemental material stated, "In each case, if the relaxed model fit significantly better than the baseline model (i...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alper Evrensel, Barış Önen Ünsalver, Aytekin Özşahin
INTRODUCTION: Aggression is one of the leading clinical characteristics of antisocial personality disorder (APD). Studies aiming to clarify and control the biological basis of aggression are ongoing. Thyroid hormones have been indicated to play a role in the development of aggression. The aim of this study was to examine the level of aggression and serum thyroid hormone in a sample of APD and to make contributions to this field with the current findings. METHODS: The sample consisted of 96 subjects with a diagnosis of APD and 97 subjects as a control group...
June 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
Boris B Quednow, Lea M Hulka, Katrin H Preller, Markus R Baumgartner, Christoph Eisenegger, Matthias Vonmoos
Chronic cocaine use has been associated with impairments in social cognition, self-serving and antisocial behavior, and socially relevant personality disorders (PD). Despite the apparent relationship between Machiavellianism and stimulant use, no study has explicitly examined this personality concept in cocaine users so far. In the frame of the longitudinal Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, the Machiavellianism Questionnaire (MACH-IV) was assessed in 68 recreational and 30 dependent cocaine users as well as in 68 psychostimulant-naïve controls at baseline...
2017: PloS One
Renata Basso Cupertino, Jaqueline Bohrer Schuch, Cibele Edom Bandeira, Bruna Santos da Silva, Diego Luiz Rovaris, Djenifer B Kappel, Verônica Contini, Angélica Salatino-Oliveira, Eduardo Schneider Vitola, Rafael Gomes Karam, Mara Helena Hutz, Luis Augusto Rohde, Eugenio Horacio Grevet, Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau, Nina Roth Mota
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder, affecting both children and adults. The Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor Attachment REceptors (SNARE) complex has been implicated in ADHD pathophysiology since it is a key component of neurotransmitter release events and neurodevelopment processes, and SNPs in this complex have been associated with ADHD. Here we aim to analyze the effects of SNARE complex variants on ADHD susceptibility and its clinical heterogeneity in affected adults...
March 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Antonietta Curci, Emanuela Soleti, Amelia Manuti
We present preliminary data on the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in mediating the relationship between psychopathy and detention term of authors of property crimes. We assumed that the detention term is an approximation of the severity of criminal behavior. A sample of 24 property offenders were individually administered a brief anamnestic interview, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Information concerning the detention term was obtained from prison records...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Max Karukivi, Tero Vahlberg, Kalle Horjamo, Minna Nevalainen, Jyrki Korkeila
BACKGROUND: Current categorical classification of personality disorders has been criticized for overlooking the dimensional nature of personality and that it may miss some sub-threshold personality disturbances of clinical significance. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of these conditions. For this, we used a simple four-level dimensional categorization based on the severity of personality disturbance. METHODS: The sample consisted of 352 patients admitted to mental health services...
January 14, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Nerea Palomares, Antonia McMaster, Marina Díaz-Marsá, Irene de la Vega, Ana Montes, José Luis Carrasco
BACKGROUND: Current literature suggests that personality disorder comorbidity negatively contributes to both the severity and prognosis of other disorders; however, little literature has been devoted to its influence on borderline personality disorder (BPD). The objective of the present work is to study comorbidity with other personality disorders in a severe clinical sample of patients with BPD, and its relationship with global functionality. METHODS: A sample of 65 patients with severe borderline personality disorder was included in the study...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
Deepak Gauba, Pramod Thomas, Yatan P S Balhara, Smita N Deshpande
AIM: To examine the prevalence and pattern of comorbidity in alcohol dependence and its relationship with physical and laboratory findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty males with alcohol dependence were examined using the Hindi version of Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, the International Classification of Disease-10(th) Edition Personality Disorder Examination, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test for alcohol use, global assessment of functioning, blood sampling electrocardiogram, and ultrasonogram...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Seokjoon Chun, Alexa Harris, Margely Carrion, Elizabeth Rojas, Stephen Stark, Carl Lejuez, William V Lechner, Marina A Bornovalova
The comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the 2 disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in women and ASPD in men. We investigated if (a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to 2 discrete disorders or the expression of common underlying processes, and (b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1,400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested 3 competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single common factor, 2 correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors...
January 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Ana Seara-Cardoso, Catherine L Sebastian, Eamon McCrory, Lucy Foulkes, Marine Buon, Jonathan P Roiser, Essi Viding
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterised by atypical moral behaviour likely rooted in atypical affective/motivational processing, as opposed to an inability to judge the wrongness of an action. Guilt is a moral emotion believed to play a crucial role in adherence to moral and social norms, but the mechanisms by which guilt (or lack thereof) may influence behaviour in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits are unclear. We measured neural responses during the anticipation of guilt about committing potential everyday moral transgressions, and tested the extent to which these varied with psychopathic traits...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marijn Lijffijt, Scott D Lane, Sanjay J Mathew, Matthew S Stanford, Alan C Swann
We tested whether enhanced stimulus orienting operationalized as N1 and P2 auditory evoked potentials to increasing loudness (50-90 dB clicks) could be associated with trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS-11), impulsive action (commission error on the Immediate Memory Task), or impulsive choice (immediate responses on temporal discounting tasks). We measured N1 and P2 loudness sensitivity in a passive listening task as linear intensity-sensitivity slopes in 36 men with antisocial personality disorder with a history of conviction for criminal conduct and 16 healthy control men...
September 23, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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