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Cloninger, personality

Lucas Giner, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Diego De La Vega, Philippe Courtet
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria)...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Erik Monasterio, Omer Mei-Dan, Anthony C Hackney, Amy R Lane, Igor Zwir, Sandor Rozsa, C Robert Cloninger
This is the first report of the psychobiology of stress in BASE jumpers, one of the most dangerous forms of extreme sport. We tested the hypotheses that indicators of emotional style (temperament) predict salivary cortisol reactivity, whereas indicators of intentional goal-setting (persistence and character) predict salivary alpha-amylase reactivity during BASE jumping. Ninety-eight subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) the day before the jump, and 77 also gave salivary samples at baseline, pre-jump on the bridge over the New River Gorge, and post-jump upon landing...
September 29, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Martin Sievert, Igor Zwir, Kevin M Cloninger, Nigel Lester, Sandor Rozsa, C Robert Cloninger
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors influence the decision to enter a career in medicine and choose a specialty. Previous studies have looked at personality differences in medicine but often were unable to describe the heterogeneity that exists within each specialty. Our study used a person-centered approach to characterize the complex relations between the personality profiles of resident physicians and their choice of specialty. METHODS: 169 resident physicians at a large Midwestern US training hospital completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)...
2016: PeerJ
Diann S Eley, Caroline Laurence, Michael David, C Robert Cloninger, Lucie Walters
OBJECTIVE: Despite increases in Commonwealth funded general practice (GP) Registrar training positions, workforce trends continue to show geographical maldistribution. This study aimed to identify Registrar attributes which describe a cohort choosing to work in rural practice. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-report questionnaire for socio-demographics, prior training, current training pathway, measures of personality and resilience. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: GP Registrars (N = 452) training in either the general or rural pathways of three Registered Training Providers in three states, or training through the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine's independent pathway...
September 7, 2016: Australian Journal of Rural Health
So Hyeon Park, Hyun Soo Park, Sang Eun Kim
Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Ute Lewitzka, Sebastian Denzin, Cathrin Sauer, Michael Bauer, Burkhard Jabs
BACKGROUND: Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. METHODS: We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Diann S Eley, Janni Leung, Barry A Hong, Kevin M Cloninger, C Robert Cloninger
PURPOSE: There is a high prevalence of stress, depression, and burn-out in medical students. Medical students differ widely in personality traits, self-perceptions, and values that may have an impact on their well-being. This study aimed to investigate variability in their personality profiles in relation to their potential for well-being and resilience. METHOD: Participants were 808 medical students from The University of Queensland. An online questionnaire collected socio-demographics and the Temperament and Character Inventory to assess personality traits...
2016: PloS One
José Juan Ávila Escribano, Mercedes Sánchez Barba, Aida Álvarez Pedrero, Ana López Villarreal, Joaquina Recio Pérez, Manuela Rodríguez Rodilla, Eulalia Fraile García
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the ability to predict the outcome of alcohol use disorders through Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI-R). METHODS: this is a prospective study consisting of 237 outpatients with alcohol use disorders who underwent follow-up treatment for 6 months and whose personality traits were studied using TCI-R. At the end of that period, the scores of each TCI-R trait were analyzed in terms of those who remained in treatment and those who dropped out...
2016: Adicciones
Ana Matošić, Srđan Marušić, Branka Vidrih, Ana Kovak-Mufić, Lipa Cicin-Šain
Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Naho Morisaki, Takeo Fujiwara, Reiko Horikawa
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of parental personality on birth outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 727 pregnant women and 579 spouses receiving antenatal care at a single-center in rural Tokyo, Japan during 2010-2013. METHODS: We measured the association between maternal effect of parental personality traits assessed by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory on birth outcomes, using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics...
2016: PloS One
Anton Aluja, Luis F García, Óscar García, Eduardo Blanco
The relationship among testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and personality were studied in a sample of 105 healthy males (26.71±9.68years old). The possible effects of age and other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (ALB) were controlled. Personality was assessed by the novelty seeking scale of Cloninger's Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI), and a reduced version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ)...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Soo Jin Lee, Soo Hyun Park, Han Chae
Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in relation to Carver and White's Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale and Cloninger's temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%), middle (40%), and low (30%) groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger's temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex...
2016: PeerJ
Bahman Salehi, Nader Zarinfar, Hasan Noori
This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of <0...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Liliana Galindo, Francisco Pastoriza, Daniel Bergé, Anna Mané, Marisol Picado, Antonio Bulbena, Patricia Robledo, Victor Pérez, Oscar Vilarroya, Claude Robert Cloninger
The heritability of schizophrenia and most personality traits has been well established, but the role of personality in susceptibility to schizophrenia remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to test for an association between personality traits and Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), a well-known biological marker of schizophrenia, in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. For this purpose, we evaluated the NSS scale and personality measured by the Temperament and Character inventory (TCI-R) in three groups of subjects: 29 patients with schizophrenia, 24 unaffected relatives and 37 controls...
2016: PeerJ
Shan H Siddiqi, Ravikumar Chockalingam, C Robert Cloninger, Eric J Lenze, Pilar Cristancho
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in predicting antidepressant response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). BACKGROUND: Although rTMS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is an established antidepressant treatment, little is known about predictors of response. The TCI measures multiple personality dimensions (harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, self-transcendence, and cooperativeness), some of which have predicted response to pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy...
May 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Stella G Giakoumaki, Leda Karagiannopoulou, Sándor Rózsa, Chrysoula Zouraraki, Penny Karamaouna, C Robert Cloninger
Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) measures Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method...
2016: PeerJ
Danilo Garcia, Patricia Rosenberg
Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people's malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument) rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument)...
2016: PeerJ
Bahareh Amirabadi, Mohammad Nikbakht, Mostafa Nokani, Neda Alibeygi, Hadi Safari
BACKGROUND: According to drug gateway theory, smoking cigarettes, especially, low onset age of smoking, is one of the risk factors for future use. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to compare nicotine and opiate addicts to identify the differences in personality traits and onset age of smoking in the two groups that cause some individuals to appeal to other substances after starting to use cigarettes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two groups of opiate and nicotine addicts were randomly selected...
December 2015: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
R Kosif, N Konuk
UNLABELLED: Career psychologists have argued that the career choice and personality interfere with each other. There have been lots of investigations aimed at seeking the relationships between career interests and personality characteristics. There is limited knowledge on personality profiles of the anatomists and on how they are related with their specialty choices. AIM: In this research we aimed to explore the relationship between personality and career interests of anatomists...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Leonardo Zaninotto, Marco Solmi, Tommaso Toffanin, Nicola Veronese, C Robert Cloninger, Christoph U Correll
BACKGROUND: Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality has been extensively applied to subjects affected by mood disorders (MOOD). However, most studies are widely heterogeneous in terms of sample size, methods of assessment, and selection of participants. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature and a random effects meta-analysis of studies comparing at least two of the following groups: (a) adults with a primary MOOD diagnosis (Bipolar Disorder (BP) or major depressive disorder (MDD)), (b) their unaffected siblings (SIB) or (c) healthy subjects (HS), and reporting quantitative results from the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) or the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)...
April 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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