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Evolution and tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116641/mathematical-models-for-the-epidemiology-and-evolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Jūlija Pečerska, James Wood, Mark M Tanaka, Tanja Stadler
This chapter reviews the use of mathematical and computational models to facilitate understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. First, we introduce general epidemiological models, and describe their use with respect to epidemiological dynamics of a single strain and of multiple strains of M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss multi-strain models that include drug sensitivity and drug resistance. Second, we describe models for the evolution of M. tuberculosis within and between hosts, and how the resulting diversity of strains can be assessed by considering the evolutionary relationships among different strains...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116640/strain-diversity-and-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#2
Sonia Borrell, Andrej Trauner
Drug resistance is best thought of as an ongoing biological process. Resistant bacteria must emerge, become established and ultimately transmit in order to be relevant to human health. In this context, genetic diversity can influence the rate and likelihood of resistance emerging; it can also modulate the net physiological impact of resistance and the propensity of an organism to improve any defects that arise from it. Combined, these effects can have an impact on a larger scale, with highly transmissible drug-resistant bacterial strains posing a formidable threat to global health...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116639/dna-replication-fidelity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#3
Digby F Warner, Jeremy M Rock, Sarah M Fortune, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is genetically isolated, with no evidence for horizontal gene transfer or the acquisition of episomal genetic information in the modern evolution of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. When considered in the context of the specific features of the disease M. tuberculosis causes (e.g., transmission via cough aerosol, replication within professional phagocytes, subclinical persistence, and stimulation of a destructive immune pathology), this implies that to understand the mechanisms ensuring preservation of genomic integrity in infecting mycobacterial populations is to understand the source of genetic variation, including the emergence of microdiverse sub-populations that may be linked to the acquisition of drug resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116638/evolution-of-phenotypic-and-molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing
#4
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Enrico Tortoli
Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) is an emerging problem world-wide. In order to control the disease and decrease the number of cases overtime a prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment should be provided to patients. Phenotypic DST based on liquid automated culture has greatly reduced the time needed to generate reliable data but has the drawback to be expensive and prone to contamination in the absence of appropriate infrastructures. In the past 10 years molecular biology tools have been developed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116633/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-members-adapted-to-wild-and-domestic-animals
#5
Kerri M Malone, Stephen V Gordon
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is composed of several highly genetically related species that can be broadly classified into those that are human-host adapted and those that possess the ability to propagate and transmit in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. Since the initial description of the bovine tubercle bacillus, now known as Mycobacterium bovis, by Theobald Smith in the late 1800's, isolates originating from a wide range of animal hosts have been identified and characterized as M...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#6
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116628/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-canettii
#7
Philip Supply, Roland Brosch
Genome-based insights into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria are constantly increasing. In particular, the recent genomic and functional characterization of several Myocbacterium canettii strains, which are thought to resemble in many aspects the putative common ancestor of the members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), has consolidated a plausible scenario of the early evolution of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, in which the clonal MTBC, comprising numerous key pathogens of mammalian hosts, has evolved from a generalist mycobacterium living in the environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116627/the-nature-and-evolution-of-genomic-diversity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#8
Daniela Brites, Sebastien Gagneux
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) consists of a clonal group of several mycobacterial lineages pathogenic to a range of different mammalian hosts. In this chapter, we discuss the origins and the evolutionary forces shaping the genomic diversity of the human-adapted MTBC. Advances in whole-genome sequencing have brought invaluable insights into the macro-evolution of the MTBC, and the biogeographical distribution of the different MTBC lineages, the phylogenetic relationships between these lineages...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116026/the-c3heb-fej-mouse-model-recapitulates-the-hallmark-of-bovine-tuberculosis-lung-lesions-following-mycobacterium-bovis-aerogenous-infection
#9
Mélodie Bouté, Florence Carreras, Christelle Rossignol, Emilie Doz, Nathalie Winter, Mathieu Epardaud
Achieving the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would require the discovery of an efficient combined immunodiagnostic and vaccine strategy. Since in vivo experiments on cattle are not ethically and economically acceptable there is a need for a cost-effective animal model capable of reproducing, as closely as possible, the physiopathology of bTB to (i) better characterize the cellular and molecular features of bTB immunopathogenesis and (ii) screen preclinical vaccine candidates. To develop such a model, we focused on the C3HeB/FeJ Kramnik's mouse forming hypoxic, encapsulated granulomas with a caseous necrotic center following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114057/directed-evolution-of-secb-chaperones-toward-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#10
Ambre Julie Sala, Patricia Bordes, Sara Ayala, Nawel Slama, Samuel Tranier, Michèle Coddeville, Anne-Marie Cirinesi, Marie-Pierre Castanié-Cornet, Lionel Mourey, Pierre Genevaux
SecB chaperones assist protein export in bacteria. However, certain SecB family members have diverged to become specialized toward the control of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems known to promote bacterial adaptation to stress and persistence. In such tripartite TA-chaperone (TAC) systems, the chaperone was shown to assist folding and to prevent degradation of its cognate antitoxin, thus facilitating inhibition of the toxin. Here, we used both the export chaperone SecB of Escherichia coli and the tripartite TAC system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a model to investigate how generic chaperones can specialize toward the control of TA systems...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097168/synthesis-and-biological-evolution-of-hydrazones-derived-from-4-trifluoromethyl-benzohydrazide
#11
Martin Krátký, Szilvia Bősze, Zsuzsa Baranyai, Jiřina Stolaříková, Jarmila Vinšová
Reflecting the known biological activity of isoniazid-based hydrazones, seventeen hydrazones of 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzohydrazide as their bioisosters were synthesized from various benzaldehydes and aliphatic ketones. The compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. avium, M. kansasii), bacterial and fungal strains. The most antimicrobial potent derivatives were also investigated for their cytostatic and cytotoxic properties against three cell lines...
October 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075131/diversity-and-evolution-of-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Mashael Al-Saeedi, Sahal Al-Hajoj
Despite the efficacy of antibiotics to protect humankind against many deadly pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nothing can prevent the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Several mechanisms facilitate drug resistance in M. tuberculosis including compensatory evolution, epistasis, clonal interference, cell wall integrity, efflux pumps, and target mimicry. In this study, we present recent findings relevant to these mechanisms, which can enable the discovery of new drug targets and subsequent development of novel drugs for treatment of drug-resistant M...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951954/evolution-of-structural-fitness-and-multifunctional-aspects-of-mycobacterial-rnd-family-transporters
#13
REVIEW
Padmani Sandhu, Yusuf Akhter
Drug resistance is a major concern due to the evolution and emergence of pathogenic bacterial strains with novel strategies to resist the antibiotics in use. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of such pathogens with reported strains, which are not treatable with any of the available anti-TB drugs. This scenario has led to the need to look for some novel drug targets in Mtb, which may be exploited to design effective treatment strategies against the infection. The goal of this review is to discuss one such class of emerging drug targets in Mtb...
September 26, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944450/dynamic-spatial-models-of-parasite-transmission-in-wildlife-their-structure-applications-and-remaining-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Lauren A White, James D Forester, Meggan E Craft
Individual differences in contact rate can arise from host, group and landscape heterogeneity and can result in different patterns of spatial spread for diseases in wildlife populations with concomitant implications for disease control in wildlife of conservation concern, livestock and humans. While dynamic disease models can provide a better understanding of the drivers of spatial spread, the effects of landscape heterogeneity have only been modelled in a few well-studied wildlife systems such as rabies and bovine tuberculosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932376/pulmonary-nodules-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-which-diagnostic-approach-is-the-most-appropriate
#15
Ines Mahmoud, Aicha Ben Tekaya, Rawdha Tekaya, Olfa Saidane, Leila Gafsi, Mathilde Benhammou, Fautrel Bruno, Leila Abdelmoula
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodular excavation should firstly evoke tuberculosis or necrosis broncho-pulmonary tumor, particularly: epidermoid carcinoma. The case discussed here illustrated these difficulties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman was presented with a-three-year history of RA and a recent discovery of an excavated pulmonary nodule. Initial investigations focused on a rheumatoid origin. The evolution of the disease was worrisome and surgical exploration was deemed mandatory...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926571/whole-genome-sequencing-illuminates-the-evolution-and-spread-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-southwest-nigeria
#16
Madikay Senghore, Jacob Otu, Adam Witney, Florian Gehre, Emma L Doughty, Gemma L Kay, Phillip Butcher, Kayode Salako, Aderemi Kehinde, Nneka Onyejepu, Emmanuel Idigbe, Tumani Corrah, Bouke de Jong, Mark J Pallen, Martin Antonio
Nigeria has an emerging problem with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whole-genome sequencing was used to understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and genetics of multi-drug resistance among patients from two tertiary referral centers in Southwest Nigeria. In line with previous molecular epidemiology studies, most isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from this dataset belonged to the Cameroon clade within the Euro-American lineage. Phylogenetic analysis showed this clade was undergoing clonal expansion in this region, and suggests that it was involved in community transmission of sensitive and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893611/emerging-peak-on-the-phylogeographic-landscape-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-west-asia-definitely-smoke-likely-fire
#17
Igor Mokrousov, Egor Shitikov, Yuriy Skiba, Sergey Kolchenko, Ekaterina Chernyaeva, Anna Vyazovaya
To date, a major attention was justly given to the global lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we demonstrated an importance of the minor ones, on an example of intriguing and underestimated NEW-1 family that belongs to Euro-American lineage (lineage 4). Analysis of the global WGS/NGS datasets (5715 strains) identified 2235 strains of Lineage 4 and 66 strains of sublineage L4.5. This latter is marked with RD122 genomic deletion and includes NEW-1 family. Phylogenomic analysis confirmed a separate position of the NEW-1 family that we tentatively designate L4...
November 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863177/identification-of-sero-reactive-antigens-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-johne-s-disease-in-cattle
#18
Lingling Li, John P Bannantine, Joseph J Campo, Arlo Randall, Yrjo T Grohn, Robab Katani, Megan Schilling, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Vivek Kapur
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease of cattle and other ruminants. JD has a high herd prevalence and causes serious animal health problems and significant economic loss in domesticated ruminants throughout the world. Since serological detection of MAP infected animals during the early stages of infection remains challenging due to the low sensitivity of extant assays, we screened 180 well-characterized serum samples using a whole proteome microarray from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a close relative of MAP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829824/a-syndemic-approach-to-assess-the-effect-of-substance-use-and-social-disparities-on-the-evolution-of-hiv-hcv-infections-in-british-columbia
#19
Zahid Ahmad Butt, Nabin Shrestha, Stanley Wong, Margot Kuo, Dionne Gesink, Mark Gilbert, Jason Wong, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Hasina Samji, Jane A Buxton, James C Johnston, Victoria J Cook, David Roth, Theodora Consolacion, Michelle Murti, Travis S Hottes, Gina Ogilvie, Robert Balshaw, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of social conditions and infections may affect HIV/HCV disease risk and progression. We examined the changes in relationship of these social conditions and infections on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections over time in British Columbia during 1990-2013. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes ~1.5 million individuals tested for HIV or HCV, or reported as a case of HCV, HIV, HBV, or tuberculosis linked to administrative healthcare databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792514/network-analysis-for-science-and-technology-management-evidence-from-tuberculosis-research-in-fiocruz-brazil
#20
Bruna de Paula Fonseca E Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius Pereira da Silva, Kizi Mendonça de Araújo, Ricardo Barros Sampaio, Milton Ozório Moraes
Collaborative networks are of great value for science and technology (S&T) institutions as a way of sharing, generating and disseminating new knowledge that could ultimately lead to innovations. Driven by the need to assess the contribution and effectiveness of these networks in informing S&T management, we explored the evolution and dynamics of tuberculosis scientific networks involving the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), the major public health S&T Institution in Brazil. Social network analysis (SNA) was used to produce a 10-year (2005-2009, 2010-2014) retrospective longitudinal mapping of Brazilian tuberculosis research networks within the country and internationally, highlighting Fiocruz collaborations...
2017: PloS One
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