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Evolution and tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702335/an-undiagnosed-pleural-effusion-with-surprising-consequences
#1
A G Casalini, F Cusmano, N Sverzellati, P A Mori, M Majori
We present the case of a 43-year-old Italian woman with a left undiagnosed pleural effusion, which in subsequent months presented a clinically unexpected evolution with the appearance at first of a right wrist tenosynovitis and subsequently a bilateral lung involvement caused by M. Tuberculosis. With this case report, we would like to underline the importance of making a correct diagnosis of any pleural effusion as soon as possible by at least a thoracocentesis. If untreated, tuberculosis may easily disseminate to other organs...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689112/selection-of-a-new-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv-aptamer-and-its-application-in-the-construction-of-a-swcnt-aptamer-au-ide-mspqc-h37rv-sensor
#2
XiaoQing Zhang, Ye Feng, QiongQiong Yao, Fengjiao He
A rapid and accurate detection method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is essential for effectively treating tuberculosis. However, current detection methods cannot meet these clinical requirements because the methods are slow or of low specificity. Consequently, a new highly specific ssDNA aptamer against M. tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv was selected by using the whole-cell systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technique. The selected aptamer was used to construct a fast and highly specific H37Rv sensor...
June 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676098/noncontiguous-multi-tiered-spinal-tuberculosis-associated-with-sternal-localization-a-case-report
#3
Mariam Erraoui, Bouchra Amine, Latifa Tahiri, Imane El Binoune, Jihane Bahha, Najia Hajjaj-Hassouni
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous spondylodiscitis is a frequent localization of tuberculosis. Multi-tiered involvement and an association with sternal localization are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of multi-tiered tuberculous spondylodiscitis with sternal localization in an immunocompetent 41-year-old Arab woman who had inflammatory bilateral sciatica L5 and S1 and a history of low back pain caused by a trauma. Radiography, computed tomography, and a vertebral biopsy were useful for diagnosis...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674583/-scrotal-fistulas-revealing-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-of-the-scrotum-about-a-case
#4
Abdelilah El Alaoui, Hicham El Boté, Oussama Ziouani, Oussman Dembele, Hachem El Sayegh, Ali Iken, Lounis Benslimane, Yassine Nouini
Scrotales fistulas are rare and often represent secondary lesions of tuberculosis. Mucinous adenocarcinomas are tumors containing at least 50% of extracellular mucus. They occur most commonly in the rectosigmoid; scrotal location is rare. We report the case of a 54-year old patient, with no particular past medical history, with secondary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the scrotum revealed by scrotal fistulas. The patient had suffered from recurrent scrotal fistulas for two years, with no other associated signs...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642843/the-impact-of-genome-region-of-difference-4-rd4-on-mycobacterial-virulence-and-bcg-efficacy
#5
Huanwei Ru, Xiaojia Liu, Chen Lin, Jingyan Yang, Fuzeng Chen, Ruifeng Sun, Lu Zhang, Jun Liu
Comparative genome analyses have revealed a number of regions of difference (RD) among mycobacterial species. The functional consequences of most of these genome variations have not been studied. RD4, which encompasses Rv1506c-Rv1516c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) H37Rv, is absent in the closely related Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). On the other hand, we previously found that Mycobacterium marinum has an extended RD4 which includes a number of genes involved in the biosynthesis of lipooligosaccharides (LOSs)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#6
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622844/antimycobacterial-metabolism-illuminating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-biology-and-drug-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Divya Awasthi, Joel S Freundlich
Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617860/increasing-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-in-asylum-seekers-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-switzerland
#8
Constantine Bloch-Infanger, Veronika Bättig, Jürg Kremo, Andreas F Widmer, Adrian Egli, Roland Bingisser, Manuel Battegay, Stefan Erb
OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. METHODS: At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605426/biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-and-inflammation-in-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#9
Ursula K Rohlwink, Katya Mauff, Katalin A Wilkinson, Nico Enslin, Emmanuel Wegoye, Robert J Wilkinson, Anthony A Figaji
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to death or disability in half the affected individuals. Tools to assess severity and predict outcome are lacking. Neuro-specific biomarkers could serve as markers of the severity and evolution of brain injury, but have not been widely explored in TBM. We examined biomarkers of neurological injury (neuromarkers) and inflammation in pediatric TBM and their association with outcome. Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with TBM and hydrocephalus taken on admission and over 3 weeks were analysed for neuromarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and multiple inflammatory markers...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540155/low-levels-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-isolates-and-their-relationship-to-risk-factors-surveillance-in-tehran-iran-2006-to-2014
#10
Alireza Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Shamsi Yari, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Abolfazl Fateh, Ahmadreza Bahrmand
OBJECTIVES: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is more expensive and difficult to treat than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and outcomes for patients are much worse; therefore, it is important that clinicians understand the magnitude and distribution of XDR-TB. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the estimated incidence of and risk factors for M/XDR-TB with those of susceptible TB controls. METHODS: Sputum culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) were performed in patients with known or suspected TB...
April 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533875/-management-of-spontaneous-pneumothorax-about-138-cases
#11
Bouchra Habibi, Leila Achachi, Sohaib Hayoun, Mohammed Raoufi, Laila Herrak, Mustapha El Ftouh
Pneumothorax is a collection of air in the pleural cavity. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax in the Department of Pneumology at the Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (2009-2011) with the aim to determine the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, therapeutic and evolutionary manifestation of spontaneous pneumothorax. The study involved 138 patients: 128 men and 10 women (17-83 years), with an average age of 44.5 +/- 17.4 years and sex ratio of 12/8. 81.2% of patients were smokers...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512703/metal-homeostasis-in-bacteria-the-role-of-arsr-smtb-family-of-transcriptional-repressors-in-combating-varying-metal-concentrations-in-the-environment
#12
REVIEW
Rudra P Saha, Saikat Samanta, Surajit Patra, Diganta Sarkar, Abinit Saha, Manoj Kumar Singh
Bacterial infections cause severe medical problems worldwide, resulting in considerable death and loss of capital. With the ever-increasing rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the lack of development of new antibiotics, research on metal-based antimicrobial therapy has now gained pace. Metal ions are essential for survival, but can be highly toxic to organisms if their concentrations are not strictly controlled. Through evolution, bacteria have acquired complex metal-management systems that allow them to acquire metals that they need for survival in different challenging environments while evading metal toxicity...
May 16, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498943/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-whole-genome-sequences-from-southern-india-suggest-novel-resistance-mechanisms-and-the-need-for-region-specific-diagnostics
#13
Abigail L Manson, Thomas Abeel, James E Galagan, Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, Alex Salazar, Thies Gehrmann, Siva Kumar Shanmugam, Kannan Palaniyandi, Sujatha Narayanan, Soumya Swaminathan, Ashlee M Earl
Background.: India is home to 25% of all tuberculosis cases and the second highest number of multidrug resistant cases worldwide. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and resistance determinants of Indian Mycobacterium tuberculosis, particularly for the primary lineages found in India, lineages 1 and 3. Methods.: We whole genome sequenced 223 randomly selected M. tuberculosis strains from 196 patients within the Tiruvallur and Madurai districts of Tamil Nadu in Southern India...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485504/mechanistic-principles-behind-molecular-mechanism-of-rifampicin-resistance-in-mutant-rna-polymerase-beta-subunit-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Aditi Singh, Sonam Grover, Sidhartha Sinha, Mriganko Das, Pallavi Somvanshi, Abhinav Grover
Evolution of drug resistant Mycobacterium strains threatens the TB treatment and control programs globally. Rifampicin (RIF) is an important first line antitubercular drug. Resistance to Rifampicin is caused mainly by mutations in its target RNA polymerase beta subunit protein (RpoB). RpoB contains a Rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) and has several potent sites for mutations. In this study, we have investigated mutations of a single site (H451) to eight different amino acids, involved in RIF resistance...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480833/nanoemulsion-for-the-effective-treatment-and-management-of-anti-tubercular-drug-therapy
#15
Sarwar Beg, Sumant Saini, Sarim Imam, Mahfoozur Rahman, Suryakanta Swain, M S Hasnain
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is considered as one of the deadliest diseases of human existence. Since ancient age the treatment of tuberculosis has been highly challenging primarily owing to the pathogenic nature of the Mycobacterium and its diverse spots of localization in human body including lungs, liver, spleen, eye, meninges and lymph nodes. METHODS: The conventional drug therapy employed for the treatment of tuberculosis is not highly satisfactorily owing to low oral bioavailability of the drugs...
May 3, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476627/-the-impact-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-immune-evasion-on-protective-immunity-implications-for-tb-vaccine-design-meeting-report
#16
Cesar Boggiano, Katrin Eichelberg, Lakshmi Ramachandra, Jaqueline Shea, Lalita Ramakrishnan, Samuel Behar, Joel D Ernst, Steven A Porcelli, Markus Maeurer, Hardy Kornfeld
Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world, particularly in HIV infected individuals. TB vaccine design and development have been focused on improving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and evaluating recombinant and viral vector expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, for boosting BCG-primed immunity, but these approaches have not yet yielded significant improvements over the modest effects of BCG in protecting against infection or disease. On March 7-8, 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on "The Impact of Mtb Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" with the goal of defining immune mechanisms that could be targeted through novel research approaches, to inform vaccine design and immune therapeutic interventions for prevention of TB...
June 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465507/the-role-of-hydrophobicity-in-tuberculosis-evolution-and-pathogenicity
#17
Monika Jankute, Vijayashankar Nataraj, Oona Y-C Lee, Houdini H T Wu, Malin Ridell, Natalie J Garton, Michael R Barer, David E Minnikin, Apoorva Bhatt, Gurdyal S Besra
The evolution of tubercle bacilli parallels a route from environmental Mycobacterium kansasii, through intermediate "Mycobacterium canettii", to the modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Cell envelope outer membrane lipids change systematically from hydrophilic lipooligosaccharides and phenolic glycolipids to hydrophobic phthiocerol dimycocerosates, di- and pentaacyl trehaloses and sulfoglycolipids. Such lipid changes point to a hydrophobic phenotype for M. tuberculosis sensu stricto. Using Congo Red staining and hexadecane-aqueous buffer partitioning, the hydrophobicity of rough morphology M...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454652/selection-characterization-and-application-of-dna-aptamers-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-secreted-protein-mpt64
#18
Marzhan Sypabekova, Aliya Bekmurzayeva, Ronghui Wang, Yanbin Li, Claude Nogues, Damira Kanayeva
Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), an etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is important for global control of this disease. Aptamers have emerged as a potential rival for antibodies in therapeutics, diagnostics and biosensing due to their inherent characteristics. The aim of the current study was to select and characterize single-stranded DNA aptamers against MPT64 protein, one of the predominant secreted proteins of Mtb pathogen. Aptamers specific to MPT64 protein were selected in vitro using systematic evolution of ligands through exponential enrichment (SELEX) method...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453022/-evolution-of-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-adults-patients-belonging-to-the-national-program-at-start-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-chilean-aids-cohort-2001-2015
#19
Carlos Beltrán, Pedro Zitko, Marcelo Wolff, Fernando Bernal, Alicia Asenjo, Ana M Fernández, Ana Miles, Elizabeth Barthel, Gonzalo Wilson
BACKGROUND: Chilean AIDS Cohort is the oldest and extensive in Latin America and one of most numerous and with longer follow up time to international level. Records information from 14,873 patients out of approximately 22,000 in antiretroviral therapy in the public system and its results have allowed to know the national reality and have contributed to the adoption of public policies. AIM: To describe the demographic, clinical and immunological characteristics of patients who have started ART in Chile and its evolution over the past 15 years...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391322/evolutionary-thrift-mycobacteria-repurpose-plasmid-diversity-during-adaptation-of-type-vii-secretion-systems
#20
Tatum D Mortimer, Alexandra M Weber, Caitlin S Pepperell
Mycobacteria have a distinct secretion system, termed type VII (T7SS), which is encoded by paralogous chromosomal loci (ESX) and associated with pathogenesis, conjugation, and metal homeostasis. Evolution of paralogous gene families is of interest because duplication is an important mechanism by which novel genes evolve, but there are potential conflicts between adaptive forces that stabilize duplications and those that enable evolution of new functions. Our objective was to delineate the adaptive forces underlying diversification of T7SS...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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