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Evolution and tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346413/genetic-diversity-and-potential-routes-of-transmission-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-mozambique
#1
Adelina Machado, Teresa Rito, Solomon Ghebremichael, Nuelma Muhate, Gabriel Maxhuza, Custodia Macuamule, Ivania Moiane, Baltazar Macucule, Angelica Suzana Marranangumbe, Jorge Baptista, Joaquim Manguele, Tuija Koivula, Elizabeth Maria Streicher, Robin Mark Warren, Gunilla Kallenius, Paul van Helden, Margarida Correia-Neves
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319057/erratum-diversity-and-evolution-of-drug-resistance-mechanisms-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-corrigendum
#2
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 333 in vol. 10, PMID: 29075131.].
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314762/opportunistic-infections-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#3
Ada Redondo-Benito, Adrian Curran, Ana Villar-Gomez, Ernesto Trallero-Araguas, Andreu Fernández-Codina, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
AIM: To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of opportunistic infection (OI) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory myopathies, and compare mortality rates between those with and without OIs. METHODS: In total, 204 patients from our myositis cohort were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced an OI during the period 1986-2014. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes were systematically recorded...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311070/novel-pyrimidines-as-antitubercular-agents
#4
Daigo Inoyama, Steven D Paget, Riccardo Russo, Srinivasan Kandasamy, Pradeep Kumar, Eric Singleton, James Occi, Margareta Tuckman, Matthew D Zimmerman, Hsin Pin Ho, Alexander L Perryman, Véronique Dartois, Nancy Connell, Joel S Freundlich
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is responsible for a global pandemic. New drugs are needed that lack cross-resistance with the existing front-line therapeutics. A triazine antitubercular hit led to the design of a related pyrimidine family. The synthesis of a focused series of these analogs facilitated exploration of their in vitro activity, in vitro cytotoxicity, physiochemical, and Absorption-Distribution-Metabolism-Excretion properties. Select pyrimidines were then evaluated for their mouse pharmacokinetic profiles...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310751/multi-clonal-evolution-of-multi-drug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-high-prevalence-setting-of-papua-new-guinea-for-over-three-decades
#5
Arnold Bainomugisa, Evelyn Lavu, Stenard Hiashiri, Suman Majumdar, Alice Honjepari, Rendi Moke, Paison Dakulala, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Sushil Pandey, Ben J Marais, Chris Coulter, Lachlan Coin
An outbreak of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported on Daru Island, Papua New Guinea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains driving this outbreak and the temporal accrual of drug resistance mutations have not been described. Whole genome sequencing of 100 of 165 clinical isolates referred from Daru General Hospital to the Supranational reference laboratory, Brisbane, during 2012-2015 revealed that 95 belonged to a single modern Beijing sub-lineage strain. Molecular dating suggested acquisition of streptomycin and isoniazid resistance in the 1960s, with potentially enhanced virulence mediated by an mycP1 mutation...
January 4, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281674/convergent-evolution-and-topologically-disruptive-polymorphisms-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-peru
#6
Louis Grandjean, Robert H Gilman, Tomatada Iwamoto, Claudio U Köser, Jorge Coronel, Mirko Zimic, M Estee Török, Diepreye Ayabina, Michelle Kendall, Christophe Fraser, Simon Harris, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, David A J Moore, Caroline Colijn
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis poses a major threat to the success of tuberculosis control programs worldwide. Understanding how drug-resistant tuberculosis evolves can inform the development of new therapeutic and preventive strategies. METHODS: Here, we use novel genome-wide analysis techniques to identify polymorphisms that are associated with drug resistance, adaptive evolution and the structure of the phylogenetic tree. A total of 471 samples from different patients collected between 2009 and 2013 in the Lima suburbs of Callao and Lima South were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform with 150bp paired-end reads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259589/complete-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-bovis-sp38-and-comparative-genomics-of-mycobacterium-bovis-and-m-tuberculosis-strains
#7
Cristina Kraemer Zimpel, Paulo E Brandão, Antônio F de Souza Filho, Robson F de Souza, Cássia Y Ikuta, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Naila C Soler Camargo, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Ana M S Guimarães
Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis and is the main organism responsible for zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. We performed the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a Brazilian strain of M. bovis named SP38, and performed comparative genomics of M. bovis genomes deposited in GenBank. M. bovis SP38 has a traditional tuberculous mycobacterium genome of 4,347,648 bp, with 65.5% GC, and 4,216 genes. The majority of CDSs (2,805, 69.3%) have predictive function, while 1,206 (30.07%) are hypothetical. For comparative analysis, 31 M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246463/-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-in-a-black-african-carceral-area-experience-of-mali
#8
Y Toloba, K Ouattara, D Soumaré, T Kanouté, G Berthé, B Baya, B Konaté, M Keita, B Diarra, A Cissé, F S Camara, S Diallo
INTRODUCTION: Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case...
December 12, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216510/evolution-of-virulence-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#9
REVIEW
Mickael Orgeur, Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis is one of the most widely spread human pathogens. It has succeeded to infect a quarter of the global human population by developing most sophisticated ways to circumvent innate and adaptive immune defences. This highly specialized, major human pathogen has evolved from a pool of ancestral environmental mycobacteria, whose extant representatives are known under the name of Mycobacterium canettii. Recent whole genome analyses in combination with different phenotypic screens have provided key insights into the evolution of M...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208413/characterization-of-ml0314c-of-mycobacterium-leprae-and-deciphering-its-role-in-the-immune-response-in-leprosy-patients
#10
Gurkamajit Kaur, Aashish Sharma, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium leprae has a reduced genome size due to the reductive evolution over a long period of time. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the life cycle and pathogenesis of this bacterium. In comparison to 26 lip genes (Lip A-Z) of M. tuberculosis, M. leprae retained only three orthologs indicating their importance in its life cycle. ML0314c (LipU) is one of them. It is conserved throughout the mycobacterium species. Bioinformatics analysis showed the presence of an α/β hydrolase fold and 'GXSXG' characteristic of the esterases/lipases...
December 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198784/pathogenesis-of-tuberculosis-and-other-mycobacteriosis
#11
Pere-Joan Cardona
The evolution between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis is multifactorial and involves different biological scales. The synthesis of ESAT-6 or the induction of alveolar macrophage necrosis are key, but to understand it, it is necessary to consider the dynamics of endogenous and exogenous reinfection, drainage of lung parenchyma and respiratory mechanics, local fibrosis processes and blood supply. Paradoxically, the immune response generated by the infection is highly protective (90%) against active tuberculosis, although as it is essentially based on the proliferation of Th1 lymphocytes, it cannot prevent reinfection...
November 30, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184888/targeting-dna-replication-and-repair-for-the-development-of-novel-therapeutics-against-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Michael A Reiche, Digby F Warner, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease which results in approximately 10 million incident cases and 1.4 million deaths globally each year, making it the leading cause of mortality from infection. An effective frontline combination chemotherapy exists for TB; however, this regimen requires the administration of four drugs in a 2 month long intensive phase followed by a continuation phase of a further 4 months with two of the original drugs, and is only effective for the treatment of drug-sensitive TB...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176894/horizontal-acquisition-of-a-hypoxia-responsive-molybdenum-cofactor-biosynthesis-pathway-contributed-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pathoadaptation
#13
Florence Levillain, Yannick Poquet, Ludovic Mallet, Serge Mazères, Michael Marceau, Roland Brosch, Franz-Christoph Bange, Philip Supply, Axel Magalon, Olivier Neyrolles
The unique ability of the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to persist for long periods of time in lung hypoxic lesions chiefly contributes to the global burden of latent TB. We and others previously reported that the M. tuberculosis ancestor underwent massive episodes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mostly from environmental species. Here, we sought to explore whether such ancient HGT played a part in M. tuberculosis evolution towards pathogenicity. We were interested by a HGT-acquired M...
November 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116641/mathematical-models-for-the-epidemiology-and-evolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Jūlija Pečerska, James Wood, Mark M Tanaka, Tanja Stadler
This chapter reviews the use of mathematical and computational models to facilitate understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. First, we introduce general epidemiological models, and describe their use with respect to epidemiological dynamics of a single strain and of multiple strains of M. tuberculosis. In particular, we discuss multi-strain models that include drug sensitivity and drug resistance. Second, we describe models for the evolution of M. tuberculosis within and between hosts, and how the resulting diversity of strains can be assessed by considering the evolutionary relationships among different strains...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116640/strain-diversity-and-the-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance
#15
Sonia Borrell, Andrej Trauner
Drug resistance is best thought of as an ongoing biological process. Resistant bacteria must emerge, become established and ultimately transmit in order to be relevant to human health. In this context, genetic diversity can influence the rate and likelihood of resistance emerging; it can also modulate the net physiological impact of resistance and the propensity of an organism to improve any defects that arise from it. Combined, these effects can have an impact on a larger scale, with highly transmissible drug-resistant bacterial strains posing a formidable threat to global health...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116639/dna-replication-fidelity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#16
Digby F Warner, Jeremy M Rock, Sarah M Fortune, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is genetically isolated, with no evidence for horizontal gene transfer or the acquisition of episomal genetic information in the modern evolution of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. When considered in the context of the specific features of the disease M. tuberculosis causes (e.g., transmission via cough aerosol, replication within professional phagocytes, subclinical persistence, and stimulation of a destructive immune pathology), this implies that to understand the mechanisms ensuring preservation of genomic integrity in infecting mycobacterial populations is to understand the source of genetic variation, including the emergence of microdiverse sub-populations that may be linked to the acquisition of drug resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116638/evolution-of-phenotypic-and-molecular-drug-susceptibility-testing
#17
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Enrico Tortoli
Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) is an emerging problem world-wide. In order to control the disease and decrease the number of cases overtime a prompt diagnosis followed by an appropriate treatment should be provided to patients. Phenotypic DST based on liquid automated culture has greatly reduced the time needed to generate reliable data but has the drawback to be expensive and prone to contamination in the absence of appropriate infrastructures. In the past 10 years molecular biology tools have been developed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116633/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-members-adapted-to-wild-and-domestic-animals
#18
Kerri M Malone, Stephen V Gordon
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is composed of several highly genetically related species that can be broadly classified into those that are human-host adapted and those that possess the ability to propagate and transmit in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. Since the initial description of the bovine tubercle bacillus, now known as Mycobacterium bovis, by Theobald Smith in the late 1800's, isolates originating from a wide range of animal hosts have been identified and characterized as M...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#19
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116628/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-canettii
#20
Philip Supply, Roland Brosch
Genome-based insights into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria are constantly increasing. In particular, the recent genomic and functional characterization of several Myocbacterium canettii strains, which are thought to resemble in many aspects the putative common ancestor of the members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), has consolidated a plausible scenario of the early evolution of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, in which the clonal MTBC, comprising numerous key pathogens of mammalian hosts, has evolved from a generalist mycobacterium living in the environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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