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Evolution and tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#1
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881678/evolutionary-adaptation-of-the-essential-trna-methyltransferase-trmd-to-the-signaling-molecule-3-5-camp-in-bacteria
#2
Yong Zhang, Rym Agrebi, Lauren E Bellows, Jean-François Collet, Volkhard Kaever, Angelika Gründling
The nucleotide signaling molecule 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3',5'-cAMP) plays important physiological roles, ranging from carbon catabolite repression in bacteria to mediating the action of hormones in higher eukaryotes, including human. However, it remains unclear whether 3',5'-cAMP is universally present in the Firmicutes group of bacteria. We hypothesized that searching for proteins that bind 3',5'-cAMP might provide new insight into this question. Accordingly, we performed a genome-wide screen, and identified the essential Staphylococcus aureus tRNA m1G37 methyltransferase enzyme TrmD, which is conserved in all three domains of life, as a tight 3',5'-cAMP binding protein...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878212/obesity-paradox-obesity-orthodox-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-approach-to-unity
#3
Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872285/armed-conflict-and-population-displacement-as-drivers-of-the-evolution-and-dispersal-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
Vegard Eldholm, John H-O Pettersson, Ola B Brynildsrud, Andrew Kitchen, Erik Michael Rasmussen, Troels Lillebaek, Janne O Rønning, Valeriu Crudu, Anne Torunn Mengshoel, Nadia Debech, Kristian Alfsnes, Jon Bohlin, Caitlin S Pepperell, Francois Balloux
The "Beijing" Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage 2 (L2) is spreading globally and has been associated with accelerated disease progression and increased antibiotic resistance. Here we performed a phylodynamic reconstruction of one of the L2 sublineages, the central Asian clade (CAC), which has recently spread to western Europe. We find that recent historical events have contributed to the evolution and dispersal of the CAC. Our timing estimates indicate that the clade was likely introduced to Afghanistan during the 1979-1989 Soviet-Afghan war and spread further after population displacement in the wake of the American invasion in 2001...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857518/the-impact-of-immune-disturbances-on-the-failure-of-antituberculosis-treatment
#5
Evelina Lesnic, Serghei Ghinda, Carmen Monica Pop
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, with an evolution and treatment outcome determined by the interaction between the mycobacterial and human genotypes. Various deficiencies of innate immune response starting from the first encounter of M. tuberculosis with lung cells endanger host infection control due to decreased triggering of cellular immune resistance and disturbed humoral immunity. Disturbed cell mediated immunity, known as the basic immune response in tuberculous infection, contributes to the deficient generation of central necrosis granuloma, consequently being responsible for severe clinical aspects and low final outcome...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854533/tuberculosis-screening-and-control-in-the-us-military-in-war-and-peace
#6
James D Mancuso
Tuberculosis (TB) has a well-established association with military populations, but the association of increased TB risk during armed conflict is less certain. This historical review focuses on the evolution of screening practices, the changing epidemiology of TB, and the risk of TB among US military service members during armed conflict from 1885 to the present. Overall, deployed soldiers were not at increased risk for TB compared with nondeployed soldiers in any of these conflicts, and the risk of TB in the US military largely reflected that of the underlying US population...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818361/classifying-new-anti-tb-drugs-rationale-and-future-perspectives
#7
Simon Tiberi, Anna Scardigli, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Marcela Muñoz-Torrico, Miguel Ángel Salazar-Lezama, Antonio Spanevello, Dina Visca, Alimuddin Zumla, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Jose A Caminero Luna
The classification of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is important as it serves the clinician in building an appropriate anti-TB regimen for multidrug (MDR-) and extensively drug resistant (XDR-) TB cases which do not fulfil criteria for the shorter MDR-TB regimen. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently approved a revision of the classification of new anti-TB drugs based on current evidence on each drug. In the previous WHO guidelines the drug choice was based on their efficacy and toxicity, in a step-down manner from Group 1, including first-line drugs and Group 2-5 including second- line drugs, to Group 5 including drugs with potentially limited efficacy or limited clinical evidence...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803888/genetic-and-epigenetic-interspecies-networks-for-cross-talk-mechanisms-in-human-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells-during-mtb-infection
#8
Cheng-Wei Li, Yun-Lin Lee, Bor-Sen Chen
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Mtb is one of the oldest human pathogens, and evolves mechanisms implied in human evolution. The lungs are the first organ exposed to aerosol-transmitted Mtb during gaseous exchange. Therefore, the guards of the immune system in the lungs, such as macrophages (Mϕs) and dendritic cells (DCs), are the most important defense against Mtb infection. There have been several studies discussing the functions of Mϕs and DCs during Mtb infection, but the genome-wide pathways and networks are still incomplete...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799329/the-unique-regulation-of-the-dosr-regulon-in-the-beijing-lineage-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Pilar Domenech, Jason Zou, Alexandra Averback, Nishath Syed, Daniele Curtis, Samuel Donato, Michael B Reed
: The DosR regulon, a set of 48 genes normally expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis under conditions that inhibit aerobic respiration, is controlled via the DosR/S/T two-component system. While the regulon requires induction in most M. tuberculosis isolates, for members of the Beijing lineage its expression is uncoupled from the need for signaling. In our attempts to understand the mechanistic basis for this uncoupling in the Beijing background, we have previously reported the identification of two synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) within the adjacent Rv3134c gene...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796109/animal-adapted-members-of-the-i-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-i-complex-endemic-to-the-southern-african-subregion
#10
Charlene Clarke, Paul Van Helden, Michele Miller, Sven Parsons
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) cause tuberculosis (TB) in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion - that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus - are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed...
April 26, 2016: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795799/-thyroid-abscess-revealing-graves-basedow-disease-about-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Meriem Chenguir, Hajar Souldi, Fatima Zahra Loufad, Sami Rouadi, Reda Abada, Mohamed Roubal, Mohamed Mahtar
Thyroid abscess is a very rare clinical entity. It accounts for 0.1% of the surgical pathologies of the thyroid gland. The anatomical and physiological characteristics of the gland give it resistance to pathogens. Streptococcal and Staphylococcal are the most common. Tuberculosis is rarely reported in the literature. The occurrence of infection associated with toxic goiter is exceptional. The authors report a rare case of a 22-year-old young patient with thyroid abscess revealing a toxic goitre. He presented to our otorhinolaryngology emergency unit with anterior cervical swelling, slightly lateralized to the left, moving on swallowing, associated with hemoptysis, signs of thyroid dysfunction, fever, night sweats...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789164/-a-case-of-mediastinum-actinomycosis-by-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans
#12
N N M Razafimanjato, A M Portela, D M Radu, P Guiraudet, M D Destable, A Seguin, E Martinod
The actinomycosis is a suppurative infection due to an anaerobic and microaerophillic bacteria called actinomyces. Only few case reports are described for the mediastinal locations of this rare entity. We report a new case of inflammatory pseudotumor in the mediastinum due to Aggregatibacte actinomycetemcomitans revealed by hemoptysis. The mediastinoscopy procedure with biopsy was needed to confirm the definitive bacteriological diagnosis by a positive culture. During the postoperative course, a cutaneous fistula was found which had a favourable evolution after appropriate antibiotherapy...
October 24, 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787194/evolution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-new-insights-into-pathogenicity-and-drug-resistance
#13
Eva C Boritsch, Roland Brosch
The tuberculosis agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis has undergone a long and selective evolution toward human infection and represents one of the most widely spread pathogens due to its efficient aerosol-mediated human-to-human transmission. With the availability of more and more genome sequences, the evolutionary trajectory of this obligate pathogen becomes visible, which provides us with new insights into the molecular events governing evolution of the bacterium and its ability to accumulate drug-resistance mutations...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766569/transposition-mechanism-molecular-characterization-and-evolution-of-is6110-the-specific-evolutionary-marker-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#14
Sarah Thabet, Nada Souissi
The mycobacterial insertion sequence IS6110 proved crucial in deciphering tuberculosis (TB) transmission dynamics. This sequence was also shown to play an important role in the pathogenicity (transmission ability and/or virulence) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of TB in humans. In this study, we explored the usefulness of IS6110 and its potential as a phylogenetic/typing marker. We also analyzed the genetic polymorphism and evolutionary trends (selective pressure) of its transposase-encoding open reading frames (ORFs), A and B, using the maximum likelihood method...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746295/turkish-and-japanese-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-sublineages-share-a-remote-common-ancestor
#15
Guislaine Refrégier, Edgar Abadia, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Hiromi Ano, Tetsuya Takashima, Izuo Tsuyuguchi, Elif Aktas, Füsun Cömert, Michel Kireopori Gomgnimbou, Stefan Panaiotov, Jody Phelan, Francesc Coll, Ruth McNerney, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, Christophe Sola
Two geographically distant M. tuberculosis sublineages, Tur from Turkey and T3-Osaka from Japan, exhibit partially identical genotypic signatures (identical 12-loci MIRU-VNTR profiles, distinct spoligotyping patterns). We investigated T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages characteristics and potential genetic relatedness, first using MIRU-VNTR locus analysis on 21 and 25 samples of each sublineage respectively, and second comparing Whole Genome Sequences of 8 new samples to public data from 45 samples uncovering human tuberculosis diversity...
October 14, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733848/the-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-with-regard-to-tuberculosis
#16
Pere-Joan Cardona
A major problem with tuberculosis (TB) control is the long duration of drug therapy-both for latent and for active TB. Therapeutic vaccination has been postulated to improve this situation, and to this end there are several candidates already in clinical phases of development. These candidates follow two main designs, namely bacilli-directed therapy based on inactivated -whole or -fragmented bacillus (Mycobacterium w and RUTI) or fusion proteins that integrate non-replicating bacilli -related antigens (H56 vaccine), and host-directed therapy to reduce the tissue destruction...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726818/paleopathology-of-human-infections-old-bones-antique-books-ancient-and-modern-molecules
#17
Olivier Dutour
Paleopathology studies the traces of disease on human and animal remains from ancient times. Infectious diseases have been, for over a century, one of its main fields of interest. The applications of paleogenetics methods to microbial aDNA, that started in the 90s combined to the recent development of new sequencing techniques allowing 'paleogenomics' approaches, have completely renewed the issue of the infections in the past. These advances open up new challenges in the understanding of the evolution of human-pathogen relationships, integrated in "One Health" concept...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721649/genomics-study-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-from-different-ethnic-populations-in-taiwan
#18
Horng-Yunn Dou, Yih-Yuan Chen, Ying-Tsong Chen, Jia-Ru Chang, Chien-Hsing Lin, Keh-Ming Wu, Ming-Shian Lin, Ih-Jen Su, Shih-Feng Tsai
To better understand the transmission and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Taiwan, six different MTB isolates (representatives of the Beijing ancient sublineage, Beijing modern sublineage, Haarlem, East-African Indian, T1, and Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM)) were characterized and their genomes were sequenced. Discriminating among large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) that occur once versus those that occur repeatedly in a genomic region may help to elucidate the biological roles of LSPs and to identify the useful phylogenetic relationships...
2016: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703073/mycobacteriophages-as-incubators-for-intein-dissemination-and-evolution
#19
Danielle S Kelley, Christopher W Lennon, Marlene Belfort, Olga Novikova
: Inteins are self-splicing protein elements that are mobile at the DNA level and are sporadically distributed across microbial genomes. Inteins appear to be horizontally transferred, and it has been speculated that phages may play a role in intein distribution. Our attention turns to mycobacteriophages, which infect mycobacteria, where both phage and host harbor inteins. Using bioinformatics, mycobacteriophage genomes were mined for inteins. This study reveals that these mobile elements are present across multiple mycobacteriophage clusters and are pervasive in certain genes, like the large terminase subunit TerL and a RecB-like nuclease, with the majority of intein-containing genes being phage specific...
October 4, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698071/nonmutational-compensation-of-the-fitness-cost-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-mycobacteria-by-overexpression-of-tlya-rrna-methylase
#20
Pietro Freihofer, Rashid Akbergenov, Youjin Teo, Reda Juskeviciene, Dan I Andersson, Erik C Böttger
Several studies over the last few decades have shown that antibiotic resistance mechanisms frequently confer a fitness cost and that these costs can be genetically ameliorated by intra- or extragenic second-site mutations, often without loss of resistance. Another, much less studied potential mechanism by which the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance could be reduced is via a regulatory response where the deleterious effect of the resistance mechanism is lowered by a physiological alteration that buffers the mutational effect...
December 2016: RNA
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