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Evolution and tuberculosis

Ruth Bowness, Mark A J Chaplain, Gibin G Powathil, Stephen H Gillespie
If improvements are to be made in tuberculosis (TB) treatment, an increased understanding of disease in the lung is needed. Studies have shown that bacteria in a less metabolically active state, associated with the presence of lipid bodies, are less susceptible to antibiotics, and recent results have highlighted the disparity in concentration of different compounds into lesions. Treatment success therefore depends critically on the responses of the individual bacteria that constitute the infection. We propose a hybrid, individual-based approach that analyses spatio-temporal dynamics at the cellular level, linking the behaviour of individual bacteria and host cells with the macroscopic behaviour of the microenvironment...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
A Odone, B Roberts, M Dara, M van den Boom, H Kluge, M McKee
SETTING: The first pillar in the World Health Organisation's (WHO's) End TB strategy is 'Integrated, patient-centred tuberculosis (TB) care and prevention'. However, what are patient- and people-centred care, and why are they important for TB care and prevention? OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To define the concept of patient-centred care, the rationale for it, and its evolution into people-centred care; and to explore evidence on whether people-centred approaches work for TB and present key areas where continuous efforts are needed to support their implementation...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A Kienlen, C Fernandez, Z Henni-Laleg, M Andre, V Gazaille, N Coolen-Allou
Thoracic endometriosis is a rare entity characterized by presence of endometrial tissue in pleura, lung parenchyma or airways. Most frequent manifestations are catamenial pneumothorax, hemothorax, hemoptysis and pulmonary nodules. We report here a rare case of a woman with thoracic endometriosis who developed iterative pneumothorax and pneumopericardium on bilateral bullous pulmonary dystrophy. She was a 37-year-old woman without any tobacco exposure and with previous history of pleural tuberculosis treated 5 years earlier...
March 1, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Mousumi Sarkar Saha, Shilpee Pal, Indrani Sarkar, Ayan Roy, Pradeep K Das Mohapatra, Arnab Sen
Mycobacterium is gram positive, slow growing, disease causing Actinobacteria. Beside potential pathogenic species, Mycobacterium also contains opportunistic pathogens as well as free living non-pathogenic species. Disease related various analyses on Mycobacterium tuberculosis are very widespread. However, genomic study of overall Mycobacterium species for understanding the selection pressure on genes as well as evolution of the organism is still illusive. MLSA and 16s rDNA based analysis has been generated for 241 Mycobacterium strains and a detailed analysis of codon and amino acid usage bias of mycobacterial genes, their functional analysis have been done...
February 28, 2018: Genomics
Álvaro Chiner-Oms, Fernando González-Candelas, Iñaki Comas
Every year, species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) kill more people than any other infectious disease caused by a single agent. As a consequence of its global distribution and parallel evolution with the human host the bacteria is not genetically homogeneous. The observed genetic heterogeneity has relevance at different phenotypic levels, from gene expression to epidemiological dynamics. However, current systems biology datasets have focused on the laboratory reference strain H37Rv. By using large expression datasets testing the role of almost two hundred transcription factors, we have constructed computational models to grab the expression dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv genes...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janani Ravi, Vivek Anantharaman, L Aravind, Maria Laura Gennaro
The phage shock protein (Psp) stress-response system protects bacteria from envelope stress through a cascade of interactions with other proteins and membrane lipids to stabilize the cell membrane. A key component of this multi-gene system is PspA, an effector protein that is found in diverse bacterial phyla, archaea, cyanobacteria, and chloroplasts. Other members of the Psp system include the cognate partners of PspA that are part of known operons: pspF||pspABC in Proteobacteria, liaIHGFSR in Firmicutes, and clgRpspAMN in Actinobacteria...
February 27, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sebastien Gagneux
Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one cause of human death due to an infectious disease. The causative agents of TB are a group of closely related bacteria known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). As the MTBC exhibits a clonal population structure with low DNA sequence diversity, methods (such as multilocus sequence typing) that are applied to more genetically diverse bacteria are uninformative, and much of the ecology and evolution of the MTBC has therefore remained unknown. Owing to recent advances in whole-genome sequencing and analyses of large collections of MTBC clinical isolates from around the world, many new insights have been gained, including a better understanding of the origin of the MTBC as an obligate pathogen and its molecular evolution and population genetic characteristics both within and between hosts, as well as many aspects related to antibiotic resistance...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Tatum D Mortimer, Alexandra M Weber, Caitlin S Pepperell
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death by an infectious disease, and global TB control efforts are increasingly threatened by drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Unlike most bacteria, where lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism of resistance acquisition, resistant M. tuberculosis arises solely by de novo chromosomal mutation. Using whole-genome sequencing data from two natural populations of M. tuberculosis , we characterized the population genetics of known drug resistance loci using measures of diversity, population differentiation, and convergent evolution...
January 2018: MSystems
João Queirós, Paulo Célio Alves, Joaquín Vicente, Christian Gortázar, José de la Fuente
Tuberculosis (TB) affects a wide range of host species worldwide. Understanding host-pathogen co-evolution remains a global challenge owing to complex interactions among host genetic factors, pathogen traits and environmental conditions. We used an endemic wild boar population that had undergone a huge increase in Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence, from 45% in 2002/06 to 83% in 2009/12, to understand the effects of host genetics on host TB outcomes and disease dynamics. Host genomic variation was characterized using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, while host TB phenotype was assessed using both gross pathology and mycobacterial culture...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Navisha Dookie, Santhuri Rambaran, Nesri Padayatchi, Sharana Mahomed, Kogieleum Naidoo
Drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) remains a significant challenge in TB treatment and control programmes worldwide. Advances in sequencing technology have significantly increased our understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to anti-TB drugs. This review provides an update on advances in our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms to new, existing drugs and repurposed agents. Recent advances in WGS technology hold promise as a tool for rapid diagnosis and clinical management of TB. Although the standard approach to WGS of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is slow due to the requirement for organism culture, recent attempts to sequence directly from clinical specimens have improved the potential to diagnose and detect resistance within days...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Adelina Machado, Teresa Rito, Solomon Ghebremichael, Nuelma Muhate, Gabriel Maxhuza, Custodia Macuamule, Ivania Moiane, Baltazar Macucule, Angelica Suzana Marranangumbe, Jorge Baptista, Joaquim Manguele, Tuija Koivula, Elizabeth Maria Streicher, Robin Mark Warren, Gunilla Kallenius, Paul van Helden, Margarida Correia-Neves
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 333 in vol. 10, PMID: 29075131.].
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ada Redondo-Benito, Adrian Curran, Ana Villar-Gomez, Ernesto Trallero-Araguas, Andreu Fernández-Codina, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
AIM: To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of opportunistic infection (OI) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory myopathies, and compare mortality rates between those with and without OIs. METHODS: In total, 204 patients from our myositis cohort were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced an OI during the period 1986-2014. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes were systematically recorded...
February 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Daigo Inoyama, Steven D Paget, Riccardo Russo, Srinivasan Kandasamy, Pradeep Kumar, Eric Singleton, James Occi, Margareta Tuckman, Matthew D Zimmerman, Hsin Pin Ho, Alexander L Perryman, Véronique Dartois, Nancy Connell, Joel S Freundlich
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is responsible for a global pandemic. New drugs are needed that lack cross-resistance with the existing front-line therapeutics. A triazine antitubercular hit led to the design of a related pyrimidine family. The synthesis of a focused series of these analogs facilitated exploration of their in vitro activity, in vitro cytotoxicity, physiochemical, and Absorption-Distribution-Metabolism-Excretion properties. Select pyrimidines were then evaluated for their mouse pharmacokinetic profiles...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Arnold Bainomugisa, Evelyn Lavu, Stenard Hiashiri, Suman Majumdar, Alice Honjepari, Rendi Moke, Paison Dakulala, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Sushil Pandey, Ben J Marais, Chris Coulter, Lachlan Coin
An outbreak of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported on Daru Island, Papua New Guinea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains driving this outbreak and the temporal accrual of drug resistance mutations have not been described. Whole genome sequencing of 100 of 165 clinical isolates referred from Daru General Hospital to the Supranational reference laboratory, Brisbane, during 2012-2015 revealed that 95 belonged to a single modern Beijing sub-lineage strain. Molecular dating suggested acquisition of streptomycin and isoniazid resistance in the 1960s, with potentially enhanced virulence mediated by an mycP1 mutation...
January 4, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Louis Grandjean, Robert H Gilman, Tomatada Iwamoto, Claudio U Köser, Jorge Coronel, Mirko Zimic, M Estee Török, Diepreye Ayabina, Michelle Kendall, Christophe Fraser, Simon Harris, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock, David A J Moore, Caroline Colijn
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis poses a major threat to the success of tuberculosis control programs worldwide. Understanding how drug-resistant tuberculosis evolves can inform the development of new therapeutic and preventive strategies. METHODS: Here, we use novel genome-wide analysis techniques to identify polymorphisms that are associated with drug resistance, adaptive evolution and the structure of the phylogenetic tree. A total of 471 samples from different patients collected between 2009 and 2013 in the Lima suburbs of Callao and Lima South were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform with 150bp paired-end reads...
2017: PloS One
Cristina Kraemer Zimpel, Paulo E Brandão, Antônio F de Souza Filho, Robson F de Souza, Cássia Y Ikuta, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Naila C Soler Camargo, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Ana M S Guimarães
Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis and is the main organism responsible for zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. We performed the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a Brazilian strain of M. bovis named SP38, and performed comparative genomics of M. bovis genomes deposited in GenBank. M. bovis SP38 has a traditional tuberculous mycobacterium genome of 4,347,648 bp, with 65.5% GC, and 4,216 genes. The majority of CDSs (2,805, 69.3%) have predictive function, while 1,206 (30.07%) are hypothetical. For comparative analysis, 31 M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Y Toloba, K Ouattara, D Soumaré, T Kanouté, G Berthé, B Baya, B Konaté, M Keita, B Diarra, A Cissé, F S Camara, S Diallo
INTRODUCTION: Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case...
December 12, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Mickael Orgeur, Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis is one of the most widely spread human pathogens. It has succeeded to infect a quarter of the global human population by developing most sophisticated ways to circumvent innate and adaptive immune defences. This highly specialized, major human pathogen has evolved from a pool of ancestral environmental mycobacteria, whose extant representatives are known under the name of Mycobacterium canettii. Recent whole genome analyses in combination with different phenotypic screens have provided key insights into the evolution of M...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Gurkamajit Kaur, Aashish Sharma, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium leprae has a reduced genome size due to the reductive evolution over a long period of time. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the life cycle and pathogenesis of this bacterium. In comparison to 26 lip genes (Lip A-Z) of M. tuberculosis, M. leprae retained only three orthologs indicating their importance in its life cycle. ML0314c (LipU) is one of them. It is conserved throughout the mycobacterium species. Bioinformatics analysis showed the presence of an α/β hydrolase fold and 'GXSXG' characteristic of the esterases/lipases...
February 15, 2018: Gene
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