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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704375/the-effect-of-the-promiscuity-stereotype-on-opposition-to-gay-rights
#1
David Pinsof, Martie G Haselton
Opposition to gay rights is prevalent in countries around the world. Recent correlational research suggests that opposition to gay rights may be driven by an interaction between one's own short-term mating orientation (i.e. willingness to engage in casual sex) and representations of gay people as sexually promiscuous. Here, we experimentally manipulated representations of gay men by randomly assigning participants to read one of two versions of a fictitious newspaper article, one of which contained faux scientific evidence confirming the stereotype that gay men are promiscuous, and the other containing faux scientific evidence refuting the stereotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683114/evidence-for-arrogance-on-the-relative-importance-of-expertise-outcome-and-manner
#2
Maxim Milyavsky, Arie W Kruglanski, Marina Chernikova, Noa Schori-Eyal
Arrogant behavior is as old as human nature. Nonetheless, the factors that cause people to be perceived as arrogant have received very little research attention. In this paper, we focused on a typical manifestation of arrogance: dismissive behavior. In particular, we explored the conditions under which a person who dismissed advice would be perceived as arrogant. We examined two factors: the advisee's competence, and the manner in which he or she dismissed the advice. The effect of the advisee's competence was tested by manipulating two competence cues: relative expertise, and the outcome of the advice dismissal (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679696/distinct-developmental-pathways-underlie-independent-losses-of-flight-in-ratites
#3
Cynthia Faux, Daniel J Field
Recent phylogenetic studies question the monophyly of ratites (large, flightless birds incorporating ostriches, rheas, kiwis, emus and cassowaries), suggesting their paraphyly with respect to flying tinamous (Tinamidae). Flightlessness and large body size have thus likely evolved repeatedly among ratites, and separately in ostriches (Struthio) and emus (Dromaius). Here, we test this hypothesis with data from wing developmental trajectories in ostriches, emus, tinamous and chickens. We find the rate of ostrich embryonic wing growth falls within the range of variation exhibited by flying taxa (tinamous and chickens), but that of emus is extremely slow...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584926/theory-of-mind-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-motor-and-cognitive-functions-but-not-with-symptom-lateralization
#4
Lisa Nobis, Katharina Schindlbeck, Felicitas Ehlen, Hannes Tiedt, Charlotte Rewitzer, Annelien A Duits, Fabian Klostermann
Next to the typical motor signs, Parkinson's disease (PD) goes along with neuropsychiatric symptoms, amongst others affecting social cognition. Particularly, Theory of Mind (ToM) impairments have mostly been associated with right hemispherical brain dysfunction, so that it might prevail in patients with left dominant PD. Fourty-four PD patients, twenty-four with left and twenty with right dominant motor symptoms, engaged in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) and the Faux Pas Detection Test (FPD) to assess affective and cognitive ToM...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558473/theory-of-mind-and-empathy-in-children-with-adhd
#5
Hagai Maoz, Hila Z Gvirts, Maya Sheffer, Yuval Bloch
OBJECTIVE: The current study compared empathy and theory of mind (ToM) between children with ADHD and healthy controls, and assessed changes in ToM among children with ADHD following administration of methylphenidate (MPH). METHOD: Twenty-four children with ADHD (mean age = 10.3 years) were compared with 36 healthy controls. All children completed the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a self-reported empathy questionnaire, and performed the "faux-pas" recognition task (FPR)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542205/rots-an-r-package-for-reproducibility-optimized-statistical-testing
#6
Tomi Suomi, Fatemeh Seyednasrollah, Maria K Jaakkola, Thomas Faux, Laura L Elo
Differential expression analysis is one of the most common types of analyses performed on various biological data (e.g. RNA-seq or mass spectrometry proteomics). It is the process that detects features, such as genes or proteins, showing statistically significant differences between the sample groups under comparison. A major challenge in the analysis is the choice of an appropriate test statistic, as different statistics have been shown to perform well in different datasets. To this end, the reproducibility-optimized test statistic (ROTS) adjusts a modified t-statistic according to the inherent properties of the data and provides a ranking of the features based on their statistical evidence for differential expression between two groups...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511677/a-strategy-to-improve-phasing-of-whole-genome-sequenced-individuals-through-integration-of-familial-information-from-dense-genotype-panels
#7
Pierre Faux, Tom Druet
BACKGROUND: Haplotype reconstruction (phasing) is an essential step in many applications, including imputation and genomic selection. The best phasing methods rely on both familial and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information. With whole-genome sequence (WGS) data, relatively small samples of reference individuals are generally sequenced due to prohibitive sequencing costs, thus only a limited amount of familial information is available. However, reference individuals have many relatives that have been genotyped (at lower density)...
May 16, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487163/a-multi-year-study-of-hepatic-biomarkers-in-coastal-fishes-from-the-gulf-of-mexico-after-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#8
Marci Smeltz, Laura Rowland-Faux, Céline Ghiran, William F Patterson, Steven B Garner, Alan Beers, Quentin Mièvre, Andrew S Kane, Margaret O James
Following the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, concerns were raised regarding exposure of fish to crude oil components, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This three year study examined hepatic enzymes in post-mitochondrial supernatant fractions from red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus) collected in the north central Gulf of Mexico between 2011 and 2014. Biomarker activities evaluated included benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)...
April 27, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474126/sex-differences-in-amino-acids-lost-via-sweating-could-lead-to-differential-susceptibilities-to-disturbances-in-nitrogen-balance-and-collagen-turnover
#9
R H Dunstan, D L Sparkes, B J Dascombe, C J Stevens, G R Murphy, M M Macdonald, J Gottfries, C-G Gottfries, T K Roberts
Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin's natural moisturising factors and has been termed "faux" sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n = 47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat (10.5 ± 1...
May 4, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463515/rational-design-of-bisubstrate-type-analogues-as-inhibitors-of-dna-methyltransferases-in-cancer-cells
#10
Ludovic Halby, Yoann Menon, Elodie Rilova, Dany Pechalrieu, Véronique Masson, Celine Faux, Mohamed Amine Bouhlel, Marie-Hélène David-Cordonnier, Natacha Novosad, Yannick Aussagues, Arnaud Samson, Laurent Lacroix, Fréderic Ausseil, Laurence Fleury, Dominique Guianvarc'h, Clotilde Ferroud, Paola B Arimondo
Aberrant DNA hypermethylation of promoter of tumor suppressor genes is commonly observed in cancer, and its inhibition by small molecules is promising for their reactivation. Here we designed bisubstrate analogues-based inhibitors, by mimicking each substrate, the S-adenosyl-l-methionine and the deoxycytidine, and linking them together. This approach resulted in quinazoline-quinoline derivatives as potent inhibitors of DNMT3A and DNMT1, some showing certain isoform selectivity. We highlighted the importance of (i) the nature and rigidity of the linker between the two moieties for inhibition, as (ii) the presence of the nitrogen on the quinoline group, and (iii) of a hydrophobic group on the quinazoline...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446116/risk-adjusted-hospital-mortality-rates-for-stroke-evidence-from-the-australian-stroke-clinical-registry-auscr
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Dominique A Cadilhac, Monique F Kilkenny, Christopher R Levi, Natasha A Lannin, Amanda G Thrift, Joosup Kim, Brenda Grabsch, Leonid Churilov, Helen M Dewey, Kelvin Hill, Steven G Faux, Rohan Grimley, Helen Castley, Peter J Hand, Andrew Wong, Geoffrey K Herkes, Melissa Gill, Douglas Crompton, Sandy Middleton, Geoffrey A Donnan, Craig S Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Hospital data used to assess regional variability in disease management and outcomes, including mortality, lack information on disease severity. We describe variance between hospitals in 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) for stroke, comparing models that include or exclude stroke severity as a covariate. DESIGN: Cohort design linking Australian Stroke Clinical Registry data with national death registrations. Multivariable models using recommended statistical methods for calculating 30-day RAMRs for hospitals, adjusted for demographic factors, ability to walk on admission, stroke type, and stroke recurrence...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415374/explicit-calculation-of-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-relaxation-rates-in-small-pores-to-elucidate-molecular-scale-fluid-dynamics
#12
D A Faux, P J McDonald
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spin-lattice (T_{1}^{-1}) and spin-spin (T_{2}^{-1}) relaxation rate measurements can act as effective nondestructive probes of the nanoscale dynamics of ^{1}H spins in porous media. In particular, fast-field-cycling T_{1}^{-1} dispersion measurements contain information on the dynamics of diffusing spins over time scales spanning many orders of magnitude. Previously published experimental T_{1}^{-1} dispersions from a plaster paste, synthetic saponite, mortar, and oil-bearing shale are reanalyzed using a model and associated theory which describe the relaxation rate contributions due to the interaction between spin ensembles in quasi-two-dimensional pores...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415296/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-relaxation-due-to-the-translational-diffusion-of-fluid-confined-to-quasi-two-dimensional-pores
#13
D A Faux, P J McDonald, N C Howlett
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) relaxation experimentation is an effective technique for nondestructively probing the dynamics of proton-bearing fluids in porous media. The frequency-dependent relaxation rate T_{1}^{-1} can yield a wealth of information on the fluid dynamics within the pore provided data can be fit to a suitable spin diffusion model. A spin diffusion model yields the dipolar correlation function G(t) describing the relative translational motion of pairs of ^{1}H spins which then can be Fourier transformed to yield T_{1}^{-1}...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392697/comparing-the-ability-of-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-in-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#14
Dandan Li, Xiaosi Li, Fengqiong Yu, Xingui Chen, Long Zhang, Dan Li, Qiang Wei, Qing Zhang, Chunyan Zhu, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Evidence in the literature suggests that there is an impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as one's ability to understand others' wishes, beliefs, intentions, and other psychological states and thereby to judge others' behavior, as an essential component of social cognition. However, there have been limited studies on social cognition, especially ToM in adolescent onset schizophrenia (AOS). The current study aims to investigate ToM abilities in adolescent schizophrenia according to various ToM subcomponents (cognitive ToM and affective ToM) and various ToM orders (first order and second order)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360809/social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-first-degree-relatives
#15
Rukiye Ay, Ömer Böke, Ozan Pazvantoğlu, Ahmet Rıfat Şahin, Gökhan Sarisoy, Ali Cezmi Arik, Hatice Güz
INTRODUCTION: Social cognition is a person's ability to configure the designs of relationships between themselves and others and to use these designs to guide social behaviors in a flexible manner. The models that are the most studied and describe social cognition are the theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. This study was aimed to detect ToM and emotion recognition disorders in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives. METHODS: Thirty schizophrenia patients in remission, the first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (n=30), and 30 healthy volunteers who were paired with the patients in terms of age and duration of education were included in the study...
December 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286963/rehabilitation-and-education-are-underutilized-for-mild-stroke-and-tia-sufferers
#16
Steven G Faux, Pooja Arora, Christine T Shiner, Angelica G Thompson-Butel, Linda A Klein
PURPOSE: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and mild stroke represent a large proportion of cerebrovascular events, at high risk of being followed by recurrent, serious events. The importance of early education addressing risk management, secondary prevention and lifestyle modifications is the centerpiece of further stroke prevention. However, delivering education and rehabilitation to this population can be complex and challenging. METHODS: Via synthesis of a narrative review and clinical experience, we explore the unique and inherent complexities of rehabilitation management and education provision for patients following mild stroke and TIA...
March 12, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258253/quality-of-acute-care-and-long-term-quality-of-life-and-survival-the-australian-stroke-clinical-registry
#17
Dominique A Cadilhac, Nadine E Andrew, Natasha A Lannin, Sandy Middleton, Christopher R Levi, Helen M Dewey, Brenda Grabsch, Steve Faux, Kelvin Hill, Rohan Grimley, Andrew Wong, Arman Sabet, Ernest Butler, Christopher F Bladin, Timothy R Bates, Patrick Groot, Helen Castley, Geoffrey A Donnan, Craig S Anderson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Uncertainty exists over whether quality improvement strategies translate into better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and survival after acute stroke. We aimed to determine the association of best practice recommended interventions and outcomes after stroke. METHODS: Data are from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry during 2010 to 2014. Multivariable regression was used to determine associations between 3 interventions: received acute stroke unit (ASU) care and in various combinations with prescribed antihypertensive medication at discharge, provision of a discharge care plan, and outcomes of survival and HRQoL (EuroQoL 5-dimensional questionnaire visual analogue scale) at 180 days, by stroke type...
April 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225838/-mental-simulation-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#18
Daniel G Politis, Wanda Y Rubinstein, María E Tabernero
There is a common network for perception and execution of actions necessary for the acquisition of Theory of Mind, and the mirror neuron system could be the neural substrate. OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of apraxia and their relationship to Theory of Mind in patients with behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia. METHODS: 24 patients were assessed, and the cognitive praxis assessment battery and theory of mind were administered. RESULTS: All the tasks of the cognitive praxis assessment battery showed a significant correlation with the first order False Believe task, while Faces Test showed correlations with all the battery tasks except Auditory verbal income...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216119/does-previous-use-affect-litter-box-appeal-in-multi-cat-households
#19
J J Ellis, R T S McGowan, F Martin
It is commonly assumed that cats actively avoid eliminated materials (especially in multi-cat homes), suggesting regular litter box cleaning as the best defense against out-of-box elimination. The relationship between previous use and litter box appeal to familiar subsequent users is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between previous litter box use and the identity of the previous user, type of elimination, odor, and presence of physical/visual obstructions in a multi-cat household scenario...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205575/cu-ii-atsm-improves-the-neurological-phenotype-and-survival-of-sod1-g93a-mice-and-selectively-increases-enzymatically-active-sod1-in-the-spinal-cord
#20
James B Hilton, Stephen W Mercer, Nastasia K H Lim, Noel G Faux, Gojko Buncic, Joseph S Beckman, Blaine R Roberts, Paul S Donnelly, Anthony R White, Peter J Crouch
Ubiquitous expression of mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) selectively affects motor neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), causing the adult-onset degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The CNS-specific impact of ubiquitous mutant SOD1 expression is recapitulated in transgenic mouse models of the disease. Here we present outcomes for the metallo-complex Cu(II)(atsm) tested for therapeutic efficacy in mice expressing SOD1(G93A) on a mixed genetic background. Oral administration of Cu(II)(atsm) delayed the onset of neurological symptoms, improved locomotive capacity and extended overall survival...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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