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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216119/does-previous-use-affect-litter-box-appeal-in-multi-cat-households
#1
J J Ellis, R T S McGowan, F Martin
It is commonly assumed that cats actively avoid eliminated materials (especially in multi-cat homes), suggesting regular litter box cleaning as the best defense against out-of-box elimination. The relationship between previous use and litter box appeal to familiar subsequent users is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between previous litter box use and the identity of the previous user, type of elimination, odor, and presence of physical/visual obstructions in a multi-cat household scenario...
February 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205575/cu-ii-atsm-improves-the-neurological-phenotype-and-survival-of-sod1-g93a-mice-and-selectively-increases-enzymatically-active-sod1-in-the-spinal-cord
#2
James B Hilton, Stephen W Mercer, Nastasia K H Lim, Noel G Faux, Gojko Buncic, Joseph S Beckman, Blaine R Roberts, Paul S Donnelly, Anthony R White, Peter J Crouch
Ubiquitous expression of mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) selectively affects motor neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), causing the adult-onset degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The CNS-specific impact of ubiquitous mutant SOD1 expression is recapitulated in transgenic mouse models of the disease. Here we present outcomes for the metallo-complex Cu(II)(atsm) tested for therapeutic efficacy in mice expressing SOD1(G93A) on a mixed genetic background. Oral administration of Cu(II)(atsm) delayed the onset of neurological symptoms, improved locomotive capacity and extended overall survival...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167746/randomised-controlled-trial-examining-the-effect-of-an-outpatient-exercise-training-programme-on-haemodynamics-and-cardiac-mr-parameters-of-right-ventricular-function-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-the-expah-study-protocol
#3
Karen S W Chia, Steven G Faux, Peter K K Wong, Cameron Holloway, Hassan Assareh, Craig S McLachlan, Eugene Kotlyar
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially life-threatening condition characterised by elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Early stage PH patients are often asymptomatic. Disease progression is associated with impairment of right ventricular function and progressive dyspnoea. Current guidelines recommend exercise training (grade IIa, level B). However, many questions remain regarding the mechanisms of improvement, intensity of supervision and optimal frequency, duration and intensity of exercise...
February 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125169/the-additional-value-of-different-radiographic-views-on-identification-of-early-radiographic-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-and-its-progression-the-check-cohort-hip-and-cohort-knee-study
#4
Jurgen Damen, Jos Runhaar, Margreet Kloppenburg, Rik Meijer, Sita M A Bierma-Zeinstra, Edwin H G Oei
Objective To investigate the prevalence and progression of early radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) of the hip and knee on different radiographic views, to determine whether different radiographic views have additional value in detecting early hip and knee ROA cases, or progression. Methods In the CHECK cohort (N=1002) five different radiographs were obtained: an anteroposterior (AP) and faux profile view of the hips and a posteroanterior (PA), mediolateral (ML) and skyline view of the knees. Prevalence of ROA was estimated based on each view separately and in combinations...
January 26, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048962/chemical-ecology-of-wave-swept-shores-the-primacy-of-contact-cues-in-predation-by-whelks
#5
Graham A Ferrier, Cheryl Ann Zimmer, Richard K Zimmer
Wave-swept shores are valuable for developing and testing key ecological principles. A synthesis of research is nonetheless missing a critical component: the chemosensory basis for behavioral interactions that determine population- and community-wide attributes. Chemical signaling environments on wave-swept shores, given their intense, turbulent mixing and complex topographies, would be difficult or impossible to simulate in a laboratory setting. For this reason, appropriately scaled field studies are needed to advance understanding of chemical stimuli and their biotic effects...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974378/architecture-of-the-yeast-elongator-complex
#6
Maria I Dauden, Jan Kosinski, Olga Kolaj-Robin, Ambroise Desfosses, Alessandro Ori, Celine Faux, Niklas A Hoffmann, Osita F Onuma, Karin D Breunig, Martin Beck, Carsten Sachse, Bertrand Séraphin, Sebastian Glatt, Christoph W Müller
The highly conserved eukaryotic Elongator complex performs specific chemical modifications on wobble base uridines of tRNAs, which are essential for proteome stability and homeostasis. The complex is formed by six individual subunits (Elp1-6) that are all equally important for its tRNA modification activity. However, its overall architecture and the detailed reaction mechanism remain elusive. Here, we report the structures of the fully assembled yeast Elongator and the Elp123 sub-complex solved by an integrative structure determination approach showing that two copies of the Elp1, Elp2, and Elp3 subunits form a two-lobed scaffold, which binds Elp456 asymmetrically...
February 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936120/sweat-facilitated-amino-acid-losses-in-male-athletes-during-exercise-at-32-34%C3%A2-c
#7
R Hugh Dunstan, Diane L Sparkes, Benjamin J Dascombe, Margaret M Macdonald, Craig A Evans, Christopher J Stevens, Marcus J Crompton, Johan Gottfries, Jesse Franks, Grace Murphy, Ryan Wood, Timothy K Roberts
Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902803/alphasim-software-for-breeding-program-simulation
#8
Anne-Michelle Faux, Gregor Gorjanc, R Chris Gaynor, Mara Battagin, Stefan M Edwards, David L Wilson, Sarah J Hearne, Serap Gonen, John M Hickey
This paper describes AlphaSim, a software package for simulating plant and animal breeding programs. AlphaSim enables the simulation of multiple aspects of breeding programs with a high degree of flexibility. AlphaSim simulates breeding programs in a series of steps: (i) simulate haplotype sequences and pedigree; (ii) drop haplotypes into the base generation of the pedigree and select single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN); (iii) assign QTN effects, calculate genetic values, and simulate phenotypes; (iv) drop haplotypes into the burn-in generations; and (v) perform selection and simulate new generations...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893873/association-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-ferritin-level-with-preclinical-cognitive-decline-in-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-carriers
#9
Scott Ayton, Noel G Faux, Ashley I Bush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875567/transforming-water-social-influence-moderates-psychological-physiological-and-functional-response-to-a-placebo-product
#10
Alia J Crum, Damon J Phillips, J Parker Goyer, Modupe Akinola, E Tory Higgins
This paper investigates how social influence can alter physiological, psychological, and functional responses to a placebo product and how such responses influence the ultimate endorsement of the product. Participants consumed a product, "AquaCharge Energy Water," falsely-labeled as containing 200 mg of caffeine but which was actually plain spring water, in one of three conditions: a no social influence condition, a disconfirming social influence condition, and a confirming social influence condition. Results demonstrated that the effect of the product labeling on physiological alertness (systolic blood pressure), psychological alertness (self-reported alertness), functional alertness (cognitive interference), and product endorsement was moderated by social influence: participants experienced more subjective, physiological and functional alertness and stronger product endorsement when they consumed the product in the confirming social influence condition than when they consumed the product in the disconfirming social influence condition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837572/clinical-and-cognitive-factors-affecting-psychosocial-functioning-in-remitted-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#11
G Konstantakopoulos, N Ioannidi, M Typaldou, D Sakkas, P Oulis
Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810518/social-cognition-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#12
Filippo S Giorgi, Melania Guida, Lorenzo Caciagli, Cristina Pagni, Chiara Pizzanelli, Enrica Bonanni, Gloria Tognoni, Ubaldo Bonuccelli
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is a common genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome. Several studies have detailed cognitive and imaging abnormalities pointing to frontal lobe dysfunction, as well as disadvantageous behavioral traits and poor social outcome, challenging the commonly held view of JME being a benign disorder. Social cognition is the ability to elaborate mental representations of social interactions and to use them correctly in social contexts, and includes Theory of Mind (ToM), which pertains to the attribution of cognitive and affective mental states to self and others and seems to rely on complex fronto-temporal interactions...
December 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646536/ngs-based-reverse-genetic-screen-for-common-embryonic-lethal-mutations-compromising-fertility-in-livestock
#13
Carole Charlier, Wanbo Li, Chad Harland, Mathew Littlejohn, Wouter Coppieters, Frances Creagh, Steve Davis, Tom Druet, Pierre Faux, François Guillaume, Latifa Karim, Mike Keehan, Naveen Kumar Kadri, Nico Tamma, Richard Spelman, Michel Georges
We herein report the result of a large-scale, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based screen for embryonic lethal (EL) mutations in Belgian beef and New Zealand dairy cattle. We estimated by simulation that cattle might carry, on average, ∼0.5 recessive EL mutations. We mined exome sequence data from >600 animals, and identified 1377 stop-gain, 3139 frame-shift, 1341 splice-site, 22,939 disruptive missense, 62,399 benign missense, and 92,163 synonymous variants. We show that cattle have a comparable load of loss-of-function (LoF) variants (defined as stop-gain, frame-shift, or splice-site variants) as humans despite having a more variable exome...
October 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635114/are-theory-of-mind-skills-in-people-with-epilepsy-related-to-how-stigmatised-they-feel-an-exploratory-study
#14
A J Noble, A Robinson, A G Marson
Feelings of stigma are one of the main burdens reported by people with epilepsy (PWE). Adults with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy and children with idiopathic generalised epilepsy are at risk of Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits. ToM refers to social cognitive skills, including the ability to understand the thoughts, intentions, beliefs, and emotions of others. It has been proffered that ToM deficits may contribute to the feelings of stigma experienced by PWE. In this study we tested this for the first time...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586077/bilingualism-social-cognition-and-executive-functions-a-tale-of-chickens-and-eggs
#15
Simon R Cox, Thomas H Bak, Michael Allerhand, Paul Redmond, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Sarah E MacPherson
The influence of bilingualism on cognitive functioning is currently a topic of intense scientific debate. The strongest evidence for a cognitive benefit of bilingualism has been demonstrated in executive functions. However, the causal direction of the relationship remains unclear: does learning other languages improve executive functions or are people with better executive abilities more likely to become bilingual? To address this, we examined 90 male participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936; 26 were bilingual, 64 monolingual...
October 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570961/-model-of-engagement-and-dropout-for-adolescents-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Lyne Desrosiers, Micheline Saint-Jean, Lise Laporte
Objectives More than half of suicidal adolescents, a large proportion of which manifest borderline personality disorder (BPD), drop out from treatment. The consequences of their premature termination are cause for concern given the recurrence of their suicidal attempts and that they present elevated risk for major mental disorders during adulthood. The study sought to gain a broader appreciation of processes involved in the treatment dropout among adolescents with BPD.Method A constructivist grounded theory was chosen using a multiple-case research design...
December 0: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550844/de-novo-and-inherited-mutations-in-the-x-linked-gene-clcn4-are-associated-with-syndromic-intellectual-disability-and-behavior-and-seizure-disorders-in-males-and-females
#17
E E Palmer, T Stuhlmann, S Weinert, E Haan, H Van Esch, M Holvoet, J Boyle, M Leffler, M Raynaud, C Moraine, H van Bokhoven, T Kleefstra, K Kahrizi, H Najmabadi, H-H Ropers, M R Delgado, D Sirsi, S Golla, A Sommer, M P Pietryga, W K Chung, J Wynn, L Rohena, E Bernardo, D Hamlin, B M Faux, D K Grange, L Manwaring, J Tolmie, S Joss, J M Cobben, F A M Duijkers, J M Goehringer, T D Challman, F Hennig, U Fischer, A Grimme, V Suckow, L Musante, J Nicholl, M Shaw, S P Lodh, Z Niu, J A Rosenfeld, P Stankiewicz, T J Jentsch, J Gecz, M Field, V M Kalscheuer
Variants in CLCN4, which encodes the chloride/hydrogen ion exchanger CIC-4 prominently expressed in brain, were recently described to cause X-linked intellectual disability and epilepsy. We present detailed phenotypic information on 52 individuals from 16 families with CLCN4-related disorder: 5 affected females and 2 affected males with a de novo variant in CLCN4 (6 individuals previously unreported) and 27 affected males, 3 affected females and 15 asymptomatic female carriers from 9 families with inherited CLCN4 variants (4 families previously unreported)...
August 23, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534714/predicting-alzheimer-disease-from-a-blood-based-biomarker-profile-a-54-month-follow-up
#18
Samantha C Burnham, Christopher C Rowe, David Baker, Ashley I Bush, James D Doecke, Noel G Faux, Simon M Laws, Ralph N Martins, Paul Maruff, S Lance Macaulay, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Greg Savage, David Ames, Colin L Masters, William Wilson, Victor L Villemagne
OBJECTIVE: We assessed a blood-based signature, which previously demonstrated high accuracy at stratifying individuals with high or low neocortical β-amyloid burden (NAB), to determine whether it could also identify individuals at risk of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD) within 54 months. METHODS: We generated the blood-based signature for 585 healthy controls (HCs) and 74 participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study who underwent clinical reclassification (blinded to biomarker findings) at 54-month follow-up...
September 13, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516620/coding-and-noncoding-variants-in-hfm1-mlh3-msh4-msh5-rnf212-and-rnf212b-affect-recombination-rate-in-cattle
#19
Naveen Kumar Kadri, Chad Harland, Pierre Faux, Nadine Cambisano, Latifa Karim, Wouter Coppieters, Sébastien Fritz, Erik Mullaart, Denis Baurain, Didier Boichard, Richard Spelman, Carole Charlier, Michel Georges, Tom Druet
We herein study genetic recombination in three cattle populations from France, New Zealand, and the Netherlands. We identify 2,395,177 crossover (CO) events in 94,516 male gametes, and 579,996 CO events in 25,332 female gametes. The average number of COs was found to be larger in males (23.3) than in females (21.4). The heritability of global recombination rate (GRR) was estimated at 0.13 in males and 0.08 in females, with a genetic correlation of 0.66 indicating that shared variants are influencing GRR in both sexes...
October 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27411000/narrator-point-of-view-and-persuasion-in-health-narratives-the-role-of-protagonist-reader-similarity-identification-and-self-referencing
#20
Meng Chen, Robert A Bell, Laramie D Taylor
Narratives are often used in messages about health threats. We posited that a 1st-person point of view (POV) narrative would have a greater effect than a 3rd-person POV on the mediators identification and self-referencing-an effect moderated by protagonist-reader similarity. Higher levels of identification and self-referencing were expected to elevate susceptibility and severity perceptions, leading to persuasion. Participants ages ≤30 years were recruited from a crowdsource website and randomly assigned to read one version of a faux magazine article about caffeine overdose...
August 2016: Journal of Health Communication
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