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C Nilsson, E Hessman, H Sjöblom, A Dencker, E Jangsten, M Mollberg, H Patel, C Sparud-Lundin, H Wigert, C Begley
BACKGROUND: Fear of Childbirth (FOC) is a common problem affecting women's health and wellbeing, and a common reason for requesting caesarean section. The aims of this review were to summarise published research on prevalence of FOC in childbearing women and how it is defined and measured during pregnancy and postpartum, and to search for useful measures of FOC, for research as well as for clinical settings. METHODS: Five bibliographic databases in March 2015 were searched for published research on FOC, using a protocol agreed a priori...
January 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Patricia Healy, Valerie Smith, Gerard Savage, Mike Clarke, Declan Devane, Mechthild M Gross, Sandra Morano, Deirdre Daly, Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin, Jane Nicoletti, Marlene Sinclair, Rebekah Maguire, Margaret Carroll, Cecily Begley
BACKGROUND: Complex interventions encompassing several interconnecting and interacting components can be challenging to evaluate. Examining the underlying trial processes while an intervention is being tested can assist in explaining why an intervention was effective (or not). This paper describes a process evaluation of a pan-European cluster randomised controlled trial, OptiBIRTH (undertaken in Ireland, Italy and Germany), that successfully used both quantitative and qualitative methods to enhance understanding of the underlying trial mechanisms and their effect on the trial outcome...
January 5, 2018: Trials
Amrita G Shenoy, Charles E Begley, Lee Revere, Stephen H Linder, Stephen P Daiger
INTRODUCTION: Adoption of Medicaid Section 1115 waiver is one of the many ways of innovating healthcare delivery system. The Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) pool, one of the two funding pools of the waiver has four categories viz. infrastructure development, program innovation and redesign, quality improvement reporting and lastly, bringing about population health improvement. BACKGROUND: A metric of the fourth category, preventable hospitalization (PH) rate was analyzed in the context of eight conditions for two time periods, pre-reporting years (2010-2012) and post-reporting years (2013-2015) for two hospital cohorts, DSRIP participating and non-participating hospitals...
December 7, 2017: Healthcare
Dhananjay M Bhandari, Dmytro Fedoseyenko, Tadhg P Begley
Tryptophan lyase catalyzes the formation of 3-methylindole-2-carboxylic acid and 3-methylindole from L-tryptophan. In this paper, we provide evidence supporting a formyl radical intermediate and demonstrate that cyanide is a byproduct of the NosL-catalyzed reaction with L-tryptophan. These experiments require a major revision of the NosL mechanism and uncover an unanticipated connection between NosL and HydG - the radical SAM enzyme that forms cyanide and carbon monoxide from tyrosine during the biosynthesis of the metallo cluster of the [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Douglas G Widman, Ellen Young, Usha Nivarthi, Jesica A Swanstrom, Scott R Royal, Boyd L Yount, Kari Debbink, Matthew Begley, Stephanie Marcet, Anna Durbin, Aravinda M de Silva, William B Messer, Ralph S Baric
Dengue vaccine trials have revealed deficits in our understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity, demonstrating a need to measure epitope-specific antibody responses against each DENV serotype. HmAb 5J7 binds to a complex, 3-monomer spanning quaternary epitope in the DENV3 envelope (E) protein, but it is unclear whether all interactions are needed for neutralization. Structure guided design and reverse genetics were used to sequentially transplant larger portions of the DENV3-specific 5J7 mAb epitope into dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV4)...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sergii Romanenko, Ryan Begley, Alan R Harvey, Livia Hool, Vincent P Wallace
Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to human-made electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100-109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109-1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011-1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Annamaria Bagnasco, Giuseppe Aleo, Fiona Timmins, Thelma Begley, Stelios Parissopoulos, Loredana Sasso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
Verónica Martínez-Fernández, Ana Isabel Garrido-Godino, María Carmen Mirón-García, Victoria Begley, Antonio Fernández-Pévida, Jesús de la Cruz, Sebastián Chávez, Francisco Navarro
Rpb5 is a subunit shared by the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases although its role in transcription remains unclear. It has been proposed that it makes contact with the promoter DNA and to participate in the coordination of the opening/closing of the RNA polymerase II DNA cleft. Here, we report the specific role of Rpb5 in the function of the yeast RNA polymerase II. The rpb5-P151T mutation specifically impairs transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II but does not influence the functions of RNA polymerases I or III...
November 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gemma Devenish, Aqif Mukhtar, Andrea Begley, Loc Do, Jane Scott
Background: Dental research into early childhood caries is hindered by a lack of suitable dietary assessment tools that have been developed and validated for the population and outcomes of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Food Frequency Questionnaire (SMILE-FFQ), to assess the total and free sugars intakes of Australian toddlers. Methods: The SMILE-FFQ was designed to capture the leading dietary contributors to dental caries risk in toddlers aged 18-30 months via a proxy report...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Deborah Awisi Gyau, Carolyn Begley, J Daniel Nelson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically feasible method for obtaining dye concentrations of 2% fluorescein (FL) and 1% lissamine green (LG) by soaking commercially available dye impregnated strips in saline. METHODS: Calibration curves were established to related known concentrations of dye to prepared FL fluorescence and LG absorbance. To determine the optimum number of dye strips and soaking times (preliminary testing), 1, 2, 3 FL or LG strips were soaked in 200 μl commercially available saline for 0...
October 28, 2017: Ocular Surface
Geoff Bates, Emma Begley, David Tod, Lisa Jones, Conan Leavey, Jim McVeigh
We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
Debra M Krupke, Dale A Begley, John P Sundberg, Joel E Richardson, Steven B Neuhauser, Carol J Bult
Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Terrence F Meehan, Nathalie Conte, Theodore Goldstein, Giorgio Inghirami, Mark A Murakami, Sebastian Brabetz, Zhiping Gu, Jeffrey A Wiser, Patrick Dunn, Dale A Begley, Debra M Krupke, Andrea Bertotti, Alejandra Bruna, Matthew H Brush, Annette T Byrne, Carlos Caldas, Amanda L Christie, Dominic A Clark, Heidi Dowst, Jonathan R Dry, James H Doroshow, Olivier Duchamp, Yvonne A Evrard, Stephane Ferretti, Kristopher K Frese, Neal C Goodwin, Danielle Greenawalt, Melissa A Haendel, Els Hermans, Peter J Houghton, Jos Jonkers, Kristel Kemper, Tin O Khor, Michael T Lewis, K C Kent Lloyd, Jeremy Mason, Enzo Medico, Steven B Neuhauser, James M Olson, Daniel S Peeper, Oscar M Rueda, Je Kyung Seong, Livio Trusolino, Emilie Vinolo, Robert J Wechsler-Reya, David M Weinstock, Alana Welm, S John Weroha, Frédéric Amant, Stefan M Pfister, Marcel Kool, Helen Parkinson, Atul J Butte, Carol J Bult
Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mouse models have emerged as an important oncology research platform to study tumor evolution, mechanisms of drug response and resistance, and tailoring chemotherapeutic approaches for individual patients. The lack of robust standards for reporting on PDX models has hampered the ability of researchers to find relevant PDX models and associated data. Here we present the PDX models minimal information standard (PDX-MI) for reporting on the generation, quality assurance, and use of PDX models...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Adriana Mena, Daniel A Medina, José García-Martínez, Victoria Begley, Abhyudai Singh, Sebastián Chávez, Mari C Muñoz-Centeno, José E Pérez-Ortín
Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant...
October 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Jessica Begley, Kelley Bowden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Ross Shegog, Charles E Begley
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder involving recurrent seizures. It affects approximately 5 million people in the U.S. To optimize their quality of life people with epilepsy are encouraged to engage in self-management (S-M) behaviors. These include managing their treatment (e.g., adhering to anti-seizure medication and clinical visit schedules), managing their seizures (e.g., responding to seizure episodes), managing their safety (e.g., monitoring and avoiding environmental seizure triggers), and managing their co-morbid conditions (e...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Danielle N Horridge, Allison A Begley, June Kim, Neeraja Aravindan, Kexin Fan, Mark H Forsyth
OipA is a phase-variable virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. Mutations in oipA to turn the gene phase on in a cag pathogenicity island (PAI)-negative strain of H. pylori (J68) or phase off in a cag PAI-positive strain (26695) demonstrated that phase on oipA alleles in both strains had both increased oipA mRNA and human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell adherence compared to isogenic oipA phase off mutants. An oipA phase off mutant of H. pylori 26695 demonstrated decreased IL-8 secretion by AGS cells and failure to translocate the cag PAI effector CagA...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
Jesús de la Cruz, Fernando Gómez-Herreros, Olga Rodríguez-Galán, Victoria Begley, María de la Cruz Muñoz-Centeno, Sebastián Chávez
Ribosome biogenesis is a crucial process for growth and constitutes the major consumer of cellular resources. This pathway is subjected to very stringent regulation to ensure correct ribosome manufacture with a wide variety of environmental and metabolic changes, and intracellular insults. Here we summarise our current knowledge on the regulation of ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by particularly focusing on the feedback mechanisms that maintain ribosome homeostasis. Ribosome biogenesis in yeast is controlled mainly at the level of the production of both pre-rRNAs and ribosomal proteins through the transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of the TORC1 and protein kinase A signalling pathways...
October 11, 2017: Current Genetics
Magdalena A Gutowska, Brateen Shome, Sebastian Sudek, Darcy L McRose, Maria Hamilton, Stephen J Giovannoni, Tadhg P Begley, Alexandra Z Worden
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) is a cofactor for critical enzymatic processes and is scarce in surface oceans. Several eukaryotic marine algal species thought to rely on exogenous thiamin are now known to grow equally well on the precursor 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (HMP), including the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi Because the thiamin biosynthetic capacities of the diverse and ecologically important haptophyte lineage are otherwise unknown, we investigated the pathway in transcriptomes and two genomes from 30 species representing six taxonomic orders...
October 10, 2017: MBio
Kyung Jin Lee, Dong Yun Shin, Ayeong Byeon, Ahyoun Lim, Young Suk Jo, Alina Begley, Dong-Hee Lim, Yung-Eun Sung, Hyun S Park, Keun Hwa Chae, Suk Woo Nam, Kwan-Young Lee, Jin Young Kim
Here we report the preparation of hollow microspheres with a thin shell composed of mixed cobalt nitride (Co-N) and cobalt oxide (Co-O) nanofragments encapsulated in thin layers of nitrogen-doped carbon (N-C) nanostructure (Co-N/Co-O@N-C) arrays with enhanced bifunctional oxygen electrochemical performance. The hybrid structures are synthesized via heat treatment of N-doped hollow carbon microspheres with cobalt nitrate, and both the specific ratio of these precursors and the selected annealing temperature are found to be the key factors for the formation of the unique hybrid structure...
October 26, 2017: Nanoscale
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