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Sarah Donnelly, Emer Begley, Marita O'Brien
In recent years, there have been national and international policy advances around capacity and decision-making and an apparent burgeoning rights-based approach to the issue, all of which have the potential to impact on the experience for people with dementia in Ireland. There is little evidence however on whether these policies and principles are being translated into practice and whether traditional paternalistic approaches to decision-making are being challenged. To gain insight into current practice, research was undertaken with social workers working with older people in Ireland; reporting on the involvement of people living with dementia in care-planning processes...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Lindsay Iverson, Martha Todd, Ann Ryan Haddad, Katie Packard, Kimberley Begley, Joy Doll, Kim Hawkins, Ann Laughlin, Julie Manz, Chris Wichman
Healthcare institutions, accreditation agencies for higher learning, and organizations such as the National Academy of Medicine in the United States, support interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. However, incorporating IPE opportunities into academic settings remains difficult. One challenge is assessing IPE learning and practice outcomes, especially at the level of student performance to ensure graduates are "collaboration-ready". The Creighton-Interprofessional Collaborative Evaluation (C-ICE) instrument was developed to address the need for a measurement tool for interprofessional student team performance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Marie Pariollaud, Julie Gibbs, Thomas Hopwood, Sheila Brown, Nicola Begley, Ryan Vonslow, Toryn Poolman, Baoqiang Guo, Ben Saer, D Heulyn Jones, James P Tellam, Stefano Bresciani, Nicholas Co Tomkinson, Justyna Wojno-Picon, Anthony Wj Cooper, Dion A Daniels, Ryan P Trump, Daniel Grant, William Zuercher, Timothy M Willson, Andrew S MacDonald, Brian Bolognese, Patricia L Podolin, Yolanda Sanchez, Andrew Si Loudon, David W Ray
Recent studies reveal that airway epithelial cells are critical pulmonary circadian pacemaker cells, mediating rhythmic inflammatory responses. Using mouse models, we now identify the rhythmic circadian repressor REV-ERB as essential to the mechanism coupling the pulmonary clock to innate immunity, involving both myeloid, and bronchial epithelial cells in temporal gating and determining amplitude of response to inhaled endotoxin. Dual mutation of REV-ERBα and its paralog REV-ERBβ in bronchial epithelia further augmented inflammatory responses and chemokine activation, but also initiated a basal inflammatory state, revealing a critical homeostatic role for REV-ERB proteins in the suppression of the endogenous pro-inflammatory mechanism in un-challenged cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jingshu Xu, Stephanie J Church, Stefano Patassini, Paul Begley, Katherine A B Kellett, Emma R L C Vardy, Richard D Unwin, Nigel M Hooper, Garth J S Cooper
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes the most prevalent form of age-related dementia but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Altered regulation of metals, particularly pan-cerebral copper deficiency, and more regionally-localized perturbation of other metals, are prominent in AD brain although data on how these CNS perturbations are reflected in the peripheral bloodstream are inconsistent to date. To assess the potential use of metal dysregulation to generate biomarkers in AD, we performed a case-control study of seven essential metals and selenium, measured by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry, in samples from AD and matched control cases...
March 7, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Katherine S Carlos, Lowri S deJager, Timothy H Begley
PVC is a common food contact material that is usually plasticized to increase its flexibility. Phthalates are one class of chemical compounds that are often used as plasticizers in PVC in a wide range of industries. They may be used in packaging materials for foods and can also be found in components of certain food processing equipment such as conveyor belts and tubing. Transfer of plasticizers from packaging to foods can occur. In recent years, there has been increased interest in understanding the health effects of phthalates, as well as the possible human exposure levels...
March 6, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Erdong Chen, Martha Sajatovic, Hongyan Liu, Ashley Bukach, Curtis Tatsuoka, Elisabeth Welter, Samantha S Schmidt, Yvan A Bamps, Shelley C Stoll, Tanya M Spruill, Daniel Friedman, Charles E Begley, Ross Shegog, Robert T Fraser, Erica K Johnson, Barbara C Jobst
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that represents a tremendous burden on both patients and society in general. Studies have addressed how demographic variables, socioeconomic variables, and psychological comorbidity are related to the quality of life (QOL) of people with epilepsy (PWE). However, there has been less focus on how these factors may differ between patients who exhibit varying degrees of seizure control. This study utilized data from the Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with the aim of elucidating differences in demographic variables, depression, and QOL between adult PWE...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Hannah R Begley, Bruce H Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Thomas W Hopwood, Sarah Hall, Nicola Begley, Ruth Forman, Sheila Brown, Ryan Vonslow, Ben Saer, Matthew C Little, Emma A Murphy, Rebecca J Hurst, David W Ray, Andrew S MacDonald, Andy Brass, David A Bechtold, Julie E Gibbs, Andrew S Loudon, Kathryn J Else
Resistance to the intestinal parasitic helminth Trichuris muris requires T-helper 2 (TH 2) cellular and associated IgG1 responses, with expulsion typically taking up to 4 weeks in mice. Here, we show that the time-of-day of the initial infection affects efficiency of worm expulsion, with strong TH 2 bias and early expulsion in morning-infected mice. Conversely, mice infected at the start of the night show delayed resistance to infection, and this is associated with feeding-driven metabolic cues, such that feeding restriction to the day-time in normally nocturnal-feeding mice disrupts parasitic expulsion kinetics...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhi Yang, Runxiang Yang, Min Ji Kwak, Aiham Qdaisat, Junzhong Lin, Charles E Begley, Cielito C Reyes-Gibby, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung
BACKGROUND: Although cancer patients (CPs) are increasingly likely to visit emergency department (ED), no population-based study has compared the characteristics of CPs and non-cancer patients (NCPs) who visit the ED and examined factors associated with hospitalization via the ED. In this study, we (1) compared characteristics and diagnoses between CPs and NCPs who visited the ED in a cancer center or general hospital; (2) compared characteristics and diagnoses between CPs and NCPs who were hospitalized via the ED in a cancer center or general hospital; and (3) investigated important factors associated with such hospitalization...
2018: PloS One
Amanda Begley, Alicia Briggs, Christopher Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Pediatrics in Review
Seohyun Lee, Charles E Begley, Robert Morgan, Wenyaw Chan, Sun-Young Kim
BACKGROUND: As an innovative solution to poor access to care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), m-health has gained wide attention in the past decade. INTRODUCTION: Despite enthusiasm from the global health community, LMICs have not demonstrated high uptake of m-health promoting policies or public investment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To benchmark the current status, this study compared m-health policy readiness scores between sub-Saharan Africa and high-income Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries using an independent two-sample t test...
February 12, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Tammy Hine, Yun Zhao, Andrea Begley, Sheila Skeaff, Jill Sherriff
BACKGROUND: Iodine requirements increase during pregnancy and although national recommendations for daily iodine supplementation (150 µg) exist, there is no research related to the uptake of these recommendations by pregnant women in Western Australia. AIMS: To investigate the use of iodine-containing supplements and associations with their use in a sample of Western Australian pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a public tertiary hospital for women and neonates in Perth during 2012 and 2013 (n = 425)...
February 7, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
L Zhong, C F Ketelaar, R J Braun, C G Begley, P E King-Smith
Evaporation is a recognized contributor to tear film thinning and tear breakup (TBU). Recently, a different type of TBU is observed, where TBU happens under or around a thick area of lipid within a second after a blink. The thick lipid corresponds to a glob. Evaporation alone is too slow to offer a complete explanation of this breakup. It has been argued that the major reason of this rapid tear film thinning is divergent flow driven by a lower surface tension of the glob (via the Marangoni effect). We examine the glob-driven TBU hypothesis in a 1D streak model and axisymmetric spot model...
January 30, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Deirdre Daly, Mike Clarke, Cecily Begley
INTRODUCTION: While many women report urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy, associations with pre-pregnancy urinary leakage remain under-explained. METHODS: We performed a multi-strand prospective cohort study with 860 nulliparous women recruited during pregnancy. RESULTS: Prevalence of any urinary leakage was 34.8% before and 38.7% during pregnancy. Prevalence of UI, leaking urine at least once per month, was 7.2% and 17.7% respectively...
January 23, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
C Nilsson, E Hessman, H Sjöblom, A Dencker, E Jangsten, M Mollberg, H Patel, C Sparud-Lundin, H Wigert, C Begley
BACKGROUND: Fear of Childbirth (FOC) is a common problem affecting women's health and wellbeing, and a common reason for requesting caesarean section. The aims of this review were to summarise published research on prevalence of FOC in childbearing women and how it is defined and measured during pregnancy and postpartum, and to search for useful measures of FOC, for research as well as for clinical settings. METHODS: Five bibliographic databases in March 2015 were searched for published research on FOC, using a protocol agreed a priori...
January 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Patricia Healy, Valerie Smith, Gerard Savage, Mike Clarke, Declan Devane, Mechthild M Gross, Sandra Morano, Deirdre Daly, Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin, Jane Nicoletti, Marlene Sinclair, Rebekah Maguire, Margaret Carroll, Cecily Begley
BACKGROUND: Complex interventions encompassing several interconnecting and interacting components can be challenging to evaluate. Examining the underlying trial processes while an intervention is being tested can assist in explaining why an intervention was effective (or not). This paper describes a process evaluation of a pan-European cluster randomised controlled trial, OptiBIRTH (undertaken in Ireland, Italy and Germany), that successfully used both quantitative and qualitative methods to enhance understanding of the underlying trial mechanisms and their effect on the trial outcome...
January 5, 2018: Trials
Amrita G Shenoy, Charles E Begley, Lee Revere, Stephen H Linder, Stephen P Daiger
INTRODUCTION: Adoption of Medicaid Section 1115 waiver is one of the many ways of innovating healthcare delivery system. The Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) pool, one of the two funding pools of the waiver has four categories viz. infrastructure development, program innovation and redesign, quality improvement reporting and lastly, bringing about population health improvement. BACKGROUND: A metric of the fourth category, preventable hospitalization (PH) rate was analyzed in the context of eight conditions for two time periods, pre-reporting years (2010-2012) and post-reporting years (2013-2015) for two hospital cohorts, DSRIP participating and non-participating hospitals...
December 7, 2017: Healthcare
Dhananjay M Bhandari, Dmytro Fedoseyenko, Tadhg P Begley
Tryptophan lyase catalyzes the formation of 3-methylindole-2-carboxylic acid and 3-methylindole from L-tryptophan. In this paper, we provide evidence supporting a formyl radical intermediate and demonstrate that cyanide is a byproduct of the NosL-catalyzed reaction with L-tryptophan. These experiments require a major revision of the NosL mechanism and uncover an unanticipated connection between NosL and HydG - the radical SAM enzyme that forms cyanide and carbon monoxide from tyrosine during the biosynthesis of the metallo cluster of the [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Douglas G Widman, Ellen Young, Usha Nivarthi, Jesica A Swanstrom, Scott R Royal, Boyd L Yount, Kari Debbink, Matthew Begley, Stephanie Marcet, Anna Durbin, Aravinda M de Silva, William B Messer, Ralph S Baric
Dengue vaccine trials have revealed deficits in our understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity, demonstrating a need to measure epitope-specific antibody responses against each DENV serotype. HmAb 5J7 binds to a complex, 3-monomer spanning quaternary epitope in the DENV3 envelope (E) protein, but it is unclear whether all interactions are needed for neutralization. Structure guided design and reverse genetics were used to sequentially transplant larger portions of the DENV3-specific 5J7 mAb epitope into dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV4)...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sergii Romanenko, Ryan Begley, Alan R Harvey, Livia Hool, Vincent P Wallace
Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to human-made electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100 -109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109 -1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011 -1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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