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Yok Hian Chionh, Megan McBee, I Ramesh Babu, Fabian Hia, Wenwei Lin, Wei Zhao, Jianshu Cao, Agnieszka Dziergowska, Andrzej Malkiewicz, Thomas J Begley, Sylvie Alonso, Peter C Dedon
Microbial pathogens adapt to the stress of infection by regulating transcription, translation and protein modification. We report that changes in gene expression in hypoxia-induced non-replicating persistence in mycobacteria-which models tuberculous granulomas-are partly determined by a mechanism of tRNA reprogramming and codon-biased translation. Mycobacterium bovis BCG responded to each stage of hypoxia and aerobic resuscitation by uniquely reprogramming 40 modified ribonucleosides in tRNA, which correlate with selective translation of mRNAs from families of codon-biased persistence genes...
November 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Ingela Lundgren, Patricia Healy, Margaret Carroll, Cecily Begley, Andrea Matterne, Mechthild M Gross, Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin, Jane Nicoletti, Sandra Morano, Christina Nilsson, Joan Lalor
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and the most common reason is repeat CS following previous CS. For most women a vaginal birth after a previous CS (VBAC) is a safe option. However, the rate of VBAC differs in an international perspective. Obtaining deeper knowledge of clinicians' views on VBAC can help in understanding the factors of importance for increasing VBAC rates. Focus group interviews with clinicians and women in three countries with high VBAC rates (Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands) and three countries with low VBAC rates (Ireland, Italy and Germany) are part of "OptiBIRTH", an ongoing research project...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
A Begley, P Magennis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: British Dental Journal
Marie Rusner, Marie Berg, Cecily Begley
BACKGROUND: Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a mental disorder usually diagnosed between 18 and 30 years of age; this coincides with the period when many women experience pregnancy and childbirth. As specific problems have been reported in pregnancy and childbirth when the mother has BD, a systematic review was carried out to summarise the outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth, in mother and child, when the mother has BD diagnosed before pregnancy. METHODS: An a priori protocol was designed and a systematic search conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases in March 2015...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Thanos Karatzias, Sally Jowett, Amelie Begley, Suzanne Deas
BACKGROUND: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82)...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Lee Revere, Adele Semaan, Nicole Lievsay, Jessica Hall, Zheng M Wang, Charles Begley
The Texas Medicaid 1115 Transformation Waiver reforms the state's safety net systems by creating a Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment incentive pool for innovative healthcare delivery. The Waiver supports the design and implementation of transformative projects. As part of the Waiver requirements, regions created Learning Collaboratives to collaborate on project implementation and outcomes. This paper describes the experience of one region in adapting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Breakthrough Series (IHI BTS) model, as a framework for their Learning Collaborative...
September 13, 2016: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Thomas Kirkegaard, James Gray, David A Priestman, Kerri-Lee Wallom, Jennifer Atkins, Ole Dines Olsen, Alexander Klein, Svetlana Drndarski, Nikolaj H T Petersen, Linda Ingemann, David A Smith, Lauren Morris, Claus Bornæs, Signe Humle Jørgensen, Ian Williams, Anders Hinsby, Christoph Arenz, David Begley, Marja Jäättelä, Frances M Platt
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) often manifest with severe systemic and central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. The existing treatment options are limited and have no or only modest efficacy against neurological manifestations of disease. We demonstrate that recombinant human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) improves the binding of several sphingolipid-degrading enzymes to their essential cofactor bis(monoacyl)glycerophosphate in vitro. HSP70 treatment reversed lysosomal pathology in primary fibroblasts from 14 patients with eight different LSDs...
September 7, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Margaret Carroll, Deirdre Daly, Cecily M Begley
BACKGROUND: Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality with approximately 225 women dying as a result of it each day especially in low income countries. However, much less is known about morbidity after a PPH. This systematic review aimed to determine the overall prevalence of emotional and physical health problems experienced by women following a postpartum haemorrhage. METHODS: Eight databases were searched for published non-randomised, observational, including cohort, primary research studies that reported on the prevalence of emotional and/or physical health problems following a PPH...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Hui Xu, Yindrila Chakrabarty, Benjamin Philmus, Angad P Mehta, Dhananjay Bhandari, Hans-Peter Hohmann, Tadhg P Begley
Riboflavin is a common cofactor, and its biosynthetic pathway is well characterized. However, its catabolic pathway, despite intriguing hints in a few distinct organisms, has never been established. This article describes the isolation of a Microbacterium maritypicum riboflavin catabolic strain, and the cloning of the riboflavin catabolic genes. RcaA, RcaB, RcaD, and RcaE were overexpressed and biochemically characterized as riboflavin kinase, riboflavin reductase, ribokinase, and riboflavin hydrolase, respectively...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fiona Timmins, Maryanne Murphy, Thelma Begley, Freda Neill, Greg Sheaf
National and international professional health and nursing guidelines recommend that attention should be given to the spiritual and religious needs of patients. This suggests that spiritual care is an important aspect of holistic patient care that needs to be considered and supported, if relevant, in a healthcare context. However, many nurses lack knowledge and awareness of the subject, and it is unclear to what extent core textbooks provide the information they need. This article reports on a study that explored the extent to which contemporary core nursing textbooks support and advocate the provision of spiritual care by nurses...
September 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
Andrea Begley, Christina Mary Pollard
BACKGROUND: The disease burden due to poor nutrition, physical inactivity and obesity is high and increasing. An adequately sized and skilled workforce is required to respond to this issue. This study describes the public health nutrition and physical activity (NAPA) practice priorities and explores health managers and practitioner's beliefs regarding workforce capacity to deliver on these priorities. METHODS: A workforce audit was conducted including a telephone survey of all managers and a postal survey of practitioners working in the area of NAPA promotion in Western Australia in 2004...
2016: BMC Public Health
Meredith E Jansen, Ping Situ, Carolyn G Begley, Danielle Boree, Robin L Chalmers, Kathrine Osborn Lorenz, Tawnya Wilson
PURPOSE: To document the time course and resolution of contact lens-related corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) comparing slit-lamp images with anterior segment ocular coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images. METHODS: Six silicone hydrogel (SiHy) soft contact lens (SCL) wearers presenting with newly diagnosed symptomatic CIEs were monitored with slit-lamp images, detailed drawings, and AS-OCT until the resolution of the CIE. A final follow-up visit was completed 4 weeks after CIE resolution to determine whether scar formation was present...
August 24, 2016: Cornea
Tristan D McClure-Begley, Irina Esterlis, Kathryn L Stone, TuKiet T Lam, Sharon R Grady, Christopher M Colangelo, Jon M Lindstrom, Michael J Marks, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) support the initiation and maintenance of smoking, but the long-term changes occurring in the protein complex as a result of smoking and the nicotine in tobacco are not known. Human studies and animal models have also demonstrated that increasing cholinergic tone increases behaviors related to depression, suggesting that the nAChR-associated proteome could be altered in individuals with mood disorders. We therefore immunopurified nAChRs and associated proteins for quantitative proteomic assessment of changes in protein-protein interactions of high-affinity nAChRs containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) from either cortex of mice treated with saline or nicotine, or postmortem human temporal cortex tissue from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed individuals, with a further comparison of diagnosed mood disorder to control subjects...
July 2016: ENeuro
Yubao Wang, Michael Begley, Qing Li, Hai-Tsang Huang, Ana Lako, Michael J Eck, Nathanael S Gray, Timothy J Mitchison, Lewis C Cantley, Jean J Zhao
The protein kinase maternal and embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is critical for mitotic progression of cancer cells; however, its mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. By combined approaches of immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry and peptide library profiling, we identified the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) as a MELK-interacting protein during mitosis and a bona fide substrate of MELK. MELK phosphorylates eIF4B at Ser406, a modification found to be most robust in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Charles Begley, Jessica Hall, Amrita Shenoy, June Hanke, Rebecca Wells, Lee Revere, Nicole Lievsay
Texas is one of 8 states that have received a Medicaid 1115 Transformation Waiver in which federal supplemental payments are being used to incentivize delivery system reform. Under the Texas Transformation Waiver's 5-year Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) program, hospitals and other providers have established regional health care partnerships, conducted regional needs assessments, and developed and implemented projects addressing local gaps in service. The projects were selected from menus, supplied by the Texas Health and Human Services Commission and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which defined acceptable infrastructure development and/or program innovation and redesign initiatives...
July 25, 2016: Population Health Management
Jane E Hamilton, Pratikkumar V Desai, Nathan R Hoot, Robin E Gearing, Shin Jeong, Thomas D Meyer, Jair C Soares, Charles E Begley
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral health-related emergency department (ED) visits have been linked with ED overcrowding, an increased demand on limited resources, and a longer length of stay (LOS) due in part to patients being admitted to the hospital but waiting for an inpatient bed. This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of hospital admission for ED patients with behavioral health conditions at 16 hospital-based EDs in a large urban area in the southern United States. METHODS: Using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use for guidance, the study examined the relationship between predisposing (characteristics of the individual, i...
November 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Isita Jhulki, Prem K Chanani, Sameh H Abdelwahed, Tadhg P Begley
Roseoflavin is a naturally occurring riboflavin analogue with antibiotic properties. It is biosynthesized from riboflavin in a reaction involving replacement of the C8 methyl with a dimethylamino group. Herein we report the identification of a flavin-dependent enzyme that converts flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and glutamate to 8-amino-FMN via the intermediacy of 8-formyl-FMN. A mechanistic proposal for this remarkable transformation is proposed.
July 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Stephen Begley, Markus Vogt, Gurpreet Kaur Gulati, Hiroki Takahashi, Matthias Keller
Recent technological advances in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) are paving the way to utilize multiple quantum emitters confined in a single optical cavity. In such systems, it is crucially important to control the quantum mechanical coupling of individual emitters to the cavity mode. In this regard, combining ion trap technologies with CQED provides a particularly promising approach due to the well-established motional control over trapped ions. Here, we experimentally demonstrate coupling of up to five trapped ions in a string to a high-finesse optical cavity...
June 3, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Naomi Elliott, Cecily Begley, Greg Sheaf, Agnes Higgins
BACKGROUND: Advanced roles such as nurse practitioner, nurse consultant and advanced nurse or midwife practitioner are increasing across the world. In most countries, clinical practice, education, leadership and research are the four components that define the advanced practitioner's role. Of these, leadership is perhaps the most important part of the role, but its study has largely been neglected. There is a risk that failure to identify and respond to barriers to enacting the advanced practitioners' leadership role will limit the extent to which they can become strategic leaders for professional development, and jeopardise the long-term sustainability of the role...
August 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Jingshu Xu, Paul Begley, Stephanie J Church, Stefano Patassini, Selina McHarg, Nina Kureishy, Katherine A Hollywood, Henry J Waldvogel, Hong Liu, Shaoping Zhang, Wanchang Lin, Karl Herholz, Clinton Turner, Beth J Synek, Maurice A Curtis, Jack Rivers-Auty, Catherine B Lawrence, Katherine A B Kellett, Nigel M Hooper, Emma R L C Vardy, Donghai Wu, Richard D Unwin, Richard L M Faull, Andrew W Dowsey, Garth J S Cooper
Impairment of brain-glucose uptake and brain-copper regulation occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we sought to further elucidate the processes that cause neurodegeneration in AD by measuring levels of metabolites and metals in brain regions that undergo different degrees of damage. We employed mass spectrometry (MS) to measure metabolites and metals in seven post-mortem brain regions of nine AD patients and nine controls, and plasma-glucose and plasma-copper levels in an ante-mortem case-control study...
2016: Scientific Reports
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