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retinal necrosis

Kazuhiko Umazume, Jun Suzuki, Yoshihiko Usui, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Goto
Purpose. Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a rare ocular disease caused by bacterial or fungal infection of intraocular spaces by hematogenous spread of pathogens from distant infectious loci in the body. We investigated the clinical characteristics and management of eyes with EE in ten consecutive patients. Methods. Ten patients (10 eyes) with EE treated at Tokyo Medical University Hospital in 2014 were reviewed. We retrospectively studied the causative organisms, systemic complications, pre/postoperative mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and status of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Howard F Fine, Samuel P Burke, Thomas A Albini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Shuang Chen, Jie Yan, Hai-Xiao Deng, Ling-Ling Long, Yong-Jun Hu, Mi Wang, Lei Shang, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of calpain on retinal ganglion cell-5 (RGC-5) necroptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). RGC-5 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's-modified essential medium and necroptosis was induced by 8-h OGD. PI staining and flow cytometry were performed to detect RGC-5 necrosis. The calpain expression was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. The calpain activity was tested by activity detection kit. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of calpain on RGC-5 necroptosis following OGD with or without N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) pre-treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Cho Rong Kim, Jie Hyun Kim, Hae-Young Lopilly Park, Chan Kee Park
PURPOSE: A recent study revealed a novel form of cell death, termed necroptosis, or programmed necrosis. Previous research indicated that after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury to the retina, Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) is increased, which may activate necroptosis. This study observed macroglial cell activation, and in particular, astrocyte activation, after the release of TNFα and other necroptosis factors in the rat retina due to IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IR was induced in the retinas of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by increasing the intraocular pressure to 160 mmHg and then allowing reperfusion...
October 12, 2016: Current Eye Research
Ashvini K Reddy, Stephanie B Engelhard, Christopher T Shah, Austin J Sim, Jennifer E Thorne
PURPOSE: To guide risk management in uveitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of malpractice verdicts, rulings, and settlements. RESULTS: The WestLaw® database was reviewed for lawsuits related to uveitis in the United States from 1930-2014. Twenty-five cases met inclusion criteria, and 48% of these were infectious. Overall, 64% of outcomes favored the defendant ophthalmologist. The most common diagnoses were viral retinitis (28%), iritis (12%), syphilis (8%), and toxoplasmosis (8%)...
August 11, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Jason Mingyi Huang, Patrick Callanan, David Callanan, Robert C Wang
PURPOSE: To compare the rate of retinal detachment after acute retinal necrosis in eyes that underwent early vitrectomy versus no early vitrectomy. METHODS: Charts of patients (61 eyes) who presented to Texas Retina Associates between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2014 for acute retinal necrosis were reviewed. Charts with incomplete documentation or follow-up less than 6 months were excluded. Twenty-nine remaining eyes were divided into two groups: early vitrectomy and no early vitrectomy...
August 11, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Chunkui Zhou, Lijun Zhu, Shaokuan Fang
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding eye disease that may be induced by HSV. The present case study reports the very rare case of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) combined with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with persistent high fever and somnolence for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signals in the right medial temporal lobes, and HSV-1 was identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
A Wünschmann, A G Armién, M Khatri, L C Martinez, M Willette, A Glaser, J Alvarez, P Redig
Ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with West Nile (WN) disease. These lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. Postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired WN disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without WN disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for West Nile virus (WNV) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspase-3, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Tamara L Lenis, Stephan Y Chiu, Simon K Law, Fei Yu, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of concurrent Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study of a consecutive cohort of patients. SUBJECTS: Patients who underwent KPro implantation by a single surgeon (A.J.A.) with or without 1 concurrent Ahmed GDD (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation between January 1, 2005, and January 31, 2015, were included...
September 7, 2016: Ophthalmology
Patrik Maximilian Bauer, Marina Castro Zalis, Hodan Abdshill, Tomas Deierborg, Fredrik Johansson, Ulrica Englund-Johansson
BACKGROUND: Disease progression in retinal neurodegeneration is strongly correlated to immune cell activation, which may have either a neuroprotective or neurotoxic effect. Increased knowledge about the immune response profile and retinal neurodegeneration may lead to candidate targets for treatments. Therefore, we have used the explanted retina as a model to explore the immune response and expression of the immune modulator galectin-3 (Gal-3), induced by the cultivation per se and after additional immune stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and how this correlates with retinal neurotoxicity...
2016: PloS One
Tomasz P Stryjewski, Nathan L Scott, Miriam B Barshak, Ellis H Tobin, Joshua J Mali, Lucy H Young, C Stephen Foster, Ivana K Kim, Marlene L Durand
PURPOSE: To report use of intravenous foscarnet or cidofovir for the treatment of refractory acute retinal necrosis (ARN). METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Four immunocompetent men aged 45-90 years presented with ARN from 2008-2014. One patient with two prior episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ARN developed ARN after 6 years of antiviral prophylaxis. His condition worsened on acyclovir followed by intravenous foscarnet but responded to intravenous cidofovir (final VA in involved eye 20/20)...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Hongbo Li, Chunhui Zhu, Baoying Wang, Wenhua Zhu, Yan Feng, Fangying Du, Shaolan Wang, Chenghu Hu, Jie Ma, Xiaorui Yu
The excessive apoptosis of retinal nerve cells (RNCs) could cause a variety of retinal neurodegenerative diseases which could result in the irreversible blindness. In this study, the experiment models of H2O2 and light-induced oxidative insult in the retina of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were used. We demonstrated the role of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in apoptosis and immune-inflammation induced by oxidative stress insult. Meanwhile, we also tried to elucidate the modulating mechanism of 17β-estradiol (E2) resistant to TLR2 induced by oxidative stress insult...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Sanjeet K Shahi
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment...
August 31, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Giuseppe Tringali, Beatrice Sampaolese, Maria Elisabetta Clementi
Pathological alterations to the retinal pigment epithelium underlie several eye diseases, which lead to visual impairment and even blindness. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is associated with some skin and ocular pathologies; UV radiation may induce DNA breakdown and cause cellular damage through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus leading to programmed cell death. The present study aimed to investigate the production of ROS and the gene expression levels of anti‑ and proapoptotic proteins [B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and caspase‑3] in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE‑19) treated with UV‑A for 5 h consecutively...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Deoye Tonade, Haitao Liu, Timothy S Kern
PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest that photoreceptor cells regulate local inflammation in the retina in diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine if photoreceptor cells themselves produce inflammatory proteins in diabetes and if soluble factors released by photoreceptors in elevated glucose induce inflammatory changes in nearby cells. METHODS: Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the outer retina (photoreceptors) from the inner retina in nondiabetic and diabetic mice...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hyung Il Kim, Sun-Sook Paik, Gyu Hyun Kim, Muyan Kim, Soon Ha Kim, In-Beom Kim
NecroX-5 is a derivative of cyclopentylamino carboxymethylthiazolylindole (NecroX), an inhibitor of necrosis/necroptosis. NecroX-5 has been shown to scavenge mitochondrial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and thus preventing necrotic cell death against various kinds of oxidative stress in several tissues, including the brain. To examine the effect of NecroX-5 on retinal degeneration (RD), RD was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by an intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and in BALB/c mice by blue light-emitting diode exposure...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
Sandra Rezar-Dreindl, Stefan Sacu, Katharina Eibenberger, Andreas Pollreisz, Wolf Bühl, Michael Georgopoulos, Christoph Krall, Günther Weigert, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth
PURPOSE: To investigate the course of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines in the aqueous humor of patients with persistent/recurrent neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) under ranibizumab monotherapy (IVM) or ranibizumab plus dexamethasone combination treatment. METHODS: In this 12-month prospective study, 40 eyes with nAMD were treated with either IVM or combined treatment with ranibizumab plus intravitreal dexamethasone implant (IVC). Patients in the IVM group were treated following an "as needed" treatment regimen; patients in the IVC group received ranibizumab and a dexamethasone implant at baseline and were re-treated with ranibizumab...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jiawei Wang, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Giuseppe Rovere, Shida Chen, Wenbin Huang, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, Jost B Jonas, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Xiulan Zhang
PURPOSE: To analyse miRNA regulation in a rat model of acute ocular hypertension (AOH). METHODS: Acute ocular hypertension (AOH) was induced in the left eye of adult albino rats by inserting a cannula connected with a saline container into the anterior chamber. The contralateral eye served as a control. Seven days later, animals were killed. Retinas were used either for quantitative analysis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and microglial cells or for miRNA array hybridization, qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
August 18, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Rohan Chawla, Koushik Tripathy, Varun Gogia, Pradeep Venkatesh
We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Victor Charoenrook, Ralph Michael, Maria Fideliz de la Paz, Angela Ding, Rafael I Barraquer, Jose Temprano
PURPOSE: To analyze the anatomical and functional results of keratoprosthesis using tibial bone autograft. METHODS: We reviewed 113 charts of patients who underwent tibial bone osteokeratoprothesis implantation at the Centro de Oftalmologia Barraquer. Kaplan-Meier survival curves with 95% confidence interval were calculated for functional success, defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥0.05 on the decimal scale, and for anatomical success, defined as retention of the keratoprosthesis lamina...
October 2016: Ocular Surface
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