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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730076/scutellaria-barbata-attenuates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-preventing-retinal-inflammation-and-the-decreased-expression-of-tight-junction-protein
#1
Xi-Yu Mei, Ling-Yu Zhou, Tian-Yu Zhang, Bin Lu, Li-Li Ji
AIM: To observe the attenuation of ethanol extract of Herba Scutellaria barbata (SE) against diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its engaged mechanism. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were orally given with SE (100, 200 mg/kg) for 1mo at 1mo after STZ injection. Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown was detected by using Evans blue permeation assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect mRNA and protein expression...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726787/alkbh7-drives-a-tissue-and-sex-specific-necrotic-cell-death-response-following-alkylation-induced-damage
#2
Jennifer J Jordan, Sophea Chhim, Carrie M Margulies, Mariacarmela Allocca, Roderick T Bronson, Arne Klungland, Leona D Samson, Dragony Fu
Regulated necrosis has emerged as a major cell death mechanism in response to different forms of physiological and pharmacological stress. The AlkB homolog 7 (ALKBH7) protein is required for regulated cellular necrosis in response to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents but its role within a whole organism is unknown. Here, we show that ALKBH7 modulates alkylation-induced cellular death through a tissue and sex-specific mechanism. At the whole-animal level, we find that ALKBH7 deficiency confers increased resistance to MMS-induced toxicity in male but not female mice...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719670/suppressive-effect-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-on-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#3
Ryo Matoba, Yuki Morizane, Yusuke Shiode, Masayuki Hirano, Shinichiro Doi, Shinji Toshima, Ryoichi Araki, Mika Hosogi, Tomoko Yonezawa, Fumio Shiraga
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells plays a central role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulator of energy homeostasis, on the EMT in RPE cells. In this study, EMT-associated formation of cellular aggregates was induced by co-stimulation of cultured ARPE-19 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (10 ng/ml) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 (5 ng/ml)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719353/effect-of-triptolide-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-in-an-optic-nerve-crush-model
#4
Y-F Li, Y-F Zou, X-F Chen, W Zhang
Optic nerve crush model could be used to investigate the mechanism of neuronal survival and axonal regeneration in central nervous system. Triptolide, a Chinese herb extract with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, has shown neuron protective functions in nervous system. In this study, we investigated the changes in retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal regeneration after administration of triptolide in optic nerve crush model. Triptolide treatment tended to promote retinal ganglion cell survival rather than optic nerve regeneration as well as inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715583/tnf%C3%AE-induced-disruption-of-the-blood-retinal-barrier-in-vitro-is-regulated-by-intracellular-3-5-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-levels
#5
Anne-Eva van der Wijk, Ilse M C Vogels, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Ingeborg Klaassen, Reinier O Schlingemann
Purpose: Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) may have a causative role in blood-retinal barrier (BRB) disruption, which is an essential step in the development of diabetic macular edema. The purpose of our study was to determine whether TNFα increases permeability in an in vitro model of the BRB and to explore the mechanisms involved. Methods: Primary bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) were grown on Transwell inserts and cells were stimulated with TNFα or a combination of TNFα, IL1β, and VEGF...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680463/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-herpes-simplex-1-virus-infection-in-pregnancy
#6
REVIEW
Rachel Lee, Manju Nair
A nulliparous woman presented at 21 weeks' gestation with a 72-h history of a rash on her left arm. Initially isolated to the forearm, it had quickly spread, becoming multiple itchy fluid-filled blisters. Blood tests showed mild neutrophilia and raised CRP. Skin swabs demonstrated the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) DNA. There was no history of previous HSV1 exposure. There is scant literature on uncomplicated cutaneous HSV1 since the majority is oral/genital. The incidence of transmission varies and is dependent on site of infection and immunological status...
June 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665442/a-case-of-endophthalmitis-after-bilateral-medial-rectus-recession
#7
Sagar B Patel, Nikitha Reddy, Robert N Hogan, Jennifer H Cao
A 9-month-old male infant with a history of Down syndrome underwent bilateral medial rectus recession. Two weeks postoperatively, he developed leukocoria of the left eye with a white opacity posterior to the lens, numerous undulations, necrosis, and hemorrhages in the retrolental space. His contralateral eye had white retinal lesions nasally. Ultrasound examination of the left eye showed a funnel retinal detachment, loculated debris, and a small, central, hyperechoic area concerning for calcification. He underwent enucleation because retinoblastoma could not be definitively ruled out...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661040/effects-of-white-light-emitting-diode-led-exposure-on-retinal-pigment-epithelium-in-vivo
#8
Imene Jaadane, Gloria Elisa Villalpando Rodriguez, Pierre Boulenguez, Sabine Chahory, Samuel Carré, Michèle Savoldelli, Laurent Jonet, Francine Behar-Cohen, Christophe Martinsons, Alicia Torriglia
Ageing and alteration of the functions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are at the origin of lost of vision seen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The RPE is known to be vulnerable to high-energy blue light. The white light-emitting diodes (LED) commercially available have relatively high content of blue light, a feature that suggest that they could be deleterious for this retinal cell layer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of "white LED" exposure on RPE. For this, commercially available white LEDs were used for exposure experiments on Wistar rats...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630795/efficacy-of-oral-valacyclovir-treatment-in-a-case-with-acute-retinal-necrosis
#9
Mert Şimşek, Pınar Çakar Özdal, Kemal Tekin
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressive disease with poor prognosis, leading to visual loss in most cases. Rapid diagnosis and early anti-viral treatment significantly affect the course and prognosis of the disease. In this case report, we present a 34-year-old female patient referred to our clinic with symptoms of blurred vision and ocular pain diagnosed as acute glaucoma elsewhere. A clinical diagnosis of ARN was made and anti-viral treatment was started immediately. We herein describe our treatment approach to this particular case and discuss previously reported treatment modalities...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625129/triamcinolone-acetonide-suppresses-inflammation-and-facilitates-vascular-barrier-function-in-human-retinal-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#10
Shunsuke Imai, Tomohiro Otsuka, Akira Naito, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is resulted from the retinal microvascular leakage that accompanies the breakdown of blood-retinal barrier. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a therapeutic agent for DME, but since the detailed mechanism of action of TA is not known, part of its action was examined. METHODS: In vitro model to enhance the permeability of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) was constructed by using DME-related cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
June 18, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612282/probing-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-anchoring-on-tnf-alpha-challenged-vascular-endothelia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-retinal-microvascular
#11
Yuan Li, Yao Lu, Qiong Chen, Yuejun Kang, Ling Yu
Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes; it stems from damage to the microvasculature of the retina and eventually compromises vision. The diagnosis of retinopathy is difficult to make because there are no early symptoms or warning signs. Dysfunction of the retina's microvascular networks is believed to be associated with inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To investigate the effect of these cytokines, such as TNF-α, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/glass hydride microfluidic device reflecting the physiological structure of the retina's microvasculature was developed...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600710/the-influence-of-systemic-renin-angiotensin-inhibition-on-ocular-cytokines-related-to-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy
#12
Robert Hoerster, Sascha Fauser, Claus Cursiefen, Bernd Kirchhof, Ludwig M Heindl
PURPOSE: The renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in several organs via induction of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta. In the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) TGF-beta plays a pivotal role, promoting transition of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells into myofibroblasts. We studied the influence of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibition (ACEI) on cytokines and growth factors, related to PVR in aqueous humor. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospectively conducted interventional case series...
June 9, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580724/melatonin-delays-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
Xiao-Jian Xu, Shu-Min Wang, Ying Jin, Yun-Tao Hu, Kang Feng, Zhi-Zhong Ma
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of incurable inherited retinal degenerations. Targeting common processes, instead of mutation specific treatment, has proven to be an innovative strategy to combat debilitating retinal degeneration. Growing evidence indicates that melatonin possesses a potent activity against neurodegenerative disorders by mitigating cell damage associated with apoptosis and inflammation. Given the pleiotropic role of melatonin in central nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether melatonin would afford protection against retinal degeneration in autosomal recessive RP (arRP)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579748/functional-characterization-of-rs2229094-t-c-polymorphism-in-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-locus-and-lymphotoxin-alpha-expression-in-human-retina-the-retina-4-project
#14
Salvador Pastor-Idoate, Irene Rodríguez-Hernández, Jimena Rojas, Lucia Gonzalez-Buendia, Santiago Delgado-Tirado, Jose Carlos López, Rogelio González-Sarmiento, Jose C Pastor
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the expression and localization of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) in human retinas and the functionality of one of its polymorphisms rs2229094 (C13R) (T>C), previously associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA from three healthy human retinas were extracted and subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, using flanking primers of LTA cDNA...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579471/first-case-of-vaccine-strain-varicella-infection-as-manifestation-of-hiv-in-healthcare-worker-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
B D Navalkele, O Henig, M Fairfax, E Flanagan, M Upfal, J Russell, S Dhar, K Kaye, T Chopra
Live-attenuated varicella vaccination is safe in non-immunocompromised populations and is associated with rare non-serious adverse events. A healthcare worker (HCW) developed varicella infection, and exposure investigation led to immunization against varicella in an exposed non-immune HCW. Subsequently, vaccine-strain-induced disseminated varicella and progressive outer retinal necrosis in the exposed HCW resulted in identification of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews serious adverse events from varicella vaccination, and extreme caution is advised prior to live vaccination of HCWs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572674/cytokine-profiling-in-the-sub-silicone-oil-fluid-after-vitrectomy-surgeries-for-refractory-retinal-diseases
#16
Hiroki Kaneko, Kei Takayama, Tetsu Asami, Yasuki Ito, Taichi Tsunekawa, Takeshi Iwase, Yasuhito Funahashi, Shinji Ueno, Norie Nonobe, Shunsuke Yasuda, Ayana Suzumura, Hideyuki Shimizu, Reona Kimoto, Shiang-Jyi Hwang, Hiroko Terasaki
Silicone oil (SO) is an intraocular surgical adjuvant that reduces the surgical complications in refractory retinal diseases, although membrane and cellular proliferation is often seen even in SO-filled eyes. We hypothesised that the fluid in the space between the SO and the retina, named the "sub-silicone oil fluid (SOF)", enhances these biological responses. We proposed a safe method for SOF extraction. We also analysed inflammatory cytokine expressions and SOF osmotic pressures from eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and macular hole-associated retinal detachment (MHRD)...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542588/inhibition-of-hmgb1-protects-the-retina-from-ischemia-reperfusion-as-well-as-reduces-insulin-resistance-proteins
#17
Li Liu, Youde Jiang, Jena J Steinle
The role of inflammation in diabetic retinal amage is well accepted. While a number of cytokines and inflammatory mediators are responsible for these changes, upstream regulators are less well studied. Additionally, the role for these upstream mediators in retinal health is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that inhibition of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) could restore normal insulin signaling in retinal endothelial cells (REC) grown in high glucose, as well as protect the retina against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced retinal damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538613/acute-retinal-damage-after-using-a-toxic-perfluoro-octane-for-vitreo-retinal-surgery
#18
J Carlos Pastor, Rosa M Coco, Ivan Fernandez-Bueno, Maria L Alonso-Alonso, Jesús Medina, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Fernando Rull, Manuel J Gayoso, Antonio Dueñas, Maria T Garcia-Gutierrez, Lucia Gonzalez-Buendia, Santiago Delgado-Tirado, Emilio Abecia, Miguel Ruiz-Miguel, Miguel A Serrano, Jose M Ruiz-Moreno, Girish K Srivastava
PURPOSE: To describe a series of retinal acute toxicity cases with severe visual loss after intraocular use of a toxic perfluoro-octane (PFO). The clinical presentation is described, and the likely causes are analyzed. New biological methods for testing safety of intraocular medical devices are proposed. METHODS: Information regarding a series of eyes suffering acute severe events after intraocular use of a toxic PFO was analyzed. Four types of spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and chromatography were used to identify the potential PFO contaminants...
June 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536762/bilateral-acute-retinal-necrosis-after-bilateral-cataract-surgery-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#19
Chun Yue Mak, Helena Pui-Yee Sin, Mary Ho, Vesta Cheuk-Ki Chan, Alvin Lerrmann Young, Marten Erik Brelen
PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring after both eyes sequential cataract surgery in an elderly immunocompromised patient. METHODS: Medical records and investigation results of the patient were reviewed. RESULTS: Patient experienced floaters and blurring of vision in both eyes 4 weeks after her second uncomplicated cataract surgery. Clinical signs of granulomatous keratic precipitates, prominent vitritis, retinitis and vascular thrombosis were noted in both eyes...
May 23, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503424/interleukin-13-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
Bo Fu, Zhe-Li Liu, Han Zhang, Feng Gu
AIM: o identify the effects of interleukin (IL)-13 on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the IL-13 level in aqueous humor of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. METHODS: IL-13 levels in aqueous humor specimens from AMD patients were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ARPE-19 cells were treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 12, 24, and 48h. The cell proliferaton was evaluated by the MTS method. The mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA and ZO-1 were evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot respectively...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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