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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900566/autophagy-regulates-death-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#1
REVIEW
Kai Kaarniranta, Paulina Tokarz, Ali Koskela, Jussi Paterno, Janusz Blasiak
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease underlined by the degradation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, photoreceptors, and choriocapillares, but the exact mechanism of cell death in AMD is not completely clear. This mechanism is important for prevention of and therapeutic intervention in AMD, which is a hardly curable disease. Present reports suggest that both apoptosis and pyroptosis (cell death dependent on caspase-1) as well as necroptosis (regulated necrosis dependent on the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL, caspase-independent) can be involved in the AMD-related death of RPE cells...
November 29, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896784/ocular-involvement-associated-with-varicella-in-adults
#2
Salma Gargouri, Sana Khochtali, Sourour Zina, Molka Khairallah, Imen Zone-Abid, Imen Kaibi, Salim Ben Yahia, Jamel Feki, Moncef Khairallah
BACKGROUND: Varicella is a common infectious disease primarily of childhood that is usually benign and self-limited. It is, however, increasingly seen in adults who are at a higher risk of severe infection. Ocular complications of varicella are relatively uncommon and have been rarely described in adults. We describe herein five adults who developed ocular involvement in association with primary varicella-zoster virus infection. FINDINGS: Ocular manifestations included acute anterior uveitis in four eyes, with associated stromal keratitis in one of them, epithelial ulcerative keratitis in the two eyes of one patient, and acute retinal necrosis in one eye...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882300/no-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel%C3%A2-an-unfortunate-case-of-varicella-associated-progressive-outer-retinal-necrosis-in-a-patient-with-neglected-hiv-infection
#3
Robert E Winsett, Holly M Day, Gregory M Anstead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809288/mmp-3-deficiency-alleviates-endotoxin-induced-acute-inflammation-in-the-posterior-eye-segment
#4
Inge Van Hove, Evy Lefevere, Lies De Groef, Jurgen Sergeys, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn Vandenbroucke, Lieve Moons
Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is known to mediate neuroinflammatory processes by activating microglia, disrupting blood-central nervous system barriers and supporting neutrophil influx into the brain. In addition, the posterior part of the eye, more specifically the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the blood-retinal barrier, is affected upon neuroinflammation, but a role for MMP-3 during ocular inflammation remains elusive. We investigated whether MMP-3 contributes to acute inflammation in the eye using the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) model...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807336/-clinical-features-of-viral-encephalitis-with-bilateral-acute-retinal-necrosis-syndrome
#5
Xuan Hou, Hong Jiang
To explore the clinical features of viral encephalitis with acute retinal necrosis syndrome.
 Methods: Clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, treatment and prognosis for 6 patients with viral encephalitis and acute retinal necrosis syndrome, who admitted to Xiangya Hospital from October 2013 to March 2015, were retrospectively analyzed.
 Results: Clinical features of the six cases are similar. Anti-virus treatment and anti-inflammation therapy can improve the prognosis. 
 Conclusion: Viral encephalitis with acute retinal necrosis syndrome is common and the neurological physicians need to strengthen the understanding of this disease...
October 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799744/%C3%AE-aminoadipic-acid-protects-against-retinal-disruption-through-attenuating-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-gliosis-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-ocular-hypertension
#6
Xiaolei Wang, Jier Su, Jingwen Ding, Song Han, Wei Ma, Hong Luo, Guy Hughes, Zhaoyang Meng, Yi Yin, Yanling Wang, Junfa Li
OBJECTIVE: Ocular hypertension is an important risk factor for glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gliotoxic effects of α-aminoadipic acid (AAA) in a rat model of AOH and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the rat model of acute ocular hypertension (AOH), intraocular pressure was increased to 110 mmHg for 60 minutes. Animals were divided into four groups: sham operation (Ctrl), AOH, AOH + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and AOH + AAA...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795766/-role-of-oral-antiviral-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-acute-retinal-necrosis
#7
Samia El Haouzi, Amina Jait, Omar Lezrek, Tachfouti Samira, Laghmari Amina, Ouafa Cherkaoui, Karman Abdellouahed, Rajae Daoudi
: Acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARNS) is a rare but devastating uveitic syndrome with devastating visual outcome (visual prognosis ++). It should be diagnosed as early as possible because of its severity and its risk of bilateralization. This is a rare entity caused by the group of herpes viruses. In immunocompromised patients the complications of RNA syndrome often lead to loss of visual acuity. After the discovery of this disease using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immune load coefficient (ILC) usually by puncturing the cornea to evacuate the aqueous humour, the confirmation of this diagnosis allows for faster optimization of disease management decreasing the time required to confirm the diagnosis...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766175/possible-relation-between-lack-of-posterior-vitreous-detachment-and-severe-endogenous-endophthalmitis
#8
Kazuhiko Umazume, Jun Suzuki, Yoshihiko Usui, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi, Hiroshi Goto
Purpose. Endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) is a rare ocular disease caused by bacterial or fungal infection of intraocular spaces by hematogenous spread of pathogens from distant infectious loci in the body. We investigated the clinical characteristics and management of eyes with EE in ten consecutive patients. Methods. Ten patients (10 eyes) with EE treated at Tokyo Medical University Hospital in 2014 were reviewed. We retrospectively studied the causative organisms, systemic complications, pre/postoperative mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and status of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759854/toxoplasmosis-retinitis-masquerading-as-acute-retinal-necrosis
#9
Howard F Fine, Samuel P Burke, Thomas A Albini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752886/inhibition-of-calpain-on-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-rgc-5-necroptosis
#10
Shuang Chen, Jie Yan, Hai-Xiao Deng, Ling-Ling Long, Yong-Jun Hu, Mi Wang, Lei Shang, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of calpain on retinal ganglion cell-5 (RGC-5) necroptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). RGC-5 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's-modified essential medium and necroptosis was induced by 8-h OGD. PI staining and flow cytometry were performed to detect RGC-5 necrosis. The calpain expression was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. The calpain activity was tested by activity detection kit. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of calpain on RGC-5 necroptosis following OGD with or without N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) pre-treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732109/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-triggers-tnf%C3%AE-induced-necroptosis-in-rat-retina
#11
Cho Rong Kim, Jie Hyun Kim, Hae-Young Lopilly Park, Chan Kee Park
PURPOSE: A recent study revealed a novel form of cell death, termed necroptosis, or programmed necrosis. Previous research indicated that after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury to the retina, Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) is increased, which may activate necroptosis. This study observed macroglial cell activation, and in particular, astrocyte activation, after the release of TNFα and other necroptosis factors in the rat retina due to IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IR was induced in the retinas of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by increasing the intraocular pressure to 160 mmHg and then allowing reperfusion...
October 12, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715388/medical-malpractice-in-uveitis-a-review-of-clinical-entities-and-outcomes
#12
Ashvini K Reddy, Stephanie B Engelhard, Christopher T Shah, Austin J Sim, Jennifer E Thorne
PURPOSE: To guide risk management in uveitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of malpractice verdicts, rulings, and settlements. RESULTS: The WestLaw® database was reviewed for lawsuits related to uveitis in the United States from 1930-2014. Twenty-five cases met inclusion criteria, and 48% of these were infectious. Overall, 64% of outcomes favored the defendant ophthalmologist. The most common diagnoses were viral retinitis (28%), iritis (12%), syphilis (8%), and toxoplasmosis (8%)...
August 11, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715365/rate-of-retinal-detachment-after-early-prophylactic-vitrectomy-for-acute-retinal-necrosis
#13
Jason Mingyi Huang, Patrick Callanan, David Callanan, Robert C Wang
PURPOSE: To compare the rate of retinal detachment after acute retinal necrosis in eyes that underwent early vitrectomy versus no early vitrectomy. METHODS: Charts of patients (61 eyes) who presented to Texas Retina Associates between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2014 for acute retinal necrosis were reviewed. Charts with incomplete documentation or follow-up less than 6 months were excluded. Twenty-nine remaining eyes were divided into two groups: early vitrectomy and no early vitrectomy...
August 11, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698716/fulminant-bilateral-acute-retinal-necrosis-syndrome-associated-with-viral-encephalitis-a-case-report
#14
Chunkui Zhou, Lijun Zhu, Shaokuan Fang
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding eye disease that may be induced by HSV. The present case study reports the very rare case of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) combined with acute retinal necrosis (ARN). A 47-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with persistent high fever and somnolence for 5 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signals in the right medial temporal lobes, and HSV-1 was identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694424/ocular-lesions-in-red-tailed-hawks-buteo-jamaicensis-with-naturally-acquired-west-nile-disease
#15
A Wünschmann, A G Armién, M Khatri, L C Martinez, M Willette, A Glaser, J Alvarez, P Redig
Ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with West Nile (WN) disease. These lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. Postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired WN disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without WN disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for West Nile virus (WNV) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspase-3, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614591/safety-of-concurrent-boston-type-i-keratoprosthesis-and-glaucoma-drainage-device-implantation
#16
Tamara L Lenis, Stephan Y Chiu, Simon K Law, Fei Yu, Anthony J Aldave
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of concurrent Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) and glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study of a consecutive cohort of patients. SUBJECTS: Patients who underwent KPro implantation by a single surgeon (A.J.A.) with or without 1 concurrent Ahmed GDD (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) implantation between January 1, 2005, and January 31, 2015, were included...
September 7, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612287/inflamed-in-vitro-retina-cytotoxic-neuroinflammation-and-galectin-3-expression
#17
Patrik Maximilian Bauer, Marina Castro Zalis, Hodan Abdshill, Tomas Deierborg, Fredrik Johansson, Ulrica Englund-Johansson
BACKGROUND: Disease progression in retinal neurodegeneration is strongly correlated to immune cell activation, which may have either a neuroprotective or neurotoxic effect. Increased knowledge about the immune response profile and retinal neurodegeneration may lead to candidate targets for treatments. Therefore, we have used the explanted retina as a model to explore the immune response and expression of the immune modulator galectin-3 (Gal-3), induced by the cultivation per se and after additional immune stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and how this correlates with retinal neurotoxicity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598973/treatment-of-refractory-acute-retinal-necrosis-with-intravenous-foscarnet-or-cidofovir
#18
Tomasz P Stryjewski, Nathan L Scott, Miriam B Barshak, Ellis H Tobin, Joshua J Mali, Lucy H Young, C Stephen Foster, Ivana K Kim, Marlene L Durand
PURPOSE: To report use of intravenous foscarnet or cidofovir for the treatment of refractory acute retinal necrosis (ARN). METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Four immunocompetent men aged 45-90 years presented with ARN from 2008-2014. One patient with two prior episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) ARN developed ARN after 6 years of antiviral prophylaxis. His condition worsened on acyclovir followed by intravenous foscarnet but responded to intravenous cidofovir (final VA in involved eye 20/20)...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596287/17%C3%AE-estradiol-protects-the-retinal-nerve-cells-suppressing-tlr2-mediated-immune-inflammation-and-apoptosis-from-oxidative-stress-insult-independent-of-pi3k
#19
Hongbo Li, Chunhui Zhu, Baoying Wang, Wenhua Zhu, Yan Feng, Fangying Du, Shaolan Wang, Chenghu Hu, Jie Ma, Xiaorui Yu
The excessive apoptosis of retinal nerve cells (RNCs) could cause a variety of retinal neurodegenerative diseases which could result in the irreversible blindness. In this study, the experiment models of H2O2 and light-induced oxidative insult in the retina of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were used. We demonstrated the role of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in apoptosis and immune-inflammation induced by oxidative stress insult. Meanwhile, we also tried to elucidate the modulating mechanism of 17β-estradiol (E2) resistant to TLR2 induced by oxidative stress insult...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577846/acute-retinal-necrosis-results-in-low-vision-in-a-young-patient-with-a-history-of-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#20
Sanjeet K Shahi
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN), secondary to herpes simplex encephalitis, is a rare syndrome that can present in healthy individuals, as well as immuno-compromised patients. Most cases are caused by a secondary infection from the herpes virus family, with varicella zoster virus being the leading cause of this syndrome. Potential symptoms include blurry vision, floaters, ocular pain and photophobia. Ocular findings may consist of severe uveitis, retinal vasculitis, retinal necrosis, papillitis and retinal detachment...
August 31, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
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