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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733868/investigation-of-belinostat-induced-genomic-instability-by-molecular-cytogenetic-analysis-and-pathway-focused-gene-expression-profiling
#1
S M Attia, M A Al-Hamamah, M R Alotaibi, G I Harisa, M M Attia, S F Ahmad, M A Ansari, A Nadeem, S A Bakheet
Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which regulate transcription and specific functions such as tumor suppression by p53, are frequently altered in tumors and have a contentious role in carcinogenesis. HDAC inhibitors, which have a long history of use in psychiatry and neurology, have recently been tested as possible treatments for tumors. Belinostat received regulatory approval in the USA on July 3, 2014, for use against peripheral T-cell lymphoma. However, the unavailability of information on belinostat genotoxicity in normal cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in the genetic instability after exposure to belinostat encouraged us to conduct this study...
May 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729979/metabolic-syndrome-and-associated-factors-among-psychiatric-patients-in-jimma-university-specialized-hospital-south-west-ethiopia
#2
Sintayehu Asaye, Shiferaw Bekele, Daniel Tolessa, Waqtola Cheneke
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a multisystem disorder which coined to describe the recognized clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among psychiatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: This study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized hospital psychiatric ward from May 15 to July 16, 2015...
April 24, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709540/implications-of-pharmacogenomics-to-the-management-of-ibs
#3
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri
The objectives are to review the role of pharmacogenomics in drug metabolism of medications typically used in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focusing predominantly on cytochrome P450 metabolism. Other aims are to provide examples of genetic variation of receptors or intermediary pathways that are targets for IBS drugs and to critically appraise the situations where precision medicine is impacting health in IBS. Pharmacogenomics impacts both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Although large clinical trials have not incorporated testing for genetic variations that could impact the efficacy of medications in IBS, there are therapeutic advantages to inclusion of pharmacogenomics testing for individual patients, as has been demonstrated particularly in the treatment with central neuromodulators in psychiatry practice...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697715/catatonia-in-the-medically-ill-etiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-the-academy-of-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-evidence-based-medicine-subcommittee-monograph
#4
Lex Denysenko, Nicole Sica, Thomas M Penders, Kemuel L Philbrick, Audrey Walker, Scott Shaffer, Paula Zimbrean, Oliver Freudenreich, Nicole Rex, Brendan T Carroll, Andrew Francis
BACKGROUND: Catatonia in medically ill patients is rare but often unrecognized. This monograph summarizes current knowledge on the diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and management of catatonia occurring in the medical setting. METHODS: PubMed searches were used to identify relevant articles from 1962 to present. RESULTS: More than 3,000 articles were obtained and reviewed for relevance, including references of articles identified by the initial search...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697313/psychiatry-residents-and-fellows-confidence-and-knowledge-in-interpreting-urine-drug-testing-results-related-to-opioids
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested that physicians and residents may not have sufficient knowledge to appropriately interpret urine drug tests (UDT) in patients who are prescribed opioids or using illicit substances. Therefore, the aim of this study was to survey psychiatry residents and fellows about their confidence and knowledge in interpreting UDT in patients with chronic pain or receiving office-based opioid treatment. METHODS: All psychiatry residency and fellowship program directors in the New England states were approached to recruit their trainees to participate in an anonymous on-line survey including a 7-item knowledge test...
April 26, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690558/abuse-of-prescription-drugs-in-the-context-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689343/leveraging-genetics-to-enhance-the-efficacy-of-ptsd-pharmacotherapies
#7
REVIEW
Mark W Miller
Progress in PTSD pharmacotherapy has lagged far behind that of other major mental illnesses. Unfortunately, due to the enormous costs and lengthy process involved in bringing drugs to market, delivering new treatments to patients with PTSD in the near future will remain a challenge. However, by capitalizing on recent advances in the pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, precision psychiatry approaches can be leveraged to optimize the delivery of currently-available medications in a fraction of the time and cost required to develop novel therapeutics...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685065/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-challenges-and-opportunities-for-a-new-clinical-specialty
#8
Aaron D Boes, Michael S Kelly, Nicholas T Trapp, Adam P Stern, Daniel Z Press, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Noninvasive brain stimulation refers to a set of technologies and techniques with which to modulate the excitability of the brain via transcranial stimulation. Two major modalities of noninvasive brain stimulation are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation. Six TMS devices now have approved uses by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and are used in clinical practice: five for treating medication refractory depression and the sixth for presurgical mapping of motor and speech areas...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664808/trends-in-pharmacological-emergency-treatment-of-patients-suffering-from-schizophrenia-over-a-16-year-observation-period
#9
Monika Edlinger, Anna-Sophia Welte, Nursen Yalcin-Siedentopf, Georg Kemmler, Felix Neymeyer, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Alex Hofer
Patients suffering from schizophrenia are often treated in locked psychiatric units because of psychomotor agitation, hostility and aggressive behavior, or suicidality. Because of legal conditions, investigations on these acutely ill patients are difficult, and many studies do not represent 'real-life psychiatry'. This retrospective survey was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics of the Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria. Data were collected from the records of all adult inpatients suffering from a schizophrenia spectrum disorder according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th ed...
April 16, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651656/using-lithium-in-children-and-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-efficacy-tolerability-and-practical-considerations
#10
REVIEW
B Grant, J A Salpekar
Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels...
April 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622902/undiagnosed-diabetes-mellitus-and-associated-factors-among-psychiatric-patients-receiving-antipsychotic-drugs-at-the-university-of-gondar-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#11
Daniel Asmelash, Wondale Getnet, Belete Biadgo, Sintayehu Ambachew, Tadele Melak, Lemmesa Melese, Shiwaneh Damite, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Molla Abebe
Background: Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus cases are at higher risk for diabetic related complications. In low-income African countries, patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus account for 75% of diabetes cases. Psychiatric disorders have a greater impact on the global burden of diseases and disability associated with chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital from February to April 2016...
January 2018: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616714/clinical-profile-of-inpatients-referred-to-a-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service-an-observational-study-assessing-changes-over-a-10-yearperiod
#12
Roberto Sánchez-González, Eva Baillès-Lázaro, Anna Bastidas-Salvadó, Anna Lligoña, Sandra Herranz-Villanueva, Víctor Pérez-Solá, Luis Pintor-Pérez
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has described the characteristics of Consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) services over one or more years. The aim of this paper was to examine the patterns of a large sample of patients receiving CLP service over a 10-year-period (2005–2014) and to determine the possible changes over time of the clinical practice. The sample size of our study, the duration of the observation period and the application of standardized operating procedures for acquiring and coding data, will provide more robust evidence than has been reported by most similar studies published in the last years...
March 2018: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611101/the-compensatory-immune-regulatory-reflex-system-cirs-in-depression-and-bipolar-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Michael Maes, Andre F Carvalho
Here, we review a novel concept namely the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS) as applied to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). There is evidence that a substantial subset of individuals with MDD and BD exhibit an activation of the immune-inflammatory response system (IRS), as indicated by an increased production of macrophagic M1 and T helper (Th)-1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 trans-signaling, positive acute phase proteins (APPs), and complement factors...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#14
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry. Due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, zebrafish may be effectively used to study the endocannabinoid and opioid systems...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593204/modafinil-dependence-a-case-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Huseyin Alacam, Omer Basay, Selim Tumkaya, Mehmet Mart, Gokce Kar
Modafinil is generally known as a drug with low addiction potential. There are few case reports in the literature demonstrating that Modafinil, stated being capable of diminishing symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), causes addiction. In the present article a Modafinil addicted ADHD case, consuming usurious doses (5,000 mg/per day) of Modafinil is presented. The case presented to our psychiatry outpatient clinic due to: requirement of in taking high dose Modafinil in order to achieve the initial effects, difficulty in obtaining the drug, irritability, anxiousness, sleep irregularities, fatigue and unpleasant vivid dreams when he did not use the drug...
March 30, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582410/national-prescribing-trends-for-high-risk-anticholinergic-medications-in-older-adults
#16
Taeho Greg Rhee, Yookyung Christy Choi, Gregory M Ouellet, Joseph S Ross
OBJECTIVES: To estimate prescribing tends of and correlates independently associated with high-risk anticholinergic prescriptions in adults aged 65 and older in office-based outpatient visits. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). PARTICIPANTS: A national sample of office-based physician visits by adults aged 65 and older from 2006 to 2015 (n=96,996 unweighted)...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564546/sports-psychiatry-mental-health-and-mental-disorders-in-athletes-and-exercise-treatment-of-mental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Ströhle
Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics...
March 21, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548498/antipsychotic-treatment-of-psychotic-disorders-in-forensic-psychiatry-patients-perception-of-coercion-and-its-predictors
#18
Juliane Horvath, Tilman Steinert, Susanne Jaeger
BACKGROUND: Despite the major encroachment of coercive measures on the fundamental rights of affected forensic psychiatric patients, there is relatively few research done in this field. Considering the relevance of this subject for psychiatric care and the recent changes of the legal basis of coercive treatment in Germany, more studies are needed. The present study examines forensic psychiatric inpatients' perception of coercion regarding the prescribed antipsychotic medication and factors associated with the perception of coercion...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548497/between-authoritarian-and-dialogical-approaches-attitudes-and-opinions-on-coercion-among-professionals-in-mental-health-and-addiction-care-in-norway
#19
Olaf Gjerløw Aasland, Tonje Lossius Husum, Reidun Førde, Reidar Pedersen
More knowledge is needed on how to reduce the prevalence of formal and informal coercion in Norwegian mental health care. To explore possible reasons for the widespread differences in coercive practice in psychiatry and drug addiction treatment in Norway, and the poor compliance to change initiatives, we performed a nationwide survey. Six vignettes from concrete and realistic clinical situations where coercive measures were among the alternative courses of action, and where the difference between authoritarian (paternalistic) and dialogical (user participation) practices was explicitly delineated, were presented in an electronic questionnaire distributed to five groups of professionals: psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, other professionals and auxiliary treatment staff...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529010/potential-of-oral-fluid-as-a-clinical-specimen-for-compliance-monitoring-of-psychopharmacotherapy
#20
Jasna Neumann, Olof Beck, Norbert Dahmen, Michael Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is being developed as a specimen for the determination of drug intake as an alternative to serum and plasma. It is generally considered as an attractive specimen due to the noninvasive nature of the sampling procedure and the relation to the free fraction of drug in the blood. These features are of particular value in drug treatment of psychiatric disorders. To establish OF for the purpose of monitoring drug therapy, the relationship between concentrations in OF and serum/plasma must be documented...
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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