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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091572/a-computational-psychiatry-approach-identifies-how-alpha-2a-noradrenergic-agonist-guanfacine-affects-feature-based-reinforcement-learning-in-the-macaque
#1
S A Hassani, M Oemisch, M Balcarras, S Westendorff, S Ardid, M A van der Meer, P Tiesinga, T Womelsdorf
Noradrenaline is believed to support cognitive flexibility through the alpha 2A noradrenergic receptor (a2A-NAR) acting in prefrontal cortex. Enhanced flexibility has been inferred from improved working memory with the a2A-NA agonist Guanfacine. But it has been unclear whether Guanfacine improves specific attention and learning mechanisms beyond working memory, and whether the drug effects can be formalized computationally to allow single subject predictions. We tested and confirmed these suggestions in a case study with a healthy nonhuman primate performing a feature-based reversal learning task evaluating performance using Bayesian and Reinforcement learning models...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073811/exploratory-trials-in-mental-health-anything-to-learn-from-other-disciplines
#2
Sven Trelle
OBJECTIVE: Confirmatory randomised controlled trials require solid justifications, especially with regard to whether the experimental intervention is promising. Such evidence is generated in exploratory trials. However, empirical evidence shows that the quality of such trials is still suboptimal. More generally, the development process of healthcare interventions and especially of drugs, remains inefficient. Over the past 10-20 years, a vast amount of methodological work has been published about exploratory trials...
January 10, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070123/a-meta-analysis-of-peripheral-blood-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
X-Y Qin, H-T Wu, C Cao, Y P Loh, Y Cheng
Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066110/assessment-of-impact-of-pharmacophilia-and-pharmacophobia-on-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Mini Johnson Christudas, Balaji Sathyanarayana Gupta, Krishna Undela, Noel M Isaac, Dushad Ram, Madhan Ramesh
AIMS: To investigate the impact of pharmacophilia and pharmacophobia on medication adherence among patients with psychiatric disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry over a period of 2 months. Patients above 18 years of age with a psychiatric diagnosis as per the International Classification of Diseases 10 and receiving at least one psychotropic medication (any medication capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior) for >1 month were enrolled in the study...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051841/a-review-of-a-national-training-initiative-to-increase-provider-use-of-mat-to-address-the-opioid-epidemic
#5
REVIEW
Frances R Levin, Adam Bisaga, Maria A Sullivan, Arthur Robin Williams, Kathryn Cates-Wessel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Providers' Clinical Support System for Medication Assisted Treatment (PCSS-MAT) initiative focuses on training and mentoring health professionals in the treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD) using pharmacological strategies. Led by the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP), PCSS-MAT is a consortium representing four of the five national professional organizations authorized by DATA 2,000-AAAP, American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine, American Psychiatric Association, and American Society of Addiction Medicine...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044943/forgotten-but-not-gone-new-developments-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#6
Jonathan M Meyer
The broad use of atypical antipsychotics was expected to dramatically reduce the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia (TD), but data show that TD remains an important challenge due the persistent nature of its symptoms and resistance to numerous treatment modalities, including antipsychotic discontinuation. Recent insights on genetic risk factors and new concepts surrounding pathophysiology have spurred interest in the possibility of targeted treatment for TD. As will be reviewed in this article, the number of evidence-based strategies for TD treatment is small: only clonazepam, amantadine, ginkgo biloba extract, and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor tetrabenazine have compelling data...
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018986/a-roadmap-for-the-development-of-applied-computational-psychiatry
#7
Martin P Paulus, Quentin J M Huys, Tiago V Maia
BACKGROUND: Computational psychiatry is a burgeoning field that utilizes mathematical approaches to investigate psychiatric disorders, derive quantitative predictions, and integrate data across multiple levels of description. Computational psychiatry has already led to many new insights into the neurobehavioral mechanisms that underlie several psychiatric disorders, but its usefulness from a clinical standpoint is only now starting to be considered. METHODS: Examples of computational psychiatry are highlighted, and a phase-based pipeline for the development of clinical computational-psychiatry applications is proposed, similar to the phase-based pipeline used in drug development...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007050/an-adverse-drug-event-manager-facilitates-spontaneous-reporting-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#8
Siri Vinther, Pia Klarskov, Hanne Borgeskov, Perle Darsø, Anette Kvindebjerg Christophersen, Bille Borck, Catrine Christensen, Melissa Voigt Hansen, Natalie Monica Løvland Halladin, Mikkel Bring Christensen, Kirstine Moll Harboe, Marie Lund, Espen Jimenez-Solem
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is used for continuous risk-benefit evaluation of marketed pharmaceutical products and for signal detection. The Adverse Drug Event Manager (ADEM) is a service offered to clinicians employed at hospitals in the Capital Region of Denmark. The ADEM assists healthcare professionals in reporting suspected ADRs to the Danish Health Authority. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to quantify and describe ADRs reported via the ADEM in 2014...
January 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983759/relative-impact-of-risk-factors-thwarted-belongingness-and-perceived-burdensomeness-on-suicidal-ideation-in-veteran-service-members
#9
Stephen S O'Connor, Erin Carney, Keith W Jennings, Lora L Johnson, Peter M Gutierrez, David A Jobes
OBJECTIVE: We tested the associations between individualized risk factors, empirically validated constructs specific to suicide risk (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, and two methods for conceptualizing suicidal ideation based on Suicide Index Score (SIS) and overall severity score of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [BSS]). METHOD: The current study included a sample of 134 suicidal Veterans who were recruited from an inpatient psychiatry unit of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981374/-on-the-legalization-debate-of-non-medical-cannabis-consumption-position-paper-of-the-german-association-for-psychiatry-psychotherapy-and-psychosomatics
#10
U Havemann-Reinecke, E Hoch, U W Preuss, F Kiefer, A Batra, G Gerlinger, I Hauth
Calls are increasing for the legalization of cannabis. Some legal experts, various politicians, political parties and associations are demanding a change in drug policy. The legalization debate is lively and receiving wide coverage in the media. The German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) comments on the most important questions from a medical scientific perspective: can cannabis consumption trigger mental illnesses, what consequences would legalization have for the healthcare system and where is more research needed?...
December 15, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977851/implementation-of-treatment-guidelines-for-specialist-mental-health-care
#11
REVIEW
Irene Bighelli, Giovanni Ostuzzi, Francesca Girlanda, Andrea Cipriani, Thomas Becker, Markus Koesters, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: A huge gap exists between the production of evidence and its uptake in clinical practice settings. To fill this gap, treatment guidelines, based on explicit assessments of the evidence base, are commonly used in several fields of psychiatry, including schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, it remains unclear whether treatment guidelines have any material impact on provider performance and patient outcomes, and how implementation should be conducted to maximise benefit...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956747/acute-engagement-of-gq-mediated-signaling-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-induces-anxiety-like-behavior
#12
C M Mazzone, D Pati, M Michaelides, J DiBerto, J H Fox, G Tipton, C Anderson, K Duffy, J M McKlveen, J A Hardaway, S T Magness, W A Falls, S E Hammack, Z A McElligott, Y L Hurd, T L Kash
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a brain region important for regulating anxiety-related behavior in both humans and rodents. Here we used a chemogenetic strategy to investigate how engagement of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling cascades in genetically defined GABAergic BNST neurons modulates anxiety-related behavior and downstream circuit function. We saw that stimulation of vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-expressing BNST neurons using hM3Dq, but neither hM4Di nor rM3Ds designer receptors exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD), promotes anxiety-like behavior...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955830/inverse-agonists-what-do-they-mean-for-psychiatry
#13
David Nutt, Stephen Stahl, Pierre Blier, Filippo Drago, Joseph Zohar, Sue Wilson
The nomenclature of drugs is a critical aspect of science, since it can direct research and optimize treatment choices. Traditionally drugs acting on CNS receptors have been classified as either agonists or antagonists. Recently a new class of ligand, the inverse agonist, has been identified in some receptor systems. Inverse agonists have opposite actions to those of agonists but the effects of both of these can be blocked by antagonists. Pimavanserin is a new 5-HT2A receptor acting drug that has been given market authorization for psychosis in Parkinson׳s disease...
December 7, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936337/alcohol-use-in-an-older-adult-referred-to-a-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service-a-case-report
#14
Adam Searby, Natalie van Swet, Phil Maude, Ian McGrath
Alcohol use disorder in older adults is associated with a number of substantial medical complications, including cognitive decline. Due to limited success and application of screening approaches in this cohort, older adults are more likely to present to general hospital settings with undiagnosed problematic alcohol use. Consultation-liaison psychiatry services operating in general hospital settings are likely to be referred older adults with alcohol use disorders for assessment and management. A 77-year-old female presented to a metropolitan hospital with symptoms including frequent falls, slurred speech, difficulty judging distance, hypersomnia, poor reasoning, and odd behaviours...
January 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922607/endocytosis-following-dopamine-d2-receptor-activation-is-critical-for-neuronal-activity-and-dendritic-spine-formation-via-rabex-5-pdgfr%C3%AE-signaling-in-striatopallidal-medium-spiny-neurons
#15
N Shioda, Y Yabuki, Y Wang, M Uchigashima, T Hikida, T Sasaoka, H Mori, M Watanabe, M Sasahara, K Fukunaga
Aberrant dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activity is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, making those receptors targets for antipsychotic drugs. Here, we report that novel signaling through the intracellularly localized D2R long isoform (D2LR) elicits extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and dendritic spine formation through Rabex-5/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ)-mediated endocytosis in mouse striatum. We found that D2LR directly binds to and activates Rabex-5, promoting early-endosome formation...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919878/pharmacy-residency-training-measured-through-a-standardized-knowledge-test
#16
Amy N Thompson, Brian P McKinzie, Jason S Haney, Jean M Nappi, Nicole Pilch
PURPOSE: The use of a standardized knowledge test to assess postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency training was evaluated. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospectively administered exam. A bank of questions was developed by preceptors from each of the core rotation disciplines: general medicine (including ambulatory care and oncology), pediatrics, critical care (including transplantation), drug information, operations, practice management, and psychiatry...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871760/hepatitis-c-treatment-clinical-issues-for-psychiatrists-in-the-post-interferon-era
#17
REVIEW
Yvonne Chasser, Arthur Y Kim, Oliver Freudenreich
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a widespread and costly cause of morbidity and mortality globally and in the United States. The treatment of HCV has been revolutionized with the recent development of direct-acting antiviral medications. These new treatments are substantially better tolerated and more efficacious than previously used interferon-based therapies. Despite these innovations, sustained virologic response has remained low, hovering at approximately 9% of all infected persons...
January 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#18
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867364/an-objective-screening-method-for-major-depressive-disorder-using-logistic-regression-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-data-obtained-in-a-mental-task-paradigm
#19
Guanghao Sun, Toshikazu Shinba, Tetsuo Kirimoto, Takemi Matsui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been intensively studied as a promising biological marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our previous study confirmed that autonomic activity and reactivity in depression revealed by HRV during rest and mental task (MT) conditions can be used as diagnostic measures and in clinical evaluation. In this study, logistic regression analysis (LRA) was utilized for the classification and prediction of MDD based on HRV data obtained in an MT paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858874/the-analgesic-effect-of-therapeutic-rtms-is-not-mediated-or-predicted-by-comorbid-psychiatric-or-sleep-disorders
#20
Pauliina Lindholm, Salla Lamusuo, Tero Taiminen, Arja Virtanen, Antti Pertovaara, Heli Forssell, Nora Hagelberg, Satu Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying alleviation of neuropathic pain by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex (M1) and right secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) are only partly known. Patients with chronic neuropathic pain often have comorbidities like depression and sleep problems. Through functional connectivity, rTMS of M1 and S2 may activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the target for treating depression with rTMS. Thus, the analgesic effect of rTMS could be mediated indirectly via improvement of psychiatric comorbidities or sleep...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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