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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443617/the-therapeutic-potential-of-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-and-future
#1
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Guy M Goodwin
Plant-based psychedelics such as psilocybin have an ancient history of medicinal use. After the first English-language report on LSD in 1950, psychedelics enjoyed a short-lived relationship with psychology and psychiatry. Used most notably as aides to psychotherapy for the treatment of mood disorders and alcohol dependence, drugs such as LSD showed initial therapeutic promise before prohibitive legislature in the mid-1960s effectively ended all major psychedelic research programmes. Since the early 1990s, there has been a steady revival of human psychedelic research: last year saw reports on the first modern brain imaging study with LSD and 3 separate clinical trials of psilocybin for depressive symptoms...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441884/targeting-neuronal-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-with-nicotine-evidence-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#2
Jason Smucny, Jason R Tregellas
Patients with schizophrenia self-administer nicotine at rates higher than is self-administered for any other psychiatric illness. Although the reasons are unclear, one hypothesis suggests that nicotine is a form of 'self-medication' in order to restore normal levels of nicotinic signaling and target abnormalities in neuronal function associated with cognitive processes. This brief review discusses evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia patients that nicotinic agonists may effectively target dysfunctional neuronal circuits in the illness...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441272/treating-smoking-in-adults-with-co-occurring-acute-psychiatric-and-addictive-disorders
#3
Smita Das, Norval J Hickman, Judith J Prochaska
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco use is undertreated in individuals with psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUDs), with concerns that quitting smoking may compromise recovery. We evaluated outcomes of a tobacco intervention among psychiatric patients with co-occurring SUDs. METHODS: Data from 2 randomized tobacco treatment trials conducted in inpatient psychiatry were combined; analyses focused on the subsample with co-occurring SUDs (n = 216). Usual care provided brief advice to quit and nicotine replacement therapy during the smoke-free hospitalization...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#4
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#5
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420604/a-digital-tool-to-promote-alcohol-and-drug-use-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-skill-translation-a-mobile-app-development-and-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#6
Derek D Satre, Khanh Ly, Maria Wamsley, Alexa Curtis, Jason Satterfield
BACKGROUND: Translation of knowledge and skills from classroom settings to clinical practice is a major challenge in healthcare training, especially for behavioral interventions. For example, screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a highly-promoted approach to identifying and treating individuals at risk for alcohol or drug problems, yet effective, routine use of SBIRT has lagged. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the development, pilot testing, and trial protocol of a mobile app based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to promote SBIRT skill translation and application...
April 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418224/commentary-a-new-drug-nomenclature-for-psychiatry-prospects-and-hazards
#7
S Nassir Ghaemi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416810/the-joint-impact-of-cognitive-performance-in-adolescence-and-familial-cognitive-aptitude-on-risk-for-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-delineation-of-four-potential-pathways-to-illness
#8
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, R S E Keefe, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
How do joint measures of premorbid cognitive ability and familial cognitive aptitude (FCA) reflect risk for a diversity of psychiatric and substance use disorders? To address this question, we examined, using Cox models, the predictive effects of school achievement (SA) measured at age 16 and FCA-assessed from SA in siblings and cousins, and educational attainment in parents-on risk for 12 major psychiatric syndromes in 1 140 608 Swedes born 1972-1990. Four developmental patterns emerged. In the first, risk was predicted jointly by low levels of SA and high levels of FCA-that is a level of SA lower than would be predicted from the FCA...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411504/severe-insomnia-is-associated-with-hypertriglyceridemia-in-women-with-major-depression-treated-in-psychiatry-settings
#9
Jean-François Costemale-Lacoste, Séverine Trabado, Céline Verstuyft, Khalil El Asmar, Florence Butlen-Ducuing, Romain Colle, Florian Ferreri, Mircea Polosan, Emmanuel Haffen, Beverley Balkau, Bruno Falissard, Bruno Feve, Laurent Becquemont, Emmanuelle Corruble
BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a cardiovascular risk factor. In the general population, elevated fasting triglyceridemia (TG) is associated with insomnia. Since insomnia is a core symptom of Major Depressive Episodes (MDE), we studied the association of severe insomnia with HTG in major depression. METHODS: We used the baseline data of the METADAP cohort, comprising 624 patients with a current MDE in a context of Major Depressive Disorder treated in psychiatry settings, without current alcohol use disorders...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408985/new-drugs-in-psychiatry-focus-on-new-pharmacological-targets
#10
REVIEW
Filippo Caraci, Gian Marco Leggio, Salvatore Salomone, Filippo Drago
The approval of psychotropic drugs with novel mechanisms of action has been rare in recent years. To address this issue, further analysis of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is essential for identifying new pharmacological targets for psychotropic medications. In this report, we detail drug candidates being examined as treatments for psychiatric disorders. Particular emphasis is placed on agents with novel mechanisms of action that are being tested as therapies for depression, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397840/neuronal-plasticity-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-drug-responses
#11
E Castrén, H Antila
Neurotrophic factors, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other members of the neurotrophin family, are central mediators of the activity-dependent plasticity through which environmental experiences, such as sensory information are translated into the structure and function of neuronal networks. Synthesis, release and action of BDNF is regulated by neuronal activity and BDNF in turn leads to trophic effects such as formation, stabilization and potentiation of synapses through its high-affinity TrkB receptors...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395249/opioid-users-with-comorbid-hepatitis-c-spent-more-time-in-agonist-therapy-a-6-year-observational-study-in-taiwan
#12
Horng-Maw Chen, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Kun-Chia Chang, Kuan-Ying Lee, Ching-Ming Cheng
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among opioid agonist therapy (OAT) patients, but little is known about long-term OAT use among this population. METHODS: Subjects diagnosed as opioid dependence were recruited from Mar. 2006 to Jul. 2008 in a psychiatry center in southern Taiwan with the OAT censored in 2012, and their socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and markers of blood-borne infection were assessed at entry. Correlates with HCV infection and OAT retention were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression...
March 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387975/insular-and-cingulate-attenuation-during-decision-making-is-associated-with-future-transition-to-stimulant-use-disorder
#13
Jennifer L Stewart, Mamona Butt, April C May, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
AIMS: To understand processes placing individuals at risk for stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use disorder. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: University of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Occasional stimulant users (OSU; n = 184) underwent a baseline clinical interview and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. On the basis of a follow-up clinical interview completed three years later, OSU (n = 147) were then categorized as problem stimulant users (PSU: n = 36; those who developed stimulant use disorders in the interim) or desisted stimulant users (DSU: n = 74; those who stopped using)...
April 7, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351199/pharmacological-management-of-psychiatric-symptoms-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Massimiliano Buoli, Marta Serati, Alice Caldiroli, Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
Psychiatric symptoms in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are highly prevalent and may complicate clinical management of these patients. Purpose of the present article is to present and discuss available data about the pharmacological treatment of psychiatric symptoms in patients with FTD. A research in the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of the pharmacological management of psychiatric symptoms in patients with FTD. The search strategy included the following terms-"FTD and psychiatry," "FTD and behavioural disturbances," and "FTD and treatment"...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348387/a-synthetic-small-molecule-isoxazole-9-protects-against-methamphetamine-relapse
#15
M H Galinato, J W Lockner, M J Fannon-Pavlich, J C Sobieraj, M C Staples, S S Somkuwar, A Ghofranian, S Chaing, A I Navarro, A Joea, B W Luikart, K D Janda, C Heyser, G F Koob, C D Mandyam
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) is strongly influenced by drug-taking behavior and may have a role in the etiology of drug-seeking behavior. However, mechanistic studies on the relationship of neurogenesis on drug seeking are limited. Outbred Wistar rats experienced extended access methamphetamine self-administration and individual differences in drug taking defined animals with higher preferred and lower preferred levels of drug intake. Forced abstinence from higher preferred levels of drug taking enhanced neurogenesis and neuronal activation of granule cell neurons (GCNs) in the DG and produced compulsive-like drug reinstatement...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345528/genetic-and-psychosocial-factors-for-benzodiazepine-addiction-an-analysis-based-on-the-results-of-the-authors-own-research-conducted-in-a-group-of-benzodiazepine-addicted-and-non-addicted-individuals
#16
Anna Konopka, Monika Mak, Anna Grzywacz, Sławomir Murawiec, Jerzy Samochowiec
PURPOSE: In spite of the fact that the addictive potential of benzodiazepine (BDZ) drugs has been known for a long time, benzodiazepine addiction remains a common problem for psychiatry to deal with. The etiology of benzodiazepine addiction is very complex. Among the risk factors, the course of the treatment, demographic status and psychological features of a patient seem to play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate both psychological and genetic factors differentiating benzodiazepine addicts from non-addicted users...
March 13, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336159/the-anticholinergic-impregnation-scale-towards-the-elaboration-of-a-scale-adapted-to-prescriptions-in-french-psychiatric-settings
#18
Jeanne Briet, Hervé Javelot, Edwige Heitzmann, Luisa Weiner, Catherine Lameira, Philippe D'Athis, Marie Corneloup, Jean-Louis Vailleau
PURPOSE: Some drugs have anticholinergic activity and can cause peripheral or central side effects. Several scales exist to evaluate the potential anticholinergic effect of prescribed drugs but: (i) they are validated in the elderly and mainly assess the cognitive side effect of treatments; (ii) they do not concern some of the drugs frequently used in clinical psychiatry in France. The aim of our study is to develop a new scale, the anticholinergic impregnation scale (AIS), with drugs used in France and based on an assessment of the drugs used against peripheral anticholinergic adverse effects...
February 17, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322279/pluripotent-stem-cells-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
M A Soliman, F Aboharb, N Zeltner, L Studer
Neuropsychiatric disorders place an enormous medical burden on patients across all social and economic ranks. The current understanding of the molecular and cellular causes of neuropsychiatric disease remains limited, which leads to a lack of targeted therapies. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers a novel platform for modeling the genetic contribution to mental disorders and yields access to patient-specific cells for drug discovery and personalized medicine. Here, we review recent progress in using iPSC technology to model and potentially treat neuropsychiatric disorders by focusing on the most prevalent conditions in psychiatry, including depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320795/cross-sectional-survey-on-defensive-practices-and-defensive-behaviours-among-israeli-psychiatrists
#20
I Reuveni, I Pelov, H Reuveni, O Bonne, L Canetti
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry is a low-risk specialisation; however, there is a steady increase in malpractice claims against psychiatrists. Defensive psychiatry (DP) refers to any action undertaken by a psychiatrist to avoid malpractice liability that is not for the sole benefit of the patient's mental health and well-being. The objectives of this study were to assess the scope of DP practised by psychiatrists and to understand whether awareness of DP correlated with defensive behaviours. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 213 Israeli psychiatry residents and certified psychiatrists during May and June 2015 regarding demographic data and experience with malpractice claims, medicolegal literature and litigation...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Open
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