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d dimer for pulmonary embolism

Mark J Schuuring, Peter I Bonta, Michele van Vugt, Frank Smithuis, Otto M van Delden, Jouke T Annema, Kees Stijnis
A 44-year-old woman with a history of pulmonary embolism and abdominal echinococcosis complained of sudden thoracic pain and shortness of breath. A D-dimer of 77.5 mg/l (reference ≤0.5 mg/l) was found. Chest CT scan revealed obstruction of the right lower and middle lobe pulmonary artery (PA). Anticoagulation therapy was initiated for the presumed diagnosis of recurrent pulmonary embolism. However, due to persistent symptoms of dyspnea, follow-up CT angiography of the chest was performed 3 months later. A persistent PA obstruction was found and the presumed diagnosis of embolism was questioned...
October 20, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Daniel Corrigan, Christiana Prucnal, Christopher Kabrhel
The diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE) remains challenging for emergency physicians. Symptoms can be vague or non-existent, and the clinical presentation shares features with many other common diagnoses. Diagnostic testing is complicated, as biomarkers, like the D-dimer, are frequently false positive, and imaging, like computed tomography pulmonary angiography, carries risks of radiation and contrast dye exposure. It is therefore incumbent on emergency physicians to be both vigilant and thoughtful about this diagnosis...
September 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Nicolas Faller, Andreas Limacher, Marie Méan, Marc Righini, Markus Aschwanden, Jürg Hans Beer, Beat Frauchiger, Josef Osterwalder, Nils Kucher, Bernhard Lämmle, Jacques Cornuz, Anne Angelillo-Scherrer, Christian M Matter, Marc Husmann, Martin Banyai, Daniel Staub, Lucia Mazzolai, Olivier Hugli, Nicolas Rodondi, Drahomir Aujesky
BACKGROUND: Long-term predictors and causes of death are understudied in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism. METHODS: We prospectively followed-up 991 patients aged ≥65 years with acute venous thromboembolism in a multicenter Swiss cohort study. The primary outcome was overall mortality. We explored the association between patient baseline characteristics and mortality, adjusting for other baseline variables and periods of anticoagulation as a time-varying co-variate...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) affects >600,000 patients per year in the United States. Evaluation includes clinical decision rules, laboratory tests, and several imaging modalities. The diagnosis of PE has risen in recent years, particularly subsegmental PE (SSPE). Controversy exists concerning the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide emergency physicians with a review of the controversies surrounding PE testing and the diagnosis and treatment of SSPE...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Michael T Booker, John O Johnson
PURPOSE: Optimizing the utilization of CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for the diagnosis and workup of acute chest pain can provide an opportunity to reduce unnecessary radiation and health care system expense. METHODS: An attempt to improve CTPA utilization began by measuring overall department and clinician-specific utilization. This was bolstered by retrospectively evaluating patient charts for pulmonary embolism scoring criteria and D-dimer utilization so as to better understand gaps in diagnostic workup...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Zihao Yan, Ivan K Ip, Ali S Raja, Anurag Gupta, Joshua M Kosowsky, Ramin Khorasani
Purpose To determine the frequency of, and yield after, provider overrides of evidence-based clinical decision support (CDS) for ordering computed tomographic (CT) pulmonary angiography in the emergency department (ED). Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study was performed at a tertiary care, academic medical center ED with approximately 60 000 annual visits and included all patients who were suspected of having pulmonary embolism (PE) and who underwent CT pulmonary angiography between January 1, 2011, and August 31, 2013...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
S Takach Lapner, Jim A Julian, Lori-Ann Linkins, Shannon Bates, Clive Kearon
Pernod and colleagues used data from the DIET study to compare, among patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), the proportion with a negative D-dimer result with age-adjusted D-dimer interpretation versus using a D-dimer threshold of 500μg/L. A negative D-dimer results was not obtained more often with age-adjusted interpretation and, therefore, they concluded that age-adjusted D-dimer interpretation is inappropriate. While our analysis also did not support the use of age-adjusted D-dimer interpretation in the evaluation of patients with suspected venous thromboembolism (VTE), we came to this conclusion for different reasons than Pernod and colleagues...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Pierre Tannous, Zubin Mukadam, Chetan Kammari, Harsha Banavasi, Ayman O Soubani
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The use of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the emergency department (ED) for patients suspected to have pulmonary embolism (PE) has been steadily rising in the last 2decades. However, there are limited studies that specifically address the use of CTPA in the ED for cancer patients suspected to have PE. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of positive PE by CTPA in the ED in cancer patients and the variables that are associated with positive results...
September 2, 2016: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Kara E Hennelly, Marc N Baskin, Michael C Monuteuax, Joel Hudgins, Eugene Kua, Ashlee Commeree, Rotem Kimia, Edward Y Lee, Amir Kimia, Mark I Neuman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 2 commonly used adult-based pulmonary embolism (PE) algorithms in pediatric patients and to derive a pediatric-specific clinical decision rule to evaluate children at risk for PE, given the paucity of data to guide diagnostic imaging in children for whom PE is suspected. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a single-center retrospective study among 561 children <22 years of age undergoing either D-dimer testing or radiologic evaluation (computed tomography or ventilation-perfusion scan) in the emergency department setting for concern of PE...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Stacy A Johnson, G Paul Eleazer, Matthew T Rondina
Older adults have a significantly greater risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, than younger adults. The cause of this greater risk is thought to be multifactorial, including age-related changes in hemostatic factors and greater comorbid conditions and hospitalizations, but is not completely understood. Moreover, VTE remains underrecognized in older adults and may present atypically. Thus, a low index of clinical suspicion is essential when evaluating older adults with possible VTE...
September 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Fay Crawford, Alina Andras, Karen Welch, Karen Sheares, David Keeling, Francesca M Chappell
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) can occur when a thrombus (blood clot) travels through the veins and lodges in the arteries of the lungs, producing an obstruction. People who are thought to be at risk include those with cancer, people who have had a recent surgical procedure or have experienced long periods of immobilisation and women who are pregnant. The clinical presentation can vary, but unexplained respiratory symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain and an increased respiratory rate are common...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Thanawat Vongchaiudomchoke, Thananya Boonyasirinant
BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with a variety of non-specific clinical manifestations. Using diagnostic algorithms that are based on internationally recognized guidelines, pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) serves as the gold standard diagnostic imaging tool in PE. However; inappropriate use of pulmonary CTA may lead to unnecessary radiation exposure, contrast exposure, and cost. Based on our review of the literature, there is no existing data regarding prevalence and appropriate use of pulmonary CTA in suspected acute PE in Thailand...
January 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
S Takach Lapner, Jim A Julian, Lori-Ann Linkins, Shannon M Bates, Clive Kearon
BACKGROUND: Using a progressively higher D-dimer level to exclude venous thromboembolism (VTE) with increasing age has been proposed but is not well validated. OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is appropriate to use a progressively higher D-dimer level to exclude VTE with increasing age. PATIENTS/METHODS: We analyzed clinical data and blood samples from 1649 patients with a first suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. We compared the negative predictive value (NPV) for VTE, and the proportion of patients with a negative D-dimer result, using three D-dimer interpretation strategies: a progressively higher D-dimer threshold with increasing age ("Age-adjusted strategy"); the same higher D-dimer threshold in all patients ("Mean D-dimer strategy"); and a progressively higher D-dimer threshold with decreasing age ("Inverse age-adjusted strategy")...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Alberto Alonso-Fernández, Angela García Suquia, Mónica de la Peña, Raquel Casitas, Javier Pierola, Antonia Barceló, Joan B Soriano, Carmen Fernández-Capitán, Elizabet Martinez-Ceron, Miguel Carrera, Francisco García-Río
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for a first episode of pulmonary embolism (PE), although its impact on the risk of thromboembolism recurrence is uncertain. Our objective was to explore the prognostic value of OSA after discontinuing oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with a first episode of PE. METHODS: In 120 consecutive patients who had stopped OAC for a first episode of PE, we performed a home respiratory polygraphy and recorded sleep characteristics, classical risk factors for PE, blood pressure, spirometric parameters, physical activity and levels of D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1+2...
July 21, 2016: Chest
Stefan Walen, Erwin de Boer, Mireille A Edens, Corné A J van der Worp, Martijn F Boomsma, Jan Willem K van den Berg
OBJECTIVES: To determine if mandatory adherence to a diagnostic protocol increases the rate of computed tomography pulmonary angiographies (CTPAs) positive for pulmonary embolism (PE)-the so-called diagnostic yield. Further, we aim to identify factors associated with this diagnostic yield. METHODS: We included all patients with suspected PE requiring CTPA from 9 January 2014 t0 3 June 2014. The requesting physicians were forced to follow diagnostic workup for PE by calculating a Wells score and, if necessary, determining D-dimer level...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Gilles Pernod, Haifeng Wu, Emmanuel de Maistre, John Lazarchick, Jeannine Kassis, Carlos Aguilar, Pascual M Vera, Gualtiero Palareti, Armando D'Angelo
Combined clinical pretest probability (PTP) and D-dimer testing have great diagnostic value for pulmonary embolism exclusion. To harmonize performance levels of D-dimer assays available on the market, the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) has published a guideline, endorsed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Such guideline specifies the ideal D-dimer assay characteristic and target population. This study was conducted following the CLSI guideline to upgrade the assay-intended use and obtain FDA clearance of STA-Liatest D-Di assay for pulmonary embolism exclusion in patient with low/moderate PTP...
July 15, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Mateuzs Piotr Kubak, Peter Mæhre Lauritzen, Arne Borthne, Espen Asak Ruud, Haseem Ashraf
BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a potentially fatal condition, and making a timely diagnosis can be challenging. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the modality of choice, and this contributes to the increasing load on emergency room CT scanners. Our purpose was to investigate whether an elevated d-dimer cut-off could reduce the demand for CTPA while maintaining a high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients referred for CTPA with suspicion of APE in 2012, and collected d-dimer values and CTPA results...
June 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
J Da Costa Rodrigues, S Alzuphar, C Combescure, G Le Gal, A Perrier
UNLABELLED: Essentials Lower limb ultrasonography (CUS) could be useful in suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a metaanalysis on the diagnostic characteristics of CUS in suspected PE. With a sensitivity of 41%, proximal CUS would be positive in one of every 7.3 patients. Complete CUS has a higher sensitivity but specificity for PE is too low to use it in suspected PE. SUMMARY: Background Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is commonly based on D-dimer measurement and computed tomography (CT) angiography...
September 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Marcello Di Nisio, Nick van Es, Harry R Büller
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing. Imaging and anticoagulation can be safely withheld in patients who are unlikely to have venous thromboembolism and have a normal D-dimer. All other patients should undergo ultrasonography in case of suspected deep vein thrombosis and CT in case of suspected pulmonary embolism...
June 30, 2016: Lancet
Wojciech S Pietrzyk
BACKGROUND: Long air travel is a risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The aim of the study was to report the occurrence of symptomatic DVT cases in cruise ship passengers after long haul flights and to discuss applied diagnostic methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records of adult patients diagnosed with DVT in medical facility of the passenger ship was performed. On the basis of clinical examinations, B-mode ultrasound scans of the lower extremity venous systems, international normalised ratio (INR) tests, working diagnoses of DVT were established...
2016: International Maritime Health
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