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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214916/facial-expression-an-under-utilised-tool-for-the-assessment-of-welfare-in-mammals
#1
Kris A Descovich, Jennifer Wathan, Matthew C Leach, Hannah M Buchanan-Smith, Paul Flecknell, David Farningham, Sarah-Jane Vick
Animal welfare is a key issue for industries that use or impact upon animals. The accurate identification of welfare states is particularly relevant to the field of bioscience, where the 3Rs framework encourages refinement of experimental procedures involving animal models. The assessment and improvement of welfare states in animals is reliant on reliable and valid measurement tools. Behavioural measures (activity, attention, posture and vocalisation) are frequently used because they are immediate and non-invasive, however no single indicator can yield a complete picture of the internal state of an animal...
February 8, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205644/bribery-games-on-inter-dependent-regular-networks
#2
Prateek Verma, Anjan K Nandi, Supratim Sengupta
We examine a scenario of social conflict that is manifest during an interaction between government servants providing a service and citizens who are legally entitled to the service, using evolutionary game-theory in structured populations characterized by an inter-dependent network. Bribe-demands by government servants during such transactions, called harassment bribes, constitute a widespread form of corruption in many countries. We investigate the effect of varying bribe demand made by corrupt officials and the cost of complaining incurred by harassed citizens, on the proliferation of corrupt strategies in the population...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192224/qualitative-study-on-the-perceptions-of-terminally-ill-cancer-patients-and-their-family-members-regarding-end-of-life-experiences-focusing-on-palliative-sedation
#3
Young Eun, In-Wha Hong, Eduardo Bruera, Jung Hun Kang
CONTEXT: Patients with terminal cancer experience refractory symptoms in the last days of life. Although palliative sedation (PS) is recommended for patients suffering unbearable symptoms with imminent death, it requires clear communication between physicians and patients/caregivers. Understanding the demands and perceptions of patients and caregivers in the end-of-life phase are needed for effective communication. OBJECTIVE: To explore patient experiences regarding end-of-life status and PS...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185496/identifying-and-managing-underperformance-in-nursing-students-lessons-from-practice
#4
Chris Elliott
This article presents an analysis of the reflective practice of mentors and student nurses who were interviewed as part of a personal skill improvement project. Colleagues and students were asked to provide feedback on their perceptions of how the author demonstrated the skill of identifying and managing underperformance in nursing students. Their narratives were examined with the intention of identifying areas for improving underperformance and how it could be managed in future. Key findings were the requirement for mentors to increase engagement with students, especially in terms of protected time, participatory learning, honest and open dialogue and the need for a commitment to building a supportive and effective mentor-student relationship...
February 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174546/once-an-impression-manager-always-an-impression-manager-antecedents-of-honest-and-deceptive-impression-management-use-and-variability-across-multiple-job-interviews
#5
Nicolas Roulin, Joshua S Bourdage
Research has examined the antecedents of applicants' use of impression management (IM) tactics in employment interviews. All existing empirical studies have measured IM in one particular interview. Yet, applicants generally interview multiple times for different positions, and thus have multiple opportunities to engage in IM, before they can secure a job. Similarly, recent theoretical advances in personnel selection and IM research have suggested that applicant behaviors should be considered as dynamic and adaptive in nature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173917/-i-m-not-sure-it-paints-an-honest-picture-of-where-my-health-s-at-identifying-community-health-and-research-priorities-based-on-health-assessments-within-an-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-community-a-qualitative-study
#6
Geoffrey K Spurling, Chelsea J Bond, Philip J Schluter, Corey I Kirk, Deborah A Askew
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health assessments are conducted annually in Australian primary care to detect risk factors, chronic diseases and implement preventive health measures. At the Inala Indigenous Health Service, health assessment data have also been used for research purposes. This research has been investigator-driven, which risks misinterpreting or ignoring community priorities compared with community-led research. The objective of this research was to learn about the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community's health priorities that could be translated into research themes, and investigate these using health assessment data...
February 8, 2017: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152206/nursing-actions-that-create-a-sense-of-good-nursing-care-in-patients-with-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
Åsa Emsfors, Lennart Christensson, Carina Elgán
BACKGROUND: People who suffer from wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk central vision loss. Treatment with anti-VEGF is the only available option at present that preserves vision and no definitive cure currently exists. Patients feel that they are compelled to accept this treatment because they might otherwise become blind. AIM: To identify and describe nursing actions performed by nurses that create a sense of good nursing care in patients with wet (AMD)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149455/the-influence-of-length-of-implant-on-primary-stability-an-in-vitro-study-using-resonance-frequency-analysis
#8
Anwar B Bataineh, Ala M Al-Dakes
BACKGROUND: Primary stabilityis not sufficientin less contact area between the implant and bone, the healing process because will be disrupted due to micro-motions and fibrous tissue affects osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We implemented an in vitro experimental study of total 135 XiVE® implants were inserted in 22.5 bovine cow ribs with bone quality similar to a type IV human bone. Each rib end received a group of three different implant lengths, which were 8mm, 13mm and 15mm and had the same diameter 3...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128012/sociocultural-influences-on-the-transmission-of-hiv-from-husbands-to-wives-in-cambodia
#9
Youngran Yang, Sopheak Thai
The purpose of the study was to explore, within cultural and societal contexts, the factors of spousal HIV transmission as described by the experiences of HIV-positive Cambodian men. Using qualitative research methods, the researchers collected data from in-depth interviews with 15 HIV-positive Cambodian men of seroconcordant couples recruited from an HIV/AIDS clinic in Phnom Penh. Using a model of HIV transmission from husbands to wives, the questions were designed to elicit the men's perspectives on the topics of promiscuity, masculinity, condom use in marriage, the image of the ideal Cambodian woman, and attitudes toward sex and marriage...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110717/pull-out-strength-calculator-for-pedicle-screws-using-a-surrogate-ensemble-approach
#10
Vicky Varghese, Palaniappan Ramu, Venkatesh Krishnan, Gurunathan Saravana Kumar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pedicle screw instrumentation is widely used in the treatment of spinal disorders and deformities. Currently, the surgeon decides the holding power of instrumentation based on the perioperative feeling which is subjective in nature. The objective of the paper is to develop a surrogate model which will predict the pullout strength of pedicle screw based on density, insertion angle, insertion depth and reinsertion. METHODS: A Taguchi's orthogonal array was used to design an experiment to find the factors effecting pullout strength of pedicle screw...
December 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106553/attitudes-toward-potential-participant-registries
#11
Joshua D Grill, Andrew Holbrook, Aimee Pierce, Dan Hoang, Daniel L Gillen
Difficult participant recruitment is a consistent barrier to successful medical research. Potential participant registries represent an increasingly common intervention to overcome this barrier. A variety of models for registries exist, but few data are available to instruct their design and implementation. To provide such data, we surveyed 110 cognitively normal research participants enrolled in a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. Seventy-four (67%) individuals participated in the study. Most (78%, CI: 0...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062401/a-conference-of-new-ideas-in-cancer-challenging-dogmas
#12
Varsha Gandhi, Rakesh Jalali
In 2016, Tata Memorial Center in Mumbai, India, reached its platinum jubilee milestone (75 years), which was celebrated with conferences. The first of these was entitled, "A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer - Challenging Dogmas." The aim of the conference was to take an honest appraisal about the state of cancer research today, to debate "currently entrenched versus contrarian viewpoints" and to reflect upon whether the current research and therapeutic strategies are appropriate and whether resources are being optimally utilized in meaningful ways...
January 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032091/comparative-evaluation-of-different-volumes-of-70-alcohol-in-celiac-plexus-block-for-upper-abdominal-malignsancies
#13
Archana Dolly, Sarita Singh, Ravi Prakash, Jaishri Bogra, Anita Malik, Vinita Singh
CONTEXT: Celiac plexus block (CPB) (is an effective way to reduce cancer-associated pain in upper abdominal malignancies. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different volumes of 70% alcohol in CPB. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients of carcinoma gall bladder were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) to receive 20, 30, and 40 ml of 70% alcohol in CPB...
October 2016: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009057/indole-an-evolutionarily-conserved-influencer-of-behavior-across-kingdoms
#14
Jeffery K Tomberlin, Tawni L Crippen, Guoyao Wu, Ashleigh S Griffin, Thomas K Wood, Rebecca M Kilner
Indole is a key environmental cue that is used by many organisms. Based on its biochemistry, we suggest indole is used so universally, and by such different organisms, because it derives from the metabolism of tryptophan, a resource essential for many species yet rare in nature. These properties make it a valuable, environmental cue for resources almost universally important for promoting fitness. We then describe how indole is used to coordinate actions within organisms, to influence the behavior of conspecifics and can even be used to change the behavior of species that belong to other kingdoms...
December 23, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002355/honest-labor-bears-a-lovely-face-will-late-life-unemployment-impact-health-and-satisfaction-in-retirement
#15
Maren Wright Voss, Wendy Church Birmingham, Lori Wadsworth, Wei Chen, Jerry Bounsanga, Yushan Gu, Man Hung
OBJECTIVE: Unemployment among older adults during recessionary cycles has been tied to early retirement decisions and negative health outcomes. This study explored episodes of unemployment experienced between age 50 and retirement as predictors of retirement age and health outcomes. METHODS: A total of 1540 participants from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study aged 50 years and older who transitioned from workforce to retirement were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multiple regression controlling for unemployment, demographics, and health status...
February 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001442/-it-s-just-not-the-culture-a-qualitative-study-exploring-residents-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-institutional-culture-on-feedback
#16
Subha Ramani, Sarah E Post, Karen Könings, Karen Mann, Joel T Katz, Cees van der Vleuten
: Phenomenon: Competency-based medical education requires ongoing performance-based feedback for professional growth. In several studies, medical trainees report that the quality of faculty feedback is inadequate. Sociocultural barriers to feedback exchanges are further amplified in graduate and postgraduate medical education settings, where trainees serve as frontline providers of patient care. Factors that affect institutional feedback culture, enhance feedback seeking, acceptance, and bidirectional feedback warrant further exploration in these settings...
December 21, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989469/targeted-and-untargeted-characterisation-of-free-and-glycosylated-simple-phenols-in-cocoa-beans-using-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry-q-orbitrap
#17
C Barnaba, T Nardin, A Pierotti, M Malacarne, R Larcher
Free simple phenols have positive effects on health and influence the organoleptic profile of cocoa products, contributing towards defining their aroma and nutritional properties. Glycosidically bound simple phenols can be hydrolysed during the production phase to the corresponding free forms, and thus potentially contribute to the final sensory profile. In this work, 60 samples of Forastero cocoa beans from all over the world were analysed, combining on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965501/effect-of-surface-treatments-on-the-bond-strength-to-turkom-cera-all-ceramic-material
#18
Abdul Aa Razak, Mohamed I Abu-Hassan, Bandar Ma Al-Makramani, Fuad A Al-Sanabani, Ibrahim Z Al-Shami, Hosain M Almansour
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength (SBS) of Turkom-Cera (Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn. Bhd., Puchong, Malaysia) all-ceramic material cemented with resin cement Panavia-F (Kuraray Medical Inc., Okayama, Japan). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Turkom-Cera ceramic disks (10 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. The disks were wet ground to 1000-grit and subjected to four surface treatments: (1) No treatment (Control), (2) sandblasting, (3) silane application, and (4) sandblasting + silane...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965486/comparison-of-shear-bond-strength-and-microleakage-of-various-bulk-fill-bioactive-dentin-substitutes-an-in-vitro-study
#19
Fahad I Alkhudhairy, Zeeshan H Ahmad
INTRODUCTION: Various bulk-fill materials depending on their composition, viscosity, and flow ability have different physical and mechanical properties. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine and compare the shear bond strength and microleakage properties of activa restorative with other bulk-fill restorative materials surefil (SDR), Biodentine, ever X posterior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty permanent premolars were selected for shear bond strength, and 20 permanent premolars were selected with class II cavities on mesial and distal side for microleakage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936045/field-crickets-compensate-for-unattractive-static-long-distance-call-components-by-increasing-dynamic-signalling-effort
#20
Emily M McAuley, Susan M Bertram
The evolution of multiple sexual signals presents a dilemma since individuals selecting a mate should pay attention to the most honest signal and ignore the rest; however, multiple signals may evolve if, together, they provide more information to the receiver than either one would alone. Static and dynamic signals, for instance, can act as multiple messages, providing information on different aspects of signaller quality that reflect condition at different time scales. While the nature of static signals makes them difficult or impossible for individuals to augment, dynamic signals are much more susceptible to temporary fluctuations in effort...
2016: PloS One
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