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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729717/dietary-constraints-can-preclude-the-expression-of-an-honest-chemical-sexual-signal
#1
Roberto García-Roa, Jorge Sáiz, Belén Gómara, Pilar López, José Martín
Identifying the factors that underlie signal divergences remains challenging in studies of animal communication. Regarding the chemical signalling, different compounds can be found in some species but be absent in others. We hypothesized that if the costs that are associated with the expression of some compounds are too high, their presence in the signal may be restricted. However, these compounds may be expressed and be functional when those costs are relaxed. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol), a dietary compound with metabolic relevancy, acts as an honest chemical sexual signal in many lizards but no in others such as the Carpetan Rock lizard (Iberolacerta cyreni)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728513/ingratiation-attempts-in-real-life-determinants-of-their-success
#2
Helmut Lamm
A total of 272 students at a German university were asked to write down the story of an ingratiation attempt they had made and one they had received. They were then asked to reflect on each episode via a questionnaire. All but one participant reported that they had performed at least one of the four tactics postulated in Jones's ingratiation theory: compliments, favor-doing, opinion conformity, and positive self-presentation. In the case of received ingratiation, we found higher success ratings for nondependent (vs...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725412/corticosterone-a-costly-mediator-of-signal-honesty-in-sand-lizards
#3
Willow R Lindsay, Erik Wapstra, Bengt Silverin, Mats Olsson
The mechanisms underlying honest signal expression remain elusive and may involve the integration of social and physiological costs. Corticosterone is a socially modulated metabolic hormone that mediates energy investment and behavior and may therefore function to deter dishonest signal expression. We examined the relationship between corticosterone and green badge coloration in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), hypothesizing that physiological and behavioral costs resulting from elevated baseline glucocorticoids function in maintenance of honest signal expression...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722000/comparative-evaluation-of-shear-bond-strength-of-zirconia-restorations-cleansed-various-cleansing-protocols-bonded-with-two-different-resin-cements-an-in-vitro-study
#4
Sriram Sankar, Vijay Venkatesh Kondas, Sihi Vahanan Dhanasekaran, Prem Kumar Elavarasu
CONTEXT: Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline restorations have gained widespread use because of its enhanced strength and esthetics. During the try-in process, zirconia is likely to be contaminated with saliva. This contamination leads to a clear weakening of the bond between restorative material and cement. For this reason, zirconia surface should be cleaned before cementation. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of zirconia restorations cleansed with various surface cleansing protocols bonded with two different resin cements...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721329/effect-of-different-crown-materials-on-the-interleukin-one-beta-content-of-gingival-crevicular-fluid-in-endodontically-treated-molars-an-original-research
#5
Prathibha Saravanakumar, Padmanabhan Thallam Veeravalli, Anand Kumar V, Kasim Mohamed, Umamaheswari Mani, Manita Grover, Saravanan Thirumalai Thangarajan
INTRODUCTION: Crown materials used in fixed prosthodontics come into close and prolonged contact with the gingiva. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different crown materials on the interleukin-one beta (IL-1β) content of the gingival crevicular fluid and to study which crown material causes the highest inflammation on the marginal gingiva on a biochemical basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with single endodontically treated tooth were examined...
June 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715476/spot-on-for-liars-how-public-scrutiny-influences-ethical-behavior
#6
Andreas Ostermaier, Matthias Uhl
We examine whether people are more honest in public than in private. In a laboratory experiment, we have subjects roll dice and report outcomes either in public or in private. Higher reports yield more money and lies cannot be detected. We also elicit subjects' ethical mindsets and their expectations about others' reports. We find that outcome-minded subjects lie less in public to conform with their expectations about others' reports. Ironically, these expectations are false. Rule-minded subjects, in turn, do not respond to public scrutiny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708339/-advance-directives-and-advance-care-planning
#7
Petra Vayne-Bossert, Christiane Vailloud, Dominique Ducloux, Caroline Matis, Laurence Déramé
Advance directives (AD) and Advance Care Planning (ACP) are two measures a person may undertake to assure that their treatment preferences will be respected until the end of his / her life. Anticipation is based on an open and honest communication between the patient, the durable medical power of attorney and the health care professionals. ADs and ACPs are based on a person's values and beliefs that are important to his quality of life. ACP is a continuing process, initiated by health care professionals and integrated into the health care plan of a person...
February 1, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707540/commentary-on-duty-of-candour-and-cancer-screening
#8
Rosalind Given-Wilson
English law mandates a duty of candour (DOC) for all healthcare providers. They must be open and honest when something goes wrong with care causing harm. Providers must apologise to those affected and investigate what happened. Screening is not 100% accurate and false positive and false negative results are inevitable. Guidance on DOC assists providers to judge when something has gone wrong in screening and the DOC legislation applies. DOC guidance helps to distinguish such incidents from harms which are an expected and inevitable consequence of the imperfections of screening tests...
July 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703926/difficult-conversations-adults-with-diabetes-and-the-discussion-of-microvascular-complications
#9
M D Ritholz, T MacNeil, K Weinger
AIMS: To investigate the experiences among adults with diabetes of discussions of microvascular complications and provide recommendations for providers. METHODS: We performed a qualitative study in 148 adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes (56% women, 95% white, mean age 60±13 years, 65% with Type 1 diabetes, 71% with ≥1 microvascular complication). Data were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: At their first discussion of microvascular complications, 93% of participants (138/148) recalled providers using a preventative approach including clinical suggestions, factual information and warnings...
July 13, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701291/patterns-of-user-engagement-with-the-mobile-app-manage-my-pain-results-of-a-data-mining-investigation
#10
Quazi Abidur Rahman, Tahir Janmohamed, Meysam Pirbaglou, Paul Ritvo, Jane M Heffernan, Hance Clarke, Joel Katz
BACKGROUND: Pain is one of the most prevalent health-related concerns and is among the top 3 most common reasons for seeking medical help. Scientific publications of data collected from pain tracking and monitoring apps are important to help consumers and healthcare professionals select the right app for their use. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this paper were to (1) discover user engagement patterns of the pain management app, Manage My Pain, using data mining methods; and (2) identify the association between several attributes characterizing individual users and their levels of engagement...
July 12, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698449/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-inhibitory-activity-of-thymoquinone-in-combatting-candida-albicans-in-denture-stomatitis-prevention
#11
Ahmad M Al-Thobity, Khalifa S Al-Khalifa, Mohammed M Gad, Mohammed Al-Hariri, Aiman A Ali, Talal Alnassar
Candida albicans adhesion and proliferation on denture bases may lead to denture stomatitis, which is a common and recurrent problem in denture wearers. The goal of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone incorporated in the polymethyl methacrylate denture base material against Candida albicans. Eighty acrylic resin specimens were fabricated and divided into eight groups (n = 10) according to thymoquinone concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, and 5% of acrylic powder. Two methods were used to evaluate the effect of thymoquinone on Candida albicans: the slide count and the serial dilution test...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692953/motivations-for-reducing-alcohol-consumption-an-international-survey-exploring-experiences-that-may-lead-to-a-change-in-drinking-habits
#12
Emma L Davies, Dominic Conroy, Adam R Winstock, Jason Ferris
AIMS: Brief interventions delivered by doctors and other healthcare practitioners might be meaningfully enhanced by understanding what individual experiences might lead patients to cut down. The aim of the current paper was to explore the experiences that might lead people to reduce their alcohol consumption and to compare these findings between respondents from 21 different countries. METHODS: Global Drug Survey is an online cross sectional, opportunistic anonymous survey...
June 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690554/white-lies-in-hand-are-other-oriented-lies-modified-by-hand-gestures-possibly-not
#13
Katarzyna Cantarero, Michal Parzuchowski, Karolina Dukala
Previous studies have shown that the hand-over-heart gesture is related to being more honest as opposed to using self-centered dishonesty. We assumed that the hand-over-heart gesture would also relate to other-oriented dishonesty, though the latter differs highly from self-centered lying. In Study 1 (N = 79), we showed that performing a hand-over-heart gesture diminished the tendency to use other-oriented white lies and that the fingers crossed behind one's back gesture was not related to higher dishonesty...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689902/effect-of-layered-manufacturing-techniques-alloy-powders-and-layer-thickness-on-metal-ceramic-bond-strength
#14
Orhun Ekren, Ahmet Ozkomur, Yurdanur Ucar
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and direct metal laser melting (DMLM) have become popular for fabricating the metal frameworks of metal-ceramic restorations. How the type of layered manufacturing device, layer thickness, and alloy powder may affect the bond strength of ceramic to metal substructure is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of dental porcelain to metal frameworks fabricated using different layered manufacturing techniques (DMLS and DMLM), Co-Cr alloy powders, and layer thicknesses and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between the bond strength and the number of ceramic remnants on the metal surface...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684551/transitions-in-prognostic-awareness-among-terminally-ill-cancer-patients-in-their-last-6-months-of-life-examined-by-multi-state-markov-modeling
#15
Chen Hsiu Chen, Fur-Hsing Wen, Ming-Mo Hou, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Wen-Chi Chou, Jen-Shi Chen, Wen-Cheng Chang, Siew Tzuh Tang
BACKGROUND: Developing accurate prognostic awareness, a cornerstone of preference-based end-of-life (EOL) care decision-making, is a dynamic process involving more prognostic-awareness states than knowing or not knowing. Understanding the transition probabilities and time spent in each prognostic-awareness state can help clinicians identify trigger points for facilitating transitions toward accurate prognostic awareness. We examined transition probabilities in distinct prognostic-awareness states between consecutive time points in 247 cancer patients' last 6 months and estimated the time spent in each state...
July 6, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680547/fracture-resistances-of-zirconia-cast-ni-cr-and-fiber-glass-composite-posts-under-all-ceramic-crowns-in-endodontically-treated-premolars
#16
Sareh Habibzadeh, Hamid Reza Rajati, Habib Hajmiragha, Shima Esmailzadeh, Mohamadjavad Kharazifard
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistances of zirconia, cast nickel-chromium alloy (Ni-Cr), and fiber-composite post systems under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated mandibular first premolars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 extracted human mandibular premolars were selected, subjected to standard endodontic treatment, and divided into three groups (n=12) as follows: cast Ni-Cr post-and-core, one-piece custom-milled zirconia post-and-core, and prefabricated fiber-glass post with composite resin core...
June 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675888/relationship-between-lower-tendency-to-deceive-in-aging-and-inhibitory-compromise
#17
Mohamad El Haj, Pascal Antoine
BACKGROUND: Deception can be associated with a heterogeneous network of concepts such as exaggeration, misleading, white lies, and faking. This paper assesses the tendency to deceive in aging. OBJECTIVE: Our main aim was to assess whether older adults would demonstrate a low tendency to deceive. METHODS: A total of 42 older adults (mean age 67.64 years, SD 7.87) and 45 younger adults (mean age 21.71 years, SD 2.66) were administered a deception scale including items such as "I sometimes tell lies if I have to" or "I never take things that don't belong to me...
July 5, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659165/longitudinal-survey-on-the-distribution-of-biomphalaria-sudanica-and-b-choanomophala-in-mwanza-region-on-the-shores-of-lake-victoria-tanzania-implications-for-schistosomiasis-transmission-and-control
#18
Anouk N Gouvras, Fiona Allan, Safari Kinung'hi, Muriel Rabone, Aidan Emery, Teckla Angelo, Tom Pennance, Bonnie Webster, Honest Nagai, David Rollinson
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is hyper-endemic in the Lake Victoria basin; with intestinal schistosomiasis plaguing communities adjacent to the lake, where the intermediate host snails live. The two intermediate host species of Schistosoma mansoni in the Mwanza region are Biomphalaria sudanica, found on the banks of the lakes, and B. choanomphala, found in the lake itself. There are few longitudinal surveys documenting changing abundance and differential transmission patterns of these Biomphalaria snails across seasons and years...
June 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658834/a-case-of-a-rapidly-enlarging-neck-mass-with-airway-compromise
#19
Libardo Rueda Prada, Venkata Sandeep Koripalli, Cesar Luis Merino, Ilmana Fulger
Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most lethal tumours in humans, extremely rare in occurrence and very aggressive in nature. We hereby present a rare case of ATC with airway compromise. A 66-year-old male, presented complaining of a non-tender anterior neck mass rapidly increasing in size associated with dry cough, hoarseness and voice changes. Imaging studies revealed a large heterogeneous centrally necrotic lobulated left thyroid mass with metastatic lymph nodes and rightward tracheal deviation...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657257/communication-skills-in-obstetrics-what-can-we-learn-from-bereaved-parents
#20
D Nuzum, S Meaney, K O'Donohue
Communicating bad news in obstetrics is challenging. This study explores the impact of how bad news was communicated to parents following a diagnosis of stillbirth. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 mothers and 5 fathers, bereaved following stillbirth at a tertiary maternity hospital where the perinatal mortality rate is 5.2/1000. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. How the diagnosis of stillbirth was communicated had a profound and lasting impact on parents...
February 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
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