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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158373/revisiting-expectations-in-an-era-of-precision-oncology
#1
Emily J Marchiano, Andrew C Birkeland, Paul L Swiecicki, Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Andrew G Shuman
As we enter an era of precision medicine and targeted therapies in the treatment of metastatic cancer, we face new challenges for patients and providers alike as we establish clear guidelines, regulations, and strategies for implementation. At the crux of this challenge is the fact that patients with advanced cancer may have disproportionate expectations of personal benefit when participating in clinical trials designed to generate generalizable knowledge. Patient and physician goals of treatment may not align, and reconciliation of their disparate perceptions must be addressed...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140563/-stink-flirting-in-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-male-olfactory-displays-to-females-as-honest-costly-signals
#2
Amber D Walker-Bolton, Joyce A Parga
Sexual selection for honest behavioral displays of quality has driven the development of remarkably complex courtship behavior in many animal species. Olfactory displays are often overlooked as an area of inquiry compared to auditory and visual displays. Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) scent marking of substrates has been studied extensively, although the male olfactory displays of anointing and wafting tails to females has received relatively little attention. We studied the role of male olfactory displays to females, evaluating whether such signals function as honest, costly signals of male dominance status in two groups of wild L...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135993/bioequivalence-between-innovator-and-generic-tacrolimus-in-liver-and-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-randomized-crossover-clinical-trial
#3
Rita R Alloway, Alexander A Vinks, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Tomoyuki Mizuno, Eileen C King, Yuanshu Zou, Wenlei Jiang, E Steve Woodle, Simon Tremblay, Jelena Klawitter, Jost Klawitter, Uwe Christians
BACKGROUND: Although the generic drug approval process has a long-term successful track record, concerns remain for approval of narrow therapeutic index generic immunosuppressants, such as tacrolimus, in transplant recipients. Several professional transplant societies and publications have generated skepticism of the generic approval process. Three major areas of concern are that the pharmacokinetic properties of generic products and the innovator (that is, "brand") product in healthy volunteers may not reflect those in transplant recipients, bioequivalence between generic and innovator may not ensure bioequivalence between generics, and high-risk patients may have specific bioequivalence concerns...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120314/ethical-challenges-in-fasd-prevention-scientific-uncertainty-stigma-and-respect-for-women-s-autonomy
#4
Natalie Zizzo, Eric Racine
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115752/aide-memoire-diaries-in-longitudinal-research
#5
Sara Helen Denham, Ruth Taylor, Tracey Humphrey
BACKGROUND: Diaries can be used as contemporaneous tools for gathering data, frequently in combination with interviews. However, diaries can also be used by study participants as personal records to improve their recall during interviews, without having to be collected for analysis. AIM: To discuss the use of diaries as aide-memoires by participants in a study exploring women's views and experiences of the quality of maternity care they received in community maternity units in Scotland...
September 19, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115603/amelioration-of-lung-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury-by-jnk-and-p38-small-interfering-rnas-in-rat-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-an-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury-lung-transplantation-model
#6
Juan Wang, Jing Tan, Yanhong Liu, Linlin Song, Di Li, Xiaoguang Cui
The inhibition of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c‑Jun NH2‑terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK (p38) and extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), have an important effect on lung ischemia‑reperfusion injury (IRI) during lung transplantation (LT). However, the way in which combined MAPK inhibition exerts optimal protective effects on lung IRI remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the inhibition of MAPKs in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) in an IRI model of LT...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090983/assessment-of-occupational-exposure-to-heat-stress-and-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-among-groundskeepers-in-an-eastern-north-carolina-university-setting
#7
Nicole Beck, Jo Anne G Balanay, Terri Johnson
Groundskeepers spend most of the year working outdoors, exposing them to heat and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and increasing their risk to related adverse health effects. Various studies on heat and UV exposures in different occupations have been published, but those on groundskeepers are rare. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to heat stress and solar UV radiation among groundskeepers in an eastern North Carolina university setting. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index using a heat stress monitor and UV effective irradiance (UVeff) index using a digital UV meter were recorded in various work areas 3 times a day (morning, noon, afternoon) and during 3 seasons (spring, summer, fall)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075447/stress-induced-changes-in-color-expression-mediated-by-iridophores-in-a-polymorphic-lizard
#8
Anna C Lewis, Katrina J Rankin, Andrew J Pask, Devi Stuart-Fox
Stress is an important potential factor mediating a broad range of cellular pathways, including those involved in condition-dependent (i.e., honest) color signal expression. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the relationship between stress and color expression are largely unknown. We artificially elevated circulating corticosterone levels in male tawny dragon lizards, Ctenophorus decresii, to assess the effect of stress on the throat color signal. Corticosterone treatment increased luminance (paler throat coloration) and decreased the proportion of gray, thereby influencing the gray reticulations that produce unique patterning...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066995/general-belief-in-a-just-world-is-positively-associated-with-dishonest-behavior
#9
Kristin Wenzel, Simon Schindler, Marc-André Reinhard
According to the just-world theory, people need to - or rather want to - believe that they live in a just world where they will receive what they earn and consequently earn what they receive. In the present work, we examined the influence of people's general and personal beliefs in a just world (BJW) on their (dis)honest behavior. Given that general BJW was found to be linked to antisocial tendencies, we expected stronger general BJW to be linked to more dishonesty. Given that personal BJW was found to be correlated with trust and justice striving, a negative link with dishonesty could be assumed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062357/responsible-conduct-of-research-enhancing-local-opportunities
#10
Erisa S Mwaka
INTRODUCTION: Research integrity is the foundation of credible research and a pre-requisite for a successful academic research environment. Lately, a lot of revelations of fraud and other unacceptable behaviour in research have been highly publicized in scientific journals and mass media. Whereas institutions in developed countries have developed guidelines and regulations to ensure responsible conduct of research and appropriately deal with cases of research misconduct, low- and middle-income countries seem to be lagging behind...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046214/motivating-the-workforce-beyond-the-two-factor-model
#11
Elizabeth Ann Shannon
Objective The aim of the present study was to understand the factors motivating health and human services professionals in the workplace, thus adding to the body of knowledge associated with employee motivation.Methods Brainstorming research was performed on frontline and emerging managers in Tasmanian public sector organisations. Coding categories were inductively developed from the data, then deductively analysed using Herzberg's two-factor model.Results Communication was the most significant factor affecting staff motivation...
October 19, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044766/do-men-and-women-with-intellectual-disabilities-understand-death
#12
A Y M Chow, J McEvoy, I K N Chan, M Borschel, J H L Yuen, J Y M Lo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with ID are often withheld information about the death of their loved ones as it has often been thought that they do not understand death or cannot grieve. This grief exacerbates the stress of individuals with ID as they often encounter secondary losses such as transitioning to a care facility. The aim of this study is to investigate men and women with ID understanding death concepts and to what extent. METHOD: Adopting a stratified random sampling method, 156 Chinese people with ID were invited to join the study...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044601/let-s-not-talk-about-sex
#13
Melanie Love, Barry A Farber
This article uses both a case illustration and data from a large-scale survey of outpatient clients (N = 798) to understand the client's perspective about avoiding or being dishonest with his or her therapist about sexual topics. The case study, of a gay young man working with a heterosexual female therapist, explores this client's experience of what happens when it feels impossible to be forthcoming about sex and sexuality. Based on the findings of our study, we note clients' motives for avoiding these intimate yet important areas (e...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042725/the-effect-of-polymerization-and-preparation-techniques-on-the-microleakage-of-composite-laminate-veneers
#14
Neslihan Celik, Merve Iscan Yapar, Numan Taşpınar, Nilgun Seven
BACKGROUND: Marginal leakage is the important factor influencing the maintenance of dental esthetic. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the preparation techniques and type of polymerization techniques on microleakage of composite laminate veneers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one same sized, caries-free human maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to 13 groups (n = 7) and were designed with four different preparation techniques (window type, feather type, bevel type, and incisal overlap type)...
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042187/exploring-patient-experiences-of-a-pain-management-centre-a-qualitative-study
#15
Manasi M Mittinty, John Lee, Amanda C de C Williams, Natasha Curran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To improve care and management of patients with chronic pain it is important to understand patients' experiences of treatment, and of the people and the environment involved. As chronic pain patients often have long relationships with medical clinics and pain management centres, the team and team interactions with the patients could impact the treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to elicit as honest as possible an account of chronic pain patients' experiences associated with their care and feed this information back to the clinical team as motivation for improvement...
October 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022518/research-on-a-drug-centred-approach-to-psychiatric-drug-treatment-assessing-the-impact-of-mental-and-behavioural-alterations-produced-by-psychiatric-drugs
#16
J Moncrieff
AIMS: This article explores an alternative understanding of how psychiatric drugs work that is referred to as the drug-centred model of drug action. Unlike the current disease-centred model, which suggests that psychiatric drugs work by correcting an underlying brain abnormality, the drug-centred model emphasises how psychiatric drugs affect mental states and behaviour by modifying normal brain processes. The alterations produced may impact on the emotional and behavioural problems that constitute the symptoms of mental disorders...
October 12, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993099/recognising-older-frail-patients-near-the-end-of-life-what-next
#17
Magnolia Cardona-Morrell, Ebony Lewis, Sanjay Suman, Cilla Haywood, Marcella Williams, Audrey-Anne Brousseau, Sally Greenaway, Ken Hillman, Elsa Dent
Frailty is a state of vulnerability resulting from cumulative decline in many physiological systems during a lifetime. It is progressive and considered largely irreversible, but its progression may be controlled and can be slowed down and its precursor -pre-frailty- can be treated with multidisciplinary intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the different ways of measuring frailty in community settings, hospital, emergency, general practice and residential aged care; suggest occupational groups who can assess frailty in various services; discuss the feasibility of comprehensive geriatric assessments; and summarise current evidence of its management guidelines...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976849/adhesive-durability-inside-the-root-canal-using-self-adhesive-resin-cements-for-luting-fiber-posts
#18
K Bitter, A Maletic, K Neumann, L Breschi, G Sterzenbach, M Taschner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various self-adhesive resin cements on the push-out bond strengths and nanoleakage expression at the luting interfaces of fiber posts immediately and after one year of aging. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred forty-four extracted human anterior teeth were endodontically treated. After post space preparation, fiber posts were luted using five commercially available self-adhesive resin (SAR) cements and a core build-up material applied with a self-etch adhesive (BF: Bifix SE/Rebilda Post, VOCO; CSA: Clearfil SA Cement/Rely X Fiber Post, 3M ESPE; RX: RelyX Unicem 2/Rely X Fiber Post, 3M ESPE; SPC: Speed Cem/FRC Postec, Ivoclar Vivadent; SMC: Smart Cem/X Post, Dentsply; RB: Rebilda DC-Futurabond/Rebilda Post; n=22)...
November 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969917/influence-of-spark-erosion-on-the-fit-of-screw-retained-co-cr-fixed-complete-denture-frameworks-veneered-with-different-materials
#19
Anna Gabriella Camacho Presotto, Luciana Valadares Oliveira, Marina Xavier Pisani, Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barão, Marcelo Ferraz Mesquita
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Spark erosion is a fit corrective technology that can be used even after the veneering material has been applied. The framework does not require sectioning, thus preserving its mechanical resistance. However, the spark erosion effect on veneered Co-Cr fixed complete denture (FCD) frameworks has not been investigated. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether spark erosion is effective in improving marginal fit on screw-retained Co-Cr FCD frameworks veneered with different materials...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967396/effect-of-saliva-contamination-and-artificial-aging-on-different-primer-cement-systems-bonded-to-zirconia
#20
João Pitta, Teresa C Branco, Jaime Portugal
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Saliva contamination has been shown to decrease bonding to zirconia. Adopting a less contamination-sensitive cement system may be an alternative to decontamination. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the ability of different primer/cement systems to promote a durable bond to zirconia after saliva contamination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Zirconia blocks (Lava Plus) (N=320) were airborne-particle abraded (50 μm Al2O3) and divided into 32 experimental groups (n=10) according to the variables in the study: saliva contamination; primer/cement system (Panavia SA [PSA]; RelyX Unicem 2 [RU2]; Bifix SE [BSE]; Panavia F2...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
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