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Mohammad Zahidul Hasan, Md Safiur Rahman Mahdi, Md Nazmus Sadat, Noman Mohammed
Human genomic information can yield more effective healthcare by guiding medical decisions. Therefore, genomics research is gaining popularity as it can identify potential correlations between a disease and a certain gene, which improves the safety and efficacy of drug treatment and can also develop more effective prevention strategies [1]. To reduce the sampling error and to increase the statistical accuracy of this type of research projects, data from different sources need to be brought together since a single organization does not necessarily possess required amount of data...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Ranganathan Vatsala, Panneerselvam Elavenil, Chellappazham Saravanan, Balasubramaniam Sasikala, Raja V B Krishnakumar
PURPOSE: Maxillofacial injuries can result in psychological derangement, leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by continual re-experiencing of any traumatic event in addition to numerous systemic complications. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of "PTSD-related depression" in patients with maxillofacial injuries and to identify the risk factors involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study involved 88 patients with maxillofacial trauma who had only cosmetic deficits (group A), only functional deficits (group B), or cosmetic and functional deficits (group C)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Jemima Dooley, Nick Bass, Rose McCabe
BACKGROUND: Dementia diagnosis rates are increasing. Guidelines recommend that people with dementia should be told their diagnosis clearly and honestly to facilitate future planning. Aims To analyse how doctors deliver a dementia diagnosis in practice. METHOD: Conversation analysis was conducted on 81 video-recorded diagnosis feedback meetings with 20 doctors from nine UK memory clinics. RESULTS: All doctors named dementia; 59% (n = 48) approached the diagnosis indirectly but delicately ('this is dementia') and 41% (n = 33) approached this directly but bluntly ('you have Alzheimer's disease')...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Subha Ramani, Karen D Könings, Karen V Mann, Emily E Pisarski, Cees P M van der Vleuten
PURPOSE: To explore resident and faculty perspectives on what constitutes feedback culture, their perceptions of how institutional feedback culture (including politeness concepts) might influence the quality and impact of feedback, feedback seeking, receptivity, and readiness to engage in bidirectional feedback. METHOD: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, five focus group discussions with internal medicine residents, three focus group discussions with general medicine faculty, and eight individual interviews with subspecialist faculty were conducted at Brigham and Women's Hospital between April and December 2016...
March 6, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Christian J Wiedermann
Published articles may be retracted when their findings are no longer considered reliable due to honest error, publication misconduct or research misconduct. This article focuses on the case of a single serial violator of research and publication ethics in anesthesiology and critical care, which is widely publicized. A chain of events led to detection of misconduct that had substantial impact on the evidence base for the safety of hydroxyethyl starch, an intravenous artificial colloid solution, which is reflected in current guidelines on fluid management and volume resuscitation...
March 8, 2018: Accountability in Research
S Suda, T Takamizawa, F Takahashi, A Tsujimoto, S Akiba, Y Nagura, H Kurokawa, M Miyazaki
The aim of this study was to use ultrasonography to evaluate the effect of the self-assembling peptide P11-4 on acid erosion prevention. Curodont Repair (CR), which includes peptide P11-4, was used. Rectangular prisms of bovine enamel (4×1×1 mm) were immersed in pure orange juice for a period of 5 minutes six times per day for 28 days. These samples were divided into four groups of six specimens each and treated differently for an additional period of 28 days: 1) baseline group specimens were stored in artificial saliva; 2) CR group specimens were exposed to curodont without acid challenge; 3) NCRA (no curodont+acid challenge) specimens were treated with orange juice without curodont exposure; and 4) CRA (CR+acid challenge) specimens were treated with curodont before treatment with orange juice...
March 7, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Behnaz Ebadian, Ramin Mosharraf, Mahsa Abbasi
Background: Residual thermal stresses in dental porcelains can cause clinical failure. Porcelain cooling protocols may affect the amount of residual stresses within porcelain and also porcelain-zirconia bond strength. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cooling protocols on the fracture load of porcelain veneered zirconia restorations. Materials and Methods: Forty zirconia bars (31 mm × 6.5 mm × 1.35 mm ± 0.1 mm) were fabricated by computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology...
January 2018: Dental Research Journal
Niwut Juntavee, Issarawas Sirisathit
Objective: This study evaluated marginal accuracy of full-arch zirconia restoration fabricated from two digital computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems (Trios-3 and CS3500) in comparison to conventional cast metal restoration. Materials and methods: A stainless steel model comprising two canine and two molar abutments was used as a master model for full-arch reconstruction. The canine and molar abutments were machined in a cylindrical shape with 5° taper and chamfer margin...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
József Garay, Villő Csiszár, Tamás F Móri, András Szilágyi, Zoltán Varga, Szabolcs Számadó
Parent-offspring communication remains an unresolved challenge for biologist. The difficulty of the challenge comes from the fact that it is a multifaceted problem with connections to life-history evolution, parent-offspring conflict, kin selection and signalling. Previous efforts mainly focused on modelling resource allocation at the expense of the dynamic interaction during a reproductive season. Here we present a two-stage model of begging where the first stage models the interaction between nestlings and parents within a nest and the second stage models the life-history trade-offs...
2018: PloS One
Patrick Macmillan, Stephen A Geraci
The end of life discussions can often be difficult for a multitude of reasons. Our culture is pervasive with ideas of mortality, and that medicine can avert this human constant. Medicine, as a field, must embrace our limitations so that we can engage in honest discussions with the families and the patients regarding the end of life care.
December 20, 2017: Curēus
Tracey L Rogers
It is proposed that where sexually selected vocal communication is an honest signal, the call production rate is predicted to change throughout the breeding season. Male leopard seals call underwater for many hours each day over their three- to four-month breeding season, and it is hypothesized that a decrease in calling rate would be associated with the declining body condition of smaller males. The calling rates of leopard seals were measured ( N  = 49 recordings) and compared between seals of different size classes throughout the breeding season...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Reshma Munbodh, Jonathan P S Knisely, David A Jaffray, Douglas J Moseley
PURPOSE: We present and evaluate a fully automated 2D-3D intensity-based registration framework using a single limited field-of-view (FOV) 2D kV radiograph and a 3D kV CBCT for 3D estimation of patient setup errors during brain radiotherapy. METHODS: We evaluated two similarity measures, the Pearson correlation coefficient on image intensity values (ICC) and maximum likelihood measure with Gaussian noise (MLG), derived from the statistics of transmission images...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Fateme Azizi, Vahid Shahidi-Zandi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of first premolar extraction with different anchorages as well as non-extraction on mandibular third molar angulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) panoramic radiographs of one hundred patients from Hamadan (Iran), who underwent fixed orthodontic treatment were investigated and the angle between long axis of right mandibular third molars and a constructed horizontal plan (HRP) was measured...
February 16, 2018: International Orthodontics
Margaret McCartney
In this paper I examine the relationship between benefits, harms and evidence-based medicine in the context of British primary healthcare. First, I will examine: 'What is a benefit and what is a harm?' Second, what should we know about where the balance of risk and benefit appear to lie? Third, what should we do with this knowledge, particularly in the context of the biopsychosocial gaze of primary care? I conclude that even perfect knowledge about benefits and harms requires to be translated in the context of the individual patient: it also requires to be interpreted according to what that persons' wishes are...
January 2018: London Journal of Primary Care
Mirza Rustum Baig, Jaber Hussain Akbar, Muawia Qudeimat, Ridwaan Omar
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of impression material, impression tray type, and type of partial edentulism (ie, Kennedy class) on the accuracy of fit of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) partial removable dental prostheses (PRDP) in terms of the number of fabricated frameworks required until the attainment of adequate fit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic case documentations of 120 partially edentulous patients provided with Co-Cr PRDP treatment for one or both arches were examined...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Prosthodontics
Anju Victor, Carolin Elizabeth George, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Gift Norman
Background: In India, roughly one-half of patients undergoing cancer treatment are unaware of their diagnosis or treatment. The intention of this study is to determine the prevalence of collusion and its influence on quality of life (QOL) among patients in palliative care settings. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 palliative care patients to assess the extent of knowledge about their diagnosis and prognosis. The caretakers and the treating doctors were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess if diagnosis was revealed to a patient...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Reyard Mutamiswa, Honest Machekano, Frank Chidawanyika, Casper Nyamukondiwa
Basal and plasticity of thermal tolerance determine abundance, biogeographical patterns and activity of insects over spatial and temporal scales. For coexisting stemborer parasitoids, offering synergistic impact for biological control, mismatches in thermal tolerance may influence their ultimate impact in biocontrol programs under climate variability. Using laboratory-reared congeneric parasitoid species Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), we examined basal thermal tolerance to understand potential impact of climate variability on their survival and limits to activity...
2018: PloS One
Tullika Garg, Jill Nault Connors, Ilene G Ladd, Tyler L Bogaczyk, Sharon L Larson
Background: Although approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive (NMIBC) at diagnosis, most research tends to focus on invasive disease (e.g., experiences related to radical cystectomy and urinary diversion). There is a lack of studies on quality of life, and especially qualitative research, in bladder cancer generally. As a result, relatively little is known about the experiences and needs of NMIBC patients. Objective: To understand patient experience, define care priorities, and identify targets for care improvement in NMIBC across the cancer continuum...
January 20, 2018: Bladder Cancer
Karolina Luegmair, Christoph Zenzmaier, Claudia Oblasser, Martina König-Bachmann
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate women's satisfaction with care at the birthplace in Austria and to provide reference data for cross-country comparisons within the international Babies Born Better project. DESIGN: a cross-sectional design was applied. The data were extracted from the Babies Born Better survey as a national sub-dataset that included all participants with Austria as the indicated country of residence. SETTING: an online survey targeting women who had given birth within the last five years and distributed primarily via social media...
January 8, 2018: Midwifery
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