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darnell fmrp

Nikita Vasilyev, Anna Polonskaia, Jennifer C Darnell, Robert B Darnell, Dinshaw J Patel, Alexander Serganov
Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a regulatory RNA binding protein that plays a central role in the development of several human disorders including Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and autism. FMRP uses an arginine-glycine-rich (RGG) motif for specific interactions with guanine (G)-quadruplexes, mRNA elements implicated in the disease-associated regulation of specific mRNAs. Here we report the 2.8-Å crystal structure of the complex between the human FMRP RGG peptide bound to the in vitro selected G-rich RNA...
September 29, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jennifer C Darnell, Eric Klann
De novo protein synthesis is necessary for long-lasting modifications in synaptic strength and dendritic spine dynamics that underlie cognition. Fragile X syndrome (FXS), characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors, holds promise for revealing the molecular basis for these long-term changes in neuronal function. Loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) results in defects in synaptic plasticity and cognition in many models of the disease. FMRP is a polyribosome-associated RNA-binding protein that regulates the synthesis of a set of plasticity-reated proteins by stalling ribosomal translocation on target mRNAs...
November 2013: Nature Neuroscience
Jennifer C Darnell, Joel D Richter
The formation and maintenance of neural circuits in the mammal central nervous system (CNS) require the coordinated expression of genes not just at the transcriptional level, but at the translational level as well. Recent evidence shows that regulated messenger RNA (mRNA) translation is necessary for certain forms of synaptic plasticity, the cellular basis of learning and memory. In addition, regulated translation helps guide axonal growth cones to their targets on other neurons or at the neuromuscular junction...
August 2012: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Ivan Iossifov, Michael Ronemus, Dan Levy, Zihua Wang, Inessa Hakker, Julie Rosenbaum, Boris Yamrom, Yoon-Ha Lee, Giuseppe Narzisi, Anthony Leotta, Jude Kendall, Ewa Grabowska, Beicong Ma, Steven Marks, Linda Rodgers, Asya Stepansky, Jennifer Troge, Peter Andrews, Mitchell Bekritsky, Kith Pradhan, Elena Ghiban, Melissa Kramer, Jennifer Parla, Ryan Demeter, Lucinda L Fulton, Robert S Fulton, Vincent J Magrini, Kenny Ye, Jennifer C Darnell, Robert B Darnell, Elaine R Mardis, Richard K Wilson, Michael C Schatz, W Richard McCombie, Michael Wigler
Exome sequencing of 343 families, each with a single child on the autism spectrum and at least one unaffected sibling, reveal de novo small indels and point substitutions, which come mostly from the paternal line in an age-dependent manner. We do not see significantly greater numbers of de novo missense mutations in affected versus unaffected children, but gene-disrupting mutations (nonsense, splice site, and frame shifts) are twice as frequent, 59 to 28. Based on this differential and the number of recurrent and total targets of gene disruption found in our and similar studies, we estimate between 350 and 400 autism susceptibility genes...
April 26, 2012: Neuron
Jennifer C Darnell, Sarah J Van Driesche, Chaolin Zhang, Ka Ying Sharon Hung, Aldo Mele, Claire E Fraser, Elizabeth F Stone, Cynthia Chen, John J Fak, Sung Wook Chi, Donny D Licatalosi, Joel D Richter, Robert B Darnell
FMRP loss of function causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autistic features. FMRP is a polyribosome-associated neuronal RNA-binding protein, suggesting that it plays a key role in regulating neuronal translation, but there has been little consensus regarding either its RNA targets or mechanism of action. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing of RNAs isolated by crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) to identify FMRP interactions with mouse brain polyribosomal mRNAs. FMRP interacts with the coding region of transcripts encoding pre- and postsynaptic proteins and transcripts implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD)...
July 22, 2011: Cell
Anh Tuân Phan, Vitaly Kuryavyi, Jennifer C Darnell, Alexander Serganov, Ananya Majumdar, Serge Ilin, Tanya Raslin, Anna Polonskaia, Cynthia Chen, David Clain, Robert B Darnell, Dinshaw J Patel
We have determined the solution structure of the complex between an arginine-glycine-rich RGG peptide from the human fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and an in vitro-selected guanine-rich (G-rich) sc1 RNA. The bound RNA forms a newly discovered G-quadruplex separated from the flanking duplex stem by a mixed junctional tetrad. The RGG peptide is positioned along the major groove of the RNA duplex, with the G-quadruplex forcing a sharp turn of R(10)GGGGR(15) at the duplex-quadruplex junction. Arg10 and Arg15 form cross-strand specificity-determining intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the major-groove edges of guanines of adjacent Watson-Crick G•C pairs...
June 5, 2011: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Julie B Zang, Elena D Nosyreva, Corinne M Spencer, Lenora J Volk, Kiran Musunuru, Ru Zhong, Elizabeth F Stone, Lisa A Yuva-Paylor, Kimberly M Huber, Richard Paylor, Jennifer C Darnell, Robert B Darnell
The mental retardation, autistic features, and behavioral abnormalities characteristic of the Fragile X mental retardation syndrome result from the loss of function of the RNA-binding protein FMRP. The disease is usually caused by a triplet repeat expansion in the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene. This leads to loss of function through transcriptional gene silencing, pointing to a key function for FMRP, but precluding genetic identification of critical activities within the protein. Moreover, antisense transcripts (FMR4, ASFMR1) in the same locus have been reported to be silenced by the repeat expansion...
December 2009: PLoS Genetics
Jennifer C Darnell, Claire E Fraser, Olga Mostovetsky, Robert B Darnell
Fragile X mental retardation is caused by loss-of-function of a single gene encoding FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that harbors three canonical RNA-binding domains, two KH-type and one RGG box. Two autosomal paralogs of FMRP, FXR1P and FXR2P, are similar to FMRP in their overall structure, including the presence of putative RNA-binding domains, but to what extent they provide functional redundancy with FMRP is unclear. Although FMRP has been characterized as a polyribosome-associated regulator of translation, less is known about the functions of FXR1P and FXR2P...
September 1, 2009: Human Molecular Genetics
Yi-Shuian Huang, Joel D Richter
Synaptic plasticity, the ability of neuronal synapses to undergo morphological and biochemical changes in response to various stimuli, forms the underlying basis of long-term memory storage. Regulated mRNA translation at synapses is required for this plasticity. However, the mechanism by which translation at synapses is controlled and how the encoded proteins modulate persistent changes in synaptic morphology and functional integration in response to different input stimulations remain mostly unclear (Schuman et al...
2007: Methods in Enzymology
J C Darnell, O Mostovetsky, R B Darnell
The Fragile X Syndrome is caused by the loss of function of the FMR1 gene (Pieretti et al. 1991. Cell 66, 817-822; O'Donnell & Warren 2002. Annu Rev Neurosci 25, 315-338]. Identification of the RNA targets to which FMRP binds is a key step in understanding the function of the protein and the cellular defects caused by its absence (Darnell et al. 2004 Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 10, 49-52). Here we discuss the current understanding of FMRP as an RNA-binding protein, the different approaches that have been taken to identify FMRP RNA targets and the relevance of some of these approaches to FMRP biology...
August 2005: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Jennifer C Darnell, Claire E Fraser, Olga Mostovetsky, Giovanni Stefani, Thomas A Jones, Sean R Eddy, Robert B Darnell
Fragile-X mental retardation is caused by loss of function of a single gene encoding the Fragile-X mental retardation protein, FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that harbors two KH-type and one RGG-type RNA-binding domains. Previous studies identified intramolecular G-quartet RNAs as high-affinity targets for the RGG box, but the relationship of RNA binding to FMRP function and mental retardation remains unclear. One severely affected patient harbors a missense mutation (I304N) within the second KH domain (KH2), and some evidence suggests this domain may be involved in the proposed role of FMRP in translational regulation...
April 15, 2005: Genes & Development
Giovanni Stefani, Claire E Fraser, Jennifer C Darnell, Robert B Darnell
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA binding protein encoded by the gene FMR1, whose expression is impaired in patients with fragile X mental retardation. The association of FMRP with polyribosomes in non-neural cell lines has previously suggested that FMRP is involved in translational regulation. However, the relevance of these studies to neuronal function has been questioned by the finding that FMRP in brain is not associated with polyribosomes, but is part of small ribonucleo-protein complexes that do not appear to include ribosomes...
August 18, 2004: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jennifer C Darnell, Stephen T Warren, Robert B Darnell
Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP protein is an intramolecular G-quartet and that the RGG box of FMRP mediates this interaction. Searching databases of mRNA sequence information, as well as compiled sequences of predicted FMRP targets based on biochemical identification, has revealed that many of these predicted FMRP targets contain intramolecular G-quartets...
2004: Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
J C Darnell, K B Jensen, P Jin, V Brown, S T Warren, R B Darnell
Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) function causes the fragile X mental retardation syndrome. FMRP harbors three RNA binding domains, associates with polysomes, and is thought to regulate mRNA translation and/or localization, but the RNAs to which it binds are unknown. We have used RNA selection to demonstrate that the FMRP RGG box binds intramolecular G quartets. This data allowed us to identify mRNAs encoding proteins involved in synaptic or developmental neurobiology that harbor FMRP binding elements...
November 16, 2001: Cell
V Brown, P Jin, S Ceman, J C Darnell, W T O'Donnell, S A Tenenbaum, X Jin, Y Feng, K D Wilkinson, J D Keene, R B Darnell, S T Warren
Fragile X syndrome results from the absence of the RNA binding FMR protein. Here, mRNA was coimmunoprecipitated with the FMRP ribonucleoprotein complex and used to interrogate microarrays. We identified 432 associated mRNAs from mouse brain. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed some to be >60-fold enriched in the immunoprecipitant. In parallel studies, mRNAs from polyribosomes of fragile X cells were used to probe microarrays. Despite equivalent cytoplasmic abundance, 251 mRNAs had an abnormal polyribosome profile in the absence of FMRP...
November 16, 2001: Cell
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