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Exercise and molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428077/molecular-bases-of-the-crosstalk-between-bone-and-muscle
#1
Gerard Karsenty, Paula Mera
Exercise is an evolutionary conserved survival function that nowadays has beneficial health effects. The increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscle affects the biology of many organs involved in regulating muscle functions. The discovery of hormones and cytokines secreted by bone and skeletal muscle during exercise, has recently added experimental credence to the notion that a crosstalk exists between these organs. Bone through the hormone osteocalcin, promotes exercise capacity in the mouse...
April 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391421/the-rising-incidence-of-younger-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-questions-about-screening-biology-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Louise C Connell, José Mauricio Mota, Maria Ignez Braghiroli, Paulo M Hoff
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cancer diagnosed globally and an important cause of cancer-related mortality. Of interest, while we have witnessed a declining incidence trend over the past few decades in the older population, incidence rates for adolescents and young adults have been increasing steadily. Several factors may well explain this apparent epidemic in the young, namely a lack of routine screening and emerging lifestyle issues such as obesity, lack of exercise, and dietary factors. It is known that both environmental and genetic factors can increase the likelihood of developing CRC...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365405/novel-insights-into-cardiac-remodelling-revealed-by-proteomic-analysis-of-the-trout-heart-during-exercise-training
#3
Laura A Dindia, Sarah L Alderman, Todd E Gillis
The changes in the cardiac proteome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were quantified during the early phases (4, 7, and 14d) of a typical exercise-training regime to provide a comprehensive overview of the cellular changes responsible for developing a trained heart phenotype. Enhanced somatic growth during the 14d experiment was paralleled by cardiac growth to maintain relative ventricular mass. This was reflected in the cardiac proteome by the increased abundance of contractile proteins and cellular integrity proteins as early as Day 4, including a pronounced and sustained increase in blood vessel epicardial substance - an intercellular adhesion protein expressed in the vertebrate heart...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348175/omics-and-exercise-global-approaches-for-mapping-exercise-biological-networks
#4
Nolan J Hoffman
The application of global "-omics" technologies to exercise has introduced new opportunities to map the complexity and interconnectedness of biological networks underlying the tissue-specific responses and systemic health benefits of exercise. This review will introduce major research tracks and recent advancements in this emerging field, as well as critical gaps in understanding the orchestration of molecular exercise dynamics that will benefit from unbiased omics investigations. Furthermore, significant research hurdles that need to be overcome to effectively fill these gaps related to data collection, computation, interpretation, and integration across omics applications will be discussed...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286759/bioinformatics-analysis-reveals-micrornas-regulating-biological-pathways-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-physiological-hypertrophy
#5
REVIEW
Jiahong Xu, Yang Liu, Yuan Xie, Cuimei Zhao, Hongbao Wang
Exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy is generally considered to be a type of adaptive change after exercise training and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at investigating exercise-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential biological pathways. Here, we collected 23 miRNAs from 8 published studies. MirPath v.3 from the DIANA tools website was used to execute the analysis, and TargetScan was used to predict the target genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212624/understanding-the-response-to-endurance-exercise-using-a-systems-biology-approach-combining-blood-metabolomics-transcriptomics-and-mirnomics-in-horses
#6
Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Allison Clark, Marco Moroldo, Céline Robert, Eric Barrey, Jesús Maria López, Laurence Le Moyec
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise in horses requires adaptive processes involving physiological, biochemical, and cognitive-behavioral responses in an attempt to regain homeostasis. We hypothesized that the identification of the relationships between blood metabolome, transcriptome, and miRNome during endurance exercise in horses could provide significant insights into the molecular response to endurance exercise. For this reason, the serum metabolome and whole-blood transcriptome and miRNome data were obtained from ten horses before and after a 160 km endurance competition...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153015/the-effects-of-short-term-high-fat-feeding-on-exercise-capacity-multi-tissue-transcriptome-changes-by-rna-sequencing-analysis
#7
Ya Xiao, Wanshan Wang, Liguo Chen, Jieyu Chen, Pingping Jiang, Xiuqiong Fu, Xiaoli Nie, Hiuyee Kwan, Yanyan Liu, Xiaoshan Zhao
BACKGROUND: The effects of short-term high fat diets on physiology are elusive and the molecular changes following fat overconsumption remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate exercise capacity in mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 3 days and investigate the molecular mechanisms in the early response to high-fat feeding. METHODS: Exercise capacity was assessed by weight-loaded swimming test in mice fed a control diet (10 kcal% fat) or a HFD (60 kcal% fat) for 3 days...
February 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145107/a-comprehensive-experiment-for-molecular-biology-determination-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-human-rev3-gene-using-pcr-rflp
#8
Xu Zhang, Meng Shao, Lu Gao, Yuanyuan Zhao, Zixuan Sun, Liping Zhou, Yongmin Yan, Qixiang Shao, Wenrong Xu, Hui Qian
Laboratory exercise is helpful for medical students to understand the basic principles of molecular biology and to learn about the practical applications of molecular biology. We have designed a lab course on molecular biology about the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human REV3 gene, the product of which is a subunit of DNA polymerase ζ and SNPs in this gene are associated with altered susceptibility to cancer. This newly designed experiment is composed of three parts, including genomic DNA extraction, gene amplification by PCR, and genotyping by RFLP...
February 1, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111441/exercise-induced-upregulation-of-glutamate-cysteine-ligase-catalytic-subunit-gclc-and-glutamate-cysteine-ligase-modifier-subunit-gclm-gene-expression-in-thoroughbred-horses
#9
Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Young Choi, Seul A Hong, Nam Young Kim, Kyoung-Tag Do, Ki-Duk Song, Byung-Wook Cho
Athletic ability is an important economic trait in horses, and molecular biological research on horses' athletic abilities can lead to improvements in the animals' economic value. In a previous study, we conducted RNA sequencing analyses of the blood and muscles of horses during exercise and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to exercise. Among them, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) genes, of which products form glutamate cysteine ligase...
January 2, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101273/who-scared-the-cat-a-molecular-crime-scene-investigation-laboratory-exercise
#10
Laura E Ott, Susan D Carson
This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady) or dog (Kona) committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032403/a-unique-large-scale-undergraduate-research-experience-in-molecular-systems-biology-for-non-mathematics-majors
#11
Ulrike Kappler, Susan L Rowland, Rhianna K Pedwell
Systems biology is frequently taught with an emphasis on mathematical modeling approaches. This focus effectively excludes most biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology students, who are not mathematics majors. The mathematical focus can also present a misleading picture of systems biology, which is a multi-disciplinary pursuit requiring collaboration between biochemists, bioinformaticians, and mathematicians. This article describes an authentic large-scale undergraduate research experience (ALURE) in systems biology that incorporates proteomics, bacterial genomics, and bioinformatics in the one exercise...
December 28, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027662/redox-control-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#12
Emmeran Le Moal, Vincent Pialoux, Gaëtan Juban, Carole Groussard, Hassane Zouhal, Bénédicte Chazaud, Rémi Mounier
Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of muscle stem cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent...
February 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941030/molecular-mechanisms-of-ros-production-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Kevin Noel Keane, Rodrigo Carlessi, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are known to be associated with the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative systems of cells and tissues, is a result of over production of oxidative-free radicals and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS). One outcome of excessive levels of ROS is the modification of the structure and function of cellular proteins and lipids, leading to cellular dysfunction including impaired energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, impaired cell transport mechanisms and overall dysfunctional biological activity, immune activation and inflammation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939320/minion-as-part-of-a-biomedical-rapidly-deployable-laboratory
#14
Mathias C Walter, Katrin Zwirglmaier, Philipp Vette, Scott A Holowachuk, Kilian Stoecker, Gelimer H Genzel, Markus H Antwerpen
Fast turnaround times are of utmost importance for biomedical reconnaissance, particularly regarding dangerous pathogens. Recent advances in sequencing technology and its devices allow sequencing within a short time frame outside stationary laboratories close to the epicenter of the outbreak. In our study, we evaluated the portable sequencing device MinION as part of a rapidly deployable laboratory specialized in identification of highly pathogenic agents. We tested the device in the course of a NATO live agent exercise in a deployable field laboratory in hot climate conditions...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#15
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852752/temperature-induced-cardiac-remodelling-in-fish
#16
REVIEW
Adam N Keen, Jordan M Klaiman, Holly A Shiels, Todd E Gillis
Thermal acclimation causes the heart of some fish species to undergo significant remodelling. This includes changes in electrical activity, energy utilization and structural properties at the gross and molecular level of organization. The purpose of this Review is to summarize the current state of knowledge of temperature-induced structural remodelling in the fish ventricle across different levels of biological organization, and to examine how such changes result in the modification of the functional properties of the heart...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848901/herb-medicines-against-osteoporosis-active-compounds-relevant-biological-mechanisms
#17
Lei Wu, Zhuoyan Ling, Xueqin Feng, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Osteoporosis is one of common bone disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatments of osteoporosis consist of pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological interventions, such as mineral supplementation, lifestyle changes, and exercise programs. Due to the minimum side effects and favorable cost-effective therapeutic effects, herbal medicine has been widely applied in clinical practices for more than 2,000 years in China. Of the many traditional formulas reported for treating bone diseases, 4 single herbs namely (1) Herba Epimedii, (2) Rhizoma Drynariae, (3) Fructus Psoraleae, and (4) Cortex Eucommiae, are considered as the featured "Kidney-Yang" tonics, and frequently and effectively applied for preventing and treating osteoporosis...
November 16, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833825/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-diagnosis-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#18
Angelo M Taveira-DaSilva, Joel Moss
INTRODUCTION: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a disease of women characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic involvement, and renal angiomyolipomas. AREAS COVERED: LAM is caused by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells containing mutations and perhaps epigenetic modifications of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins controlling the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway...
2016: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790107/do-dopaminergic-impairments-underlie-physical-inactivity-in-people-with-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Alexxai V Kravitz, Timothy J O'Neal, Danielle M Friend
Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the negative health consequences of obesity. Despite a wide consensus that people with obesity should exercise more, there are few effective methods for increasing physical activity in people with obesity. This lack is reflected in our limited understanding of the cellular and molecular causes of physical inactivity in obesity. We hypothesize that impairments in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in people with obesity, as in classic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711947/-opportunities-and-challenges-of-extrapolation-for-biosimilars
#20
M Weise, E Wolff-Holz
Although biosimilars approved in the European Union have proved to be safe and efficacious, their licensing requirements continue to be disputed by medical professionals. In particular, extrapolation to indications of the originator without one's own clinical data of the biosimilar is controversial. Conceptually, the development of biosimilars is derived from that of generics. However, due to their complexity and inherent variability, considerably more data are necessary for biosimilars to demonstrate comparability with the originator (the reference product) than for the usually low-molecular generics...
November 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
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