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Exercise and molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903544/the-process-defines-the-product-what-really-matters-in-biosimilar-design-and-production
#1
Arnold G Vulto, Orlando A Jaquez
Biologic drugs are highly complex molecules produced by living cells through a multistep manufacturing process. The key characteristics of these molecules, known as critical quality attributes (CQAs), can vary based on post-translational modifications that occur in the cellular environment or during the manufacturing process. The extent of the variation in each of the CQAs must be characterized for the originator molecule and systematically matched as closely as possible by the biosimilar developer to ensure bio-similarity...
August 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903543/biosimilars-in-rheumatology-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-their-place-in-the-treatment-algorithm
#2
Hendrik Schulze-Koops, Alla Skapenko
Determining biosimilarity involves a comprehensive exercise with a focus on determining the comparability of the molecular characteristics and preclinical profile of the biosimilar and reference product, such that there is less need for extensive clinical testing to assure comparability of clinical outcomes. Three anti-TNF biosimilar agents are approved for patients with rheumatic diseases in the European Union. The infliximab (Remicade®) biosimilars CT-P13 (Remsima® and Inflectra®) and SB2 (Flixabi®) and the etanercept (Enbrel®) biosimilar SB4 (Benepali®) have shown close comparability to their reference medicinal products, having undergone extensive evaluations...
August 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902453/implementing-a-web-based-introductory-bioinformatics-course-for-non-bioinformaticians-that-incorporates-practical-exercises
#3
Antony T Vincent, Yves Bourbonnais, Jean-Simon Brouard, Hélène Deveau, Arnaud Droit, Stéphane M Gagné, Michel Guertin, Claude Lemieux, Louis Rathier, Steve J Charette, Patrick Lagüe
A recent scientific discipline, bioinformatics, defined as using informatics for the study of biological problems, is now a requirement for the study of biological sciences. Bioinformatics has become such a powerful and popular discipline that several academic institutions have created programs in this field, allowing students to become specialized. However, biology students who are not involved in a bioinformatics program also need a solid toolbox of bioinformatics software and skills. Therefore, we have developed a completely online bioinformatics course for non-bioinformaticians, entitled "BIF-1901 Introduction à la bio-informatique et à ses outils (Introduction to bioinformatics and bioinformatics tools)," given by the Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Bioinformatics of Université Laval (Quebec City, Canada)...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873339/non-invasive-strategies-for-stimulating-endogenous-repair-and-regenerative-mechanisms-in-the-damaged-heart
#4
REVIEW
Fiona C Lewis, Siri Deva Kumar, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes
The adult myocardium, including human, harbours a population of resident multi-potent cardiac stem cells (CSCs), which when stimulated under the right conditions can give rise to new cardiomyocytes and vasculature. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern CSC biology and their role in myocardial regeneration will allow the design and development of optimal therapeutic interventions. It is now evident that different growth factors and cytokines govern CSC survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation, as well as playing a role in activating cardiac repair mechanisms such as improving angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte survival and limiting fibrosis...
September 2, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858410/intentionally-flawed-manuscripts-as-means-for-teaching-students-to-critically-evaluate-scientific-papers
#5
Jaroslav Ferenc, Filip Červenák, Erik Birčák, Katarína Juríková, Ivana Goffová, Peter Gorilák, Barbora Huraiová, Jana Plavá, Loriana Demecsová, Nikola Ďuríková, Veronika Galisová, Matej Gazdarica, Marek Puškár, Tibor Nagy, Soňa Nagyová, Lucia Mentelová, Miroslava Slaninová, Andrea Ševčovicová, Ľubomír Tomáška
As future scientists, university students need to learn how to avoid making errors in their own manuscripts, as well as how to identify flaws in papers published by their peers. Here we describe a novel approach on how to promote students' ability to critically evaluate scientific articles. The exercise is based on instructing teams of students to write intentionally flawed manuscripts describing the results of simple experiments. The teams are supervised by instructors advising the students during manuscript writing, choosing the 'appropriate' errors, monitoring the identification of errors made by the other team and evaluating the strength of their arguments in support of the identified errors...
August 31, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854781/molecular-analysis-of-alternative-transcripts-of-equine-axl-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-gene
#6
Jeong-Woong Park, Ki-Duk Song, Nam Young Kim, Jae-Young Choi, Seul A Hong, Jin Hyeog Oh, Si Won Kim, Jeong Hyo Lee, Tae Sub Park, Jin-Kyoo Kim, Jong Geun Kim, Byung-Wook Cho
OBJECTIVE: Since athletic performance is a most importance trait in horses, most research focused on physiological and physical studies of horse athletic abilities. In contrast, the molecular analysis as well as the regulatory pathway studies remain insufficient for evaluation and prediction of horse athletic abilities. In our previous study, we identified AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) gene which was expressed as alternative spliced isoforms in skeletal muscle during exercise. In the present study, we validated two AXL alternative splicing transcripts (named as AXLa for long form and AXLb for short form) in equine skeletal muscle to gain insight(s) into the role of each alternative transcript during exercise...
October 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843018/browning-in-apples-exploring-the-biochemical-basis-of-an-easily-observable-phenotype
#7
Charles E Deutch
Many fruits and vegetables undergo browning when they are cut and the tissue is exposed to the air. This is due to the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1) with endogenous substrates. In this laboratory experiment, students prepare slices of different varieties of apples and assess the rate of browning. They make a simple extract of the apple tissue and measure the activity of PPO using 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) as substrate. They determine the protein concentration of the extract with the Bradford Coomassie Blue reagent and calculate the specific activity of PPO...
August 26, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839940/effects-of-combined-treatment-with-fermented-soybean-natto-intake-and-exercise-on-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Michihiro Kawano, Ichiro Itomine, Masahiko Monma, Kazumi Asakawa, Atsushi Toyoda, Yuji Miyaguchi
OBJECTIVES: Using ovariectomized rats, we examined the influence of combined exercise tolerance and natto intake on the bone loss inhibitory effect. METHODS: We divided female Wistar rats into the following groups: Ovariectomy, Ovariectomy + Exercise, Ovariectomy + Natto Intake, Ovariectomy + Exercise + Natto Intake, and Pseudo-operative (Sham group). After conducting experiments on each group, we collected the tissues and performed morphological and molecular biological analyses...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839146/piezo1-channels-sense-whole-body-physical-activity-to-reset-cardiovascular-homeostasis-and-enhance-performance
#9
Baptiste Rode, Jian Shi, Naima Endesh, Mark J Drinkhill, Peter J Webster, Sabine J Lotteau, Marc A Bailey, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Melanie J Ludlow, Richard M Cubbon, Jing Li, T Simon Futers, Lara Morley, Hannah J Gaunt, Katarzyna Marszalek, Hema Viswambharan, Kevin Cuthbertson, Paul D Baxter, Richard Foster, Piruthivi Sukumar, Andrew Weightman, Sarah C Calaghan, Stephen B Wheatcroft, Mark T Kearney, David J Beech
Mammalian biology adapts to physical activity but the molecular mechanisms sensing the activity remain enigmatic. Recent studies have revealed how Piezo1 protein senses mechanical force to enable vascular development. Here, we address Piezo1 in adult endothelium, the major control site in physical activity. Mice without endothelial Piezo1 lack obvious phenotype but close inspection reveals a specific effect on endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance artery. Strikingly, the Piezo1 is required for elevated blood pressure during whole body physical activity but not blood pressure during inactivity...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819350/understanding-sarcopenia-development-a-role-for-healthy-behaviors
#10
Justin P Hardee, James A Carson
For decades the biomedical community has documented the accelerated loss of muscle mass that occurs with advancing aging, termed sarcopenia. The timely review article ("Attenuation of Adverse Effects of Aging on Skeletal Muscle by Regular Exercise and Nutritional Support") by Arthur Leon presents our current state of knowledge on the biological processes responsible for age-induced loss of muscle mass and function. This loss of skeletal muscle has critical health implications as it can negatively affect morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818578/can-exercise-training-counteract-doxorubicin-induced-oxidative-damage-of-testis-proteome
#11
José Magalhães, António Ascensão, Ana I Padrão, Inês M Aleixo, Estela Santos-Alves, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, André Ferreira, Luis Korrodi-Gregório, Rui Vitorino, Rita Ferreira, Margarida Fardilha
The use of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its toxicity in several organs such as testes. So, we analyzed the effect of endurance treadmill exercise training (EX) performed before sub-chronic DOX treatment on sperm count and motility, testes markers of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Tissue profiling of proteins more susceptible to oxidation was made to identify the molecular pathways regulated by oxidative modifications, as nitration and carbonylation. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four groups (n=6/group): sedentary saline (SED+SAL), sedentary sub-chronically injected with DOX (2mg-kg-1 per week, during 7 weeks; SED+DOX), 12 weeks trained saline (EX+SAL) and trained treated with DOX (EX+DOX)...
August 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818559/-to-boldly-go-where-no-one-has-gone-before
#12
Keith W Kelley
Americans are suffering from a culture of taking pills. Six out of ten Americans utilize at least one prescription drug, and more than one in ten use five or more prescription medicines. Although this torrent of taking pills is already high, drug use in the USA has not yet crested. Prescription drugs have specific targets, but often they adversely affect other tissues and organs. In keeping with the mission of the recently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), Brain, Behavior, and Immunity searches for the underlying cause and potential efficacy of both drug and non-drug interventions...
August 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793853/equine-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-exercise-and-training-evidence-of-differential-regulation-of-autophagosomal-and-mitochondrial-components
#13
Kenneth Bryan, Beatrice A McGivney, Gabriella Farries, Paul A McGettigan, Charlotte L McGivney, Katie F Gough, David E MacHugh, Lisa M Katz, Emmeline W Hill
BACKGROUND: A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782152/virtual-protein-purification-a-simple-exercise-to-introduce-ph-as-a-parameter-that-effects-ion-exchange-chromatography
#14
Daniel D Clark, Daniel J Edwards
This article describes a simple exercise using a free, easy-to-use, established online program. The exercise helps to reinforce protein purification concepts and introduces undergraduates to pH as a parameter that affects anion-exchange chromatography. The exercise was tested with biochemistry majors at California State University-Chico. Given the versatility of the program, this work is also a model for instructors that wish to develop their own exercise to help teach other protein purification techniques...
August 6, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751290/myoadenylate-deaminase-deficiency-a-frequent-cause-of-muscle-pain-a-case-detected-by-exercise-testing
#15
Lydie Lim, Maeva Palayer, Antoine Bruneau, Franck Letournel, Cédric Le Maréchal, Gilles Simard, Pascal Reynier, Chadi Homedan, Aleksandra Nadaj-Pakleza
Myoadenylate deaminase deficit (MAD, MIM#615511) is the most common cause of metabolic myopathies with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in the general population. We report the case of a 39-year-old man suffering from severe skeletal muscle pain that had developed gradually for 4 years. A moderate increase in creatine kinase (CK) was the only biological sign observed. This study takes a closer look at a common but poorly known pathology and highlights the interest of the dynamic metabolic investigations carried out during exercise stress test with a cycle ergometer...
August 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720541/biological-sources-of-variation-of-serum-adiponectin-among-healthy-individuals-in-comparison-with-related-nutritional-and-inflammatory-markers
#16
Yoshihisa Shimizu, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Katsuyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Serum adiponectin (AN) is a nutritional and inflammatory marker of various diseases. Its biological sources of variation (SVs) have been widely evaluated, but its relationships with other related markers remain to be studied comprehensibly by use of multivariate analyses including factor analysis. METHODS: Serum specimens from 752 well-defined healthy subjects (295 males; 457 females) obtained from Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Vietnam were tested for total AN (tAN) and high-molecular-weight AN (hmAN) together with 71 major analytes...
July 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685473/quantitative-biology-of-exercise-induced-signal-transduction-pathways
#17
Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Gang Liu, Shao-Juan Hu, Ling Zhu, Xiang-Bo Yang, Quan-Guang Zhang
Exercise is essential in regulating energy metabolism. Exercise activates cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways with regulatory roles in training response adaptation. Among them, endurance/strength training of an individual has been shown to activate its respective signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle. This was further studied from the viewpoint of quantitative difference (QD). For the mean values, [Formula: see text], of two sets of data, their QD is defined as [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text])...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670831/varying-iron-release-from-transferrin-and-lactoferrin-proteins-a-laboratory-experiment
#18
Fernando Carmona, Ana González, Manu Sánchez, Natividad Gálvez, Rafael Cuesta, Mercè Capdevila, Jose M Dominguez-Vera
Iron metabolism is an important subject of study for undergraduate students of chemistry and biochemistry. Relevant laboratory exercises are scarce in the literature but would be very helpful in assisting students grasp key concepts. The experiment described here deals with different iron release mechanisms of two protagonists in iron metabolism: serum transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf). Despite having very similar structures and iron-binding sites, Tf releases practically all its iron at pH 5.5 while Lf requires a significantly lower pH of 3...
July 3, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666746/micrornas-as-important-regulators-of-exercise-adaptation
#19
REVIEW
Gustavo J J Silva, Anja Bye, Hamid El Azzouzi, Ulrik Wisløff
A significant body of evidence supports the protective role of exercise training (ET) in cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle dystrophies, several types of cancer, Alzheimer disease or even in the recovery of spinal cord injury. In spite of this, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise training are not well understood and remain elusive. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the past, but more recently microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules involved in a variety of basic biological processes that negatively modulate gene expression, recognized as important regulatory molecules...
June 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627731/cell-migration-analysis-a-low-cost-laboratory-experiment-for-cell-and-developmental-biology-courses-using-keratocytes-from-fish-scales
#20
Daniel Prieto, Gonzalo Aparicio, Jose R Sotelo-Silveira
Cell and developmental processes are complex, and profoundly dependent on spatial relationships that change over time. Innovative educational or teaching strategies are always needed to foster deep comprehension of these processes and their dynamic features. However, laboratory exercises in cell and developmental biology at the undergraduate level do not often take into account the time dimension. In this article, we provide a laboratory exercise focused in cell migration, aiming to stimulate thinking in time and space dimensions through a simplification of more complex processes occurring in cell or developmental biology...
June 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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