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Exercise and molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316654/exercise-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-keeping-in-shape-with-ros-and-ampk
#1
REVIEW
Adam J Trewin, Brandon J Berry, Andrew P Wojtovich
Exercise is a robust stimulus for mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle which consequently plays a central role in enhancing metabolic health. Despite this, the precise molecular events that underpin these beneficial effects remain elusive. In this review, we discuss molecular signals generated during exercise leading to altered mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. In particular, we focus on the interdependence between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis, the sensing of cellular bioenergetic status via 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion...
January 6, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304999/-known-unknowns-current-questions-in-muscle-satellite-cell-biology
#2
Ddw Cornelison
Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274248/stem-cell-education-for-medical-students-at-tongji-university-primary-cell-culture-and-directional-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Caixia Jin, Haibin Tian, Jiao Li, Song Jia, Siguang Li, Guo-Tong Xu, Lei Xu, Lixia Lu
Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types under certain conditions. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy for the treatment of certain diseases. To deliver knowledge about this frontier in science and technology to medical undergraduate students, we designed an innovative practical experiment for freshmen in their second semester. The lab exercise focused on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) isolation, cell culture and differentiation, and it aimed to help students master the aseptic techniques for cell culture, the basic methods and procedures for the primary culture and passage of BMSCs, the basic procedure for the directional differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes and their subsequent identification by oil-red-O staining...
December 23, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244243/metabolic-interaction-between-urea-cycle-and-citric-acid-cycle-shunt-a-guided-approach
#4
Rossana Pesi, Francesco Balestri, Piero L Ipata
This article is a guided pedagogical approach, devoted to postgraduate students specializing in biochemistry, aimed at presenting all single reactions and overall equations leading to the metabolic interaction between ureagenesis and citric acid cycle to be incorporated into a two-three lecture series about the interaction of urea cycle with other metabolic pathways. We emphasize that citrate synthetase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, three enzymes of the citric acid cycle are not involved, thus creating a shunt in citric acid cycle...
December 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234478/fructose-ingestion-impairs-expression-of-genes-involved-in-skeletal-muscle-s-adaptive-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#5
Natalia Gomes Gonçalves, Stephanie Heffer Cavaletti, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Milton Arruda Martins, Chin Jia Lin
Background: The inverse relationship between exercise capacity and its variation over time and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality suggests the existence of an etiological nexus between cardiometabolic diseases and the molecular regulators of exercise capacity. Coordinated adaptive responses elicited by physical training enhance exercise performance and metabolic efficiency and possibly mediate the health benefits of physical exercise. In contrast, impaired expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or protein turnover in skeletal muscle-key biological processes involved in adaptation to physical training-leads to insulin resistance and obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219231/laboratory-exercise-for-studying-the-morphology-of-heat-denatured-and-amyloid-aggregates-of-lysozyme-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#6
Sumeyra Gokalp, William Horton, Elfa B Jónsdóttir-Lewis, Michelle Foster, Marianna Török
To facilitate learning advanced instrumental techniques, essential tools for visualizing biomaterials, a simple and versatile laboratory exercise demonstrating the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in biomedical applications was developed. In this experiment, the morphology of heat-denatured and amyloid-type aggregates formed from a low-cost and well-characterized model protein, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), are compared. Structural differences between the amorphous and ordered particles are quantified using ImageJ for the analysis of AFM images as a postlaboratory assignment...
December 8, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218889/best-practices-and-lessons-learned-from-reuse-of-4-patient-derived-metabolomics-datasets-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jessica D Tenenbaum, Colette Blach
The importance of open data has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Although the sharing and reuse of clinical data for translational research lags behind best practices in biological science, a number of patient-derived datasets exist and have been published enabling translational research spanning multiple scales from molecular to organ level, and from patients to populations. In seeking to replicate metabolomic biomarker results in Alzheimer's disease our team identified three independent cohorts in which to compare findings...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215751/proteomic-response-of-the-rat-liver-in-differential-swimming-modes
#8
Liang Chen, Yanhua Yang, Yiting Wang, Lipeng Qiu, Hengchuan Xia, Aiai Wang, Hailong Liu, Hongfei Shi, Keping Chen
Moderate exercise helps improve competition results, providing a balanced muscle tone and biochemical activity, whereas excessive training disrupts the balance between training and recovery, causes harm to the organism, and leads to overtraining syndrome (OTS). To explore the mechanisms of different protein expressions during training and acquisition of immunity, we used proteomic analyses to investigate the differences of liver-protein expressions between two swimming modes. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CT), fatigue training (FT), and exhaustive training (ET) groups, and liver tissues from each group were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205112/ensuring-the-consistency-of-biosimilars
#9
Isabel Andujar Perez, Ana Blas-Garcia, Loreto Carmona, Juan V Esplugues
BACKGROUND: Biological products are subject to constant reappraisal by regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies once they have entered the market, since every improvement in their manufacturing process has the potential to alter the basic properties of these molecules. METHODS: Narrative review focusing on scientific literature as well as legal documents from regulatory agencies. RESULTS: Evaluating the impact of each manufacturing change of these drugs requires rigorous analyses in proportion to the anticipated risk of inducing more or less molecular micro-heterogenicity...
December 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194632/endothelial-piezo1-channels-as-sensors-of-exercise
#10
David J Beech
Piezo1 channels are newly discovered ion channels which have come to the fore as players in endothelial biology. They have a key role as sensors of shear stress, a frictional force which arises in vascular biology because of blood flow. Endothelial Piezo1 channels are critical in murine embryonic development, just after the heart starts to beat and drive blood into the nascent endothelial network. In contrast they are not critical at the adult stage but they are important for performance in whole body physical activity where they have a vascular bed-specific effect to cause mesenteric resistance artery vasoconstriction, achieved through opposition to the vasodilatory mechanism of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194424/functional-foods-and-lifestyle-approaches-for-diabetes-prevention-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Ahmad Alkhatib, Catherine Tsang, Ali Tiss, Theeshan Bahorun, Hossein Arefanian, Roula Barake, Abdelkrim Khadir, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which are considered integral to prevent and manage T2DM. Components of the Mediterranean diet (MD)-such as fruits, vegetables, oily fish, olive oil, and tree nuts-serve as a model for functional foods based on their natural contents of nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, and unsaturated fatty acids...
December 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193628/integration-of-a-faculty-s-ongoing-research-into-an-undergraduate-laboratory-teaching-class-in-developmental-biology
#12
Sang-Chul Nam
Traditional developmental biology laboratory classes have utilized a number of different model organisms to allow students to be exposed to diverse biological phenomena in developing organisms. This traditional approach has mainly focused on the diverse morphological and anatomical descriptions of the developing organisms. However, modern developmental biology is focusing more on conserved genetic networks which are responsible for generating conserved body patterns in developing organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new pedagogical tool to educate undergraduate biology students in the laboratory class of developmental biology with the genetic principles which are responsible for generating and controlling the developing body patterns...
November 28, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177585/the-role-of-exercise-induced-myokines-in-regulating-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Joo Young Huh
Exercise has beneficial effects in ameliorating metabolic disorders, and a combined therapeutic regimen of regular exercise and pharmaceutical treatment is often recommended. Exercise biology is complex and it involves various metabolic and molecular changes that translate into changes in substrate utilization, enzyme activation, and alternatively, improvement in exercise performance. Besides the effect of exercise on muscle metabolism, it has recently been discovered that contracting muscle can induce secretion of molecules called myokines...
November 25, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131507/the-disruptive-effect-of-lysozyme-on-the-bacterial-cell-wall-explored-by-an-in-silico-structural-outlook
#14
Emiliano D Primo, Lisandro H Otero, Francisco Ruiz, Sebastián Klinke, Walter Giordano
The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall are frequently incorporated in biochemistry classes designed for undergraduate students in diverse fields as biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131478/gene-isolation-using-degenerate-primers-targeting-protein-motif-a-laboratory-exercise
#15
Brandon Pei Hui Yeo, Lian Chee Foong, Sheh May Tam, Vivian Lee, Siaw San Hwang
Structures and functions of protein motifs are widely included in many biology-based course syllabi. However, little emphasis is placed to link this knowledge to applications in biotechnology to enhance the learning experience. Here, the conserved motifs of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeats (NBS-LRR) proteins, successfully used for the isolation and characterization of many plant resistance gene analogues (RGAs), is featured in the development of a series of laboratory experiments using important molecular biology techniques...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126094/evolutionarily-adapted-hormesis-inducing-stressors-can-be-a-practical-solution-to-mitigate-harmful-effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-low-dose-chemical-mixtures
#16
REVIEW
Se-A Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Je-Yong Choi, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105928/lego-bricks-and-the-octet-rule-molecular-models-for-biochemical-pathways-with-plastic-interlocking-toy-bricks
#17
Henry J Lin, Jennifer Lehoang, Isabel Kwan, Anita Baghaee, Priya Prasad, Stephanie J Ha-Chen, Tanesha Moss, Jeremy D Woods
The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, and various intermediate metabolites. Model building with these familiar toys can be a helpful, hands-on exercise for learning-or re-learning-biochemical pathways...
November 6, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098627/exercise-training-and-epigenetic-regulation-multilevel-modification-and-regulation-of-gene-expression
#18
Ursula Paula Renó Soci, Stephano Freitas Soares Melo, João Lucas Penteado Gomes, André Casanova Silveira, Clara Nóbrega, Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira
Exercise training elicits acute and adaptive long term changes in human physiology that mediate the improvement of performance and health state. The responses are integrative and orchestrated by several mechanisms, as gene expression. Gene expression is essential to construct the adaptation of the biological system to exercise training, since there are molecular processes mediating oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism, angiogenesis, cardiac and skeletal myofiber hypertrophy, and other processes that leads to a greater physiological status...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022269/experimental-evidences-supporting-training-induced-benefits-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#19
Gustavo S Masson, Lisete C Michelini
It is well known that chronic hypertension is accompanied by several functional deficits in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, most of which are corrected by exercise training. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these effects are not yet well understood. In the present chapter we summarize recent experimental evidence on cellular/molecular mechanisms supporting not only the deleterious effects of hypertension on autonomic control and peripheral circulatory deficits, but also their reversion by low to moderate aerobic exercise training...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958951/in-silico-methods-for-design-of-biological-therapeutics
#20
REVIEW
Ankit Roy, Sanjana Nair, Neeladri Sen, Neelesh Soni, M S Madhusudhan
It has been twenty years since the first rationally designed small molecule drug was introduced into the market. Since then, we have progressed from designing small molecules to designing biotherapeutics. This class of therapeutics includes designed proteins, peptides and nucleic acids that could more effectively combat drug resistance and even act in cases where the disease is caused because of a molecular deficiency. Computational methods are crucial in this design exercise and this review discusses the various elements of designing biotherapeutic proteins and peptides...
September 27, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
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