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Exercise and molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773993/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-impact-of-biological-sex-on-disease-development-and-molecular-signatures
#1
REVIEW
Ryan Toedebusch, Anthony Belenchia, Lakshmi Pulakat
Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to a unique set of heart-specific pathological variables induced by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, and type 2 diabetes incidence continues to rise, understanding the complex interplay between these two morbidities and developing novel therapeutic strategies is vital. Two hallmark characteristics specific to diabetic cardiomyopathy are diastolic dysfunction and cardiac structural mal-adaptations, arising from cardiac cellular responses to the complex toxicity induced by hyperglycemia with or without hyperinsulinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#2
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719234/maximizing-cellular-adaptation-to-endurance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
REVIEW
John A Hawley, Carsten Lundby, James D Cotter, Louise M Burke
The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided novel insight into the complexity and breadth of intracellular signaling networks involved in response to endurance-based exercise. Here we discuss several strategies that have high uptake by athletes and, on mechanistic grounds, have the potential to promote cellular adaptation to endurance training in skeletal muscle. Such approaches are based on the underlying premise that imposing a greater metabolic load and provoking extreme perturbations in cellular homeostasis will augment acute exercise responses that, when repeated over months and years, will amplify training adaptation...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717434/entering-the-pantheon-of-21-st-century-molecular-biology-tools-a-perspective-on-digital-pcr
#4
George Karlin-Neumann, Francisco Bizouarn
After several decades of relatively modest use, in the last several years digital PCR (dPCR) has grown to become the new gold standard for nucleic acid quantification. This coincides with the commercial availability of scalable, affordable, and reproducible droplet-based dPCR platforms in the past five years and has led to its rapid dissemination into diverse research fields and testing applications. Among these, it has been adopted most vigorously into clinical oncology where it is beginning to be used for plasma genotyping in cancer patients undergoing treatment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683026/exercise-induced-neuroplasticity-a-mechanistic-model-and-prospects-for-promoting-plasticity
#5
Jenin El-Sayes, Diana Harasym, Claudia V Turco, Mitchell B Locke, Aimee J Nelson
Aerobic exercise improves cognitive and motor function by inducing neural changes detected using molecular, cellular, and systems level neuroscience techniques. This review unifies the knowledge gained across various neuroscience techniques to provide a comprehensive profile of the neural mechanisms that mediate exercise-induced neuroplasticity. Using a model of exercise-induced neuroplasticity, this review emphasizes the sequence of neural events that accompany exercise, and ultimately promote changes in human performance...
April 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668075/a-comparison-of-debate-and-role-play-in-enhancing-critical-thinking-and-communication-skills-of-medical-students-during-problem-based-learning
#6
Rabia Latif, Sadaf Mumtaz, Rafia Mumtaz, Aamir Hussain
Debate and role play for learning critical thinking and communication skills are being increasingly used in various undergraduate medical schools worldwide. We aim to compare students' views about effectiveness of two teaching strategies; debate and role play to exercise critical thinking and communication skills during problem-based learning (PBL). This is a comparative, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study. Our subjects were second year undergraduate female medical students enrolled in Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), College of Medicine from September 2014-2016, divided into 10 small PBL groups (10-13 students/group/year)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628040/-patterns-of-brain-ageing
#7
Carlos Fernández Viadero, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Neuroplasticity lends the brain a strong ability to adapt to changes in the environment that occur during ageing. Animal models have shown alterations in neurotransmission and imbalances in the expression of neural growth factor. Changes at the morphometric level are not constant. Volume loss is related to alterations in neuroplasticity and involvement of the cerebral neuropil. Although there are no conclusive data, physical exercise improves the molecular, biological, functional and behavioural-cognitive changes associated with brain ageing...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611322/small-non-coding-rnas-are-altered-by-short-term-sprint-interval-training-in-men
#8
Joshua Denham, Adrian J Gray, John Scott-Hamilton, Amanda D Hagstrom, Aron J Murphy
Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as important molecules for normal biological processes and are deregulated in disease. Exercise training is a powerful therapeutic strategy that prevents cardiometabolic disease and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and performance. Despite the known systemic health benefits of exercise training, the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recent evidence suggests a role for epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs, but whether other small ncRNAs are modulated by chronic exercise training is unknown...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572502/interpretation-of-biological-experiments-changes-with-evolution-of-the-gene-ontology-and-its-annotations
#9
Aurelie Tomczak, Jonathan M Mortensen, Rainer Winnenburg, Charles Liu, Dominique T Alessi, Varsha Swamy, Francesco Vallania, Shane Lofgren, Winston Haynes, Nigam H Shah, Mark A Musen, Purvesh Khatri
Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis is ubiquitously used for interpreting high throughput molecular data and generating hypotheses about underlying biological phenomena of experiments. However, the two building blocks of this analysis - the ontology and the annotations - evolve rapidly. We used gene signatures derived from 104 disease analyses to systematically evaluate how enrichment analysis results were affected by evolution of the GO over a decade. We found low consistency between enrichment analyses results obtained with early and more recent GO versions...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562611/treatment-with-growth-hormone-for-adults-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-syndrome-benefits-and-risks
#10
REVIEW
Juan J Díez, Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos, Fernando Cordido
Pharmacological treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults began in clinical practice more than 20 years ago. Since then, a great volume of experience has been accumulated on its effects on the symptoms and biochemical alterations that characterize this hormonal deficiency. The effects on body composition, muscle mass and strength, exercise capacity, glucose and lipid profile, bone metabolism, and quality of life have been fully demonstrated. The advance of knowledge has also taken place in the biological and molecular aspects of the action of this hormone in patients who have completed longitudinal growth...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557723/in-silico-identification-and-design-of-potent-peptide-inhibitors-against-pdz-3-domain-of-post-synaptic-density-protein-psd-95
#11
Tanuj Sharma, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
Unique intrinsic properties of peptides like low toxicity, high biological activity and specificity make them attractive therapeutic agents. PDZ binding peptide inhibitors have been demonstrated for curing of Alzheimer, Parkinson, Dementia and other central nervous system ailments. In this article, we report the successful use of an integrated computational protocol to analyze the structural basis of how peptides bind to the shallow groove of the third PDZ domain (PDZ3) from the Post Synaptic Density (PSD-95) protein...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527475/an-acute-bout-of-aerobic-or-strength-exercise-specifically-modifies-circulating-exerkine-levels-and-neurocognitive-functions-in-elderly-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Chia-Liang Tsai, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová, Ming-Chyi Pai
Although exercise is an effective way to decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, the biological basis for such benefits from the different exercise modes remains elusive. The present study thus aimed (i) to investigate the effects of acute aerobic or resistance exercise on neurocognitive performances and molecular markers when performing a cognitive task involving executive functioning in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and (ii) to explore relationships of acute exercise-induced neurocognitive changes with changes in circulating levels of neuroprotective growth factors (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511965/exercise-and-weight-loss-interventions-and-mirna-expression-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#13
Brian D Adams, Hannah Arem, Monica J Hubal, Brenda Cartmel, Fangyong Li, Maura Harrigan, Tara Sanft, Christopher J Cheng, Lajos Pusztai, Melinda L Irwin
PURPOSE: Obesity and weight gain are associated with comorbidities including a higher risk of tumor recurrence and cancer-related deaths among breast cancer (BC) survivors; however, the underlying mechanisms linking obesity and cancer are poorly understood. Given the lack of clinically validated BC biomarkers, obesity and weight-loss studies utilize serum biomarkers as the intermediary outcomes of tumor recurrence. Studies have indicated microRNAs (miRNA)s are reliable biomarkers for cancer...
March 6, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488323/augmented-reality-experimentation-on-oxygen-gas-generation-from-hydrogen-peroxide-and-bleach-reaction
#14
Hong Seng Gan, Nicholas Yee Kwang Tee, Mohammad Raziun Bin Mamtaz, Kevin Xiao, Brandon Huey-Ping Cheong, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
The appreciation and understanding of gas generation through processes is vital in biochemical education. In this work, an augmented reality tool is reported to depict the redox reaction between hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solutions, two ubiquitous oxidizing agents, to create oxygen, a combustible gas. As it operates out of smartphones or tablets, students are able to conduct the exercise collaboratively, respond in a manner similar to an actual physical experiment, and able to depict the oxygen volume changes in relation to the volume of hydrogen peroxide of different concentrations used...
February 28, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488320/simple-and-rapid-system-for-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-technique-a-laboratory-exercise-for-high-school-students
#15
Praveen Maurye, Arpita Basu, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Tapas Kumar Bandyopadhyay, Malay Naskar
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is the most classical technique favored worldwide for resolution of macromolecules in many biochemistry laboratories due to its incessant advanced developments and wide modifications. These ever-growing advancements in the basic laboratory equipments lead to emergence of many expensive, complex, and tricky laboratory equipments. Practical courses of biochemistry at high school or undergraduate levels are often affected by these complications. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis technique (2D-PAGE) used for resolving thousands of proteins in a gel is a combination of isoelectric focusing (first dimension gel electrophoresis technique) and sodium-dodecylsulphate PAGE (second dimension gel electrophoresis technique or SDS-PAGE)...
February 28, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473524/pharmacogenetics-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Spyridon N Karras, Eleni Rapti, Theocharis Koufakis, Angeliki Kyriazou, Dimitrios G Goulis, Kalliopi Kotsa
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenetics is a promising area of medical research, providing methods to identify the appropriate pharmaceutical agent and dosing for each unique patient. Glucagon- like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are a novel therapeutic choice used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), demonstrating efficacy regarding glycemic control and weight loss. Therapeutic response to GLP-1 agonist treatment is a complex biophenomenon, dependent on a plethora of modifiable (diet, exercise, adherence) and non-modifiable (genetic individual variants, ethnic characteristics) parameters...
2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473287/a-laboratory-exercise-for-detecting-microbial-contaminants
#17
Jie Shen, Xiang Zhu, Kai Jin, Ya Li, YiTian Gu, Jiahong Huang, Yulan Qu, Xiaoyu Li
The development and evaluation of a 6-hours laboratory class, based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and the detection of microbial contaminants, is described. It can be easily scaled up or down, to suit class sizes up to 188 and completed in a shorter time scale. CE uses narrow-bore fused-silica capillaries to separate a complex array of large and small molecules. A laboratory exercise has been devised to illustrate how CE-based genetic analysis system processes DNA fragment analysis to detect three microbial contaminants...
February 23, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435448/toward-a-tiered-model-to-share-clinical-trial-data-and-samples-in-precision-oncology
#18
Stefanie Broes, Denis Lacombe, Michiel Verlinden, Isabelle Huys
The recent revolution in science and technology applied to medical research has left in its wake a trial of biomedical data and human samples; however, its opportunities remain largely unfulfilled due to a number of legal, ethical, financial, strategic, and technical barriers. Precision oncology has been at the vanguard to leverage this potential of "Big data" and samples into meaningful solutions for patients, considering the need for new drug development approaches in this area (due to high costs, late-stage failures, and the molecular diversity of cancer)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428205/biosimilars-concepts-and-controversies
#19
REVIEW
Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, Cristina Hernández-Chirlaque, María Arredondo-Amador, Carlos J Aranda, Raquel González, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina
Biosimilars are copies of reference biological drugs, developed as the patents for original biologicals expire. They are thus developed to replicate an original biological medicine just a generics are intended to replicate a chemically-synthesized medicine; however, there are important technical and regulatory differences between the two. Unlike chemical drugs, molecular identity cannot generally be established for any two biological drugs. Accordingly, their pharmacological properties cannot be assumed to be the same...
February 8, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388322/responsive-elearning-exercises-to-enhance-student-interaction-with-metabolic-pathways
#20
William J Roesler, Kristine Dreaver-Charles
Successful learning of biochemistry requires students to engage with the material. In the past this often involved students writing out pathways by hand, and more recently directing students to online resources such as videos, songs, and animated slide presentations. However, even these latter resources do not really provide students an opportunity to engage with the material in an active fashion. As part of an online introductory metabolism course that was developed at our university, we created a series of twelve online interactive activities using Adobe Captivate 9...
February 1, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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