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Molecular biology exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819350/understanding-sarcopenia-development-a-role-for-healthy-behaviors
#1
Justin P Hardee, James A Carson
For decades the biomedical community has documented the accelerated loss of muscle mass that occurs with advancing aging, termed sarcopenia. The timely review article ("Attenuation of Adverse Effects of Aging on Skeletal Muscle by Regular Exercise and Nutritional Support") by Arthur Leon presents our current state of knowledge on the biological processes responsible for age-induced loss of muscle mass and function. This loss of skeletal muscle has critical health implications as it can negatively affect morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818578/can-exercise-training-counteract-doxorubicin-induced-oxidative-damage-of-testis-proteome
#2
José Magalhães, António Ascensão, Ana I Padrão, Inês M Aleixo, Estela Santos-Alves, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, André Ferreira, Luis Korrodi-Gregório, Rui Vitorino, Rita Ferreira, Margarida Fardilha
The use of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its toxicity in several organs such as testes. So, we analyzed the effect of endurance treadmill exercise training (EX) performed before sub-chronic DOX treatment on sperm count and motility, testes markers of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Tissue profiling of proteins more susceptible to oxidation was made to identify the molecular pathways regulated by oxidative modifications, as nitration and carbonylation. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into four groups (n=6/group): sedentary saline (SED+SAL), sedentary sub-chronically injected with DOX (2mg-kg-1 per week, during 7 weeks; SED+DOX), 12 weeks trained saline (EX+SAL) and trained treated with DOX (EX+DOX)...
August 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818559/-to-boldly-go-where-no-one-has-gone-before
#3
Keith W Kelley
Americans are suffering from a culture of taking pills. Six out of ten Americans utilize at least one prescription drug, and more than one in ten use five or more prescription medicines. Although this torrent of taking pills is already high, drug use in the USA has not yet crested. Prescription drugs have specific targets, but often they adversely affect other tissues and organs. In keeping with the mission of the recently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), Brain, Behavior, and Immunity searches for the underlying cause and potential efficacy of both drug and non-drug interventions...
August 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793853/equine-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-exercise-and-training-evidence-of-differential-regulation-of-autophagosomal-and-mitochondrial-components
#4
Kenneth Bryan, Beatrice A McGivney, Gabriella Farries, Paul A McGettigan, Charlotte L McGivney, Katie F Gough, David E MacHugh, Lisa M Katz, Emmeline W Hill
BACKGROUND: A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782152/virtual-protein-purification-a-simple-exercise-to-introduce-ph-as-a-parameter-that-effects-ion-exchange-chromatography
#5
Daniel D Clark, Daniel J Edwards
This article describes a simple exercise using a free, easy-to-use, established online program. The exercise helps to reinforce protein purification concepts and introduces undergraduates to pH as a parameter that affects anion-exchange chromatography. The exercise was tested with biochemistry majors at California State University-Chico. Given the versatility of the program, this work is also a model for instructors that wish to develop their own exercise to help teach other protein purification techniques...
August 6, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751290/myoadenylate-deaminase-deficiency-a-frequent-cause-of-muscle-pain-a-case-detected-by-exercise-testing
#6
Lydie Lim, Maeva Palayer, Antoine Bruneau, Franck Letournel, Cédric Le Maréchal, Gilles Simard, Pascal Reynier, Chadi Homedan, Aleksandra Nadaj-Pakleza
Myoadenylate deaminase deficit (MAD, MIM#615511) is the most common cause of metabolic myopathies with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in the general population. We report the case of a 39-year-old man suffering from severe skeletal muscle pain that had developed gradually for 4 years. A moderate increase in creatine kinase (CK) was the only biological sign observed. This study takes a closer look at a common but poorly known pathology and highlights the interest of the dynamic metabolic investigations carried out during exercise stress test with a cycle ergometer...
August 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720541/biological-sources-of-variation-of-serum-adiponectin-among-healthy-individuals-in-comparison-with-related-nutritional-and-inflammatory-markers
#7
Yoshihisa Shimizu, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Katsuyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Serum adiponectin (AN) is a nutritional and inflammatory marker of various diseases. Its biological sources of variation (SVs) have been widely evaluated, but its relationships with other related markers remain to be studied comprehensibly by use of multivariate analyses including factor analysis. METHODS: Serum specimens from 752 well-defined healthy subjects (295 males; 457 females) obtained from Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Vietnam were tested for total AN (tAN) and high-molecular-weight AN (hmAN) together with 71 major analytes...
July 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685473/quantitative-biology-of-exercise-induced-signal-transduction-pathways
#8
Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Gang Liu, Shao-Juan Hu, Ling Zhu, Xiang-Bo Yang, Quan-Guang Zhang
Exercise is essential in regulating energy metabolism. Exercise activates cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways with regulatory roles in training response adaptation. Among them, endurance/strength training of an individual has been shown to activate its respective signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle. This was further studied from the viewpoint of quantitative difference (QD). For the mean values, [Formula: see text], of two sets of data, their QD is defined as [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text])...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670831/varying-iron-release-from-transferrin-and-lactoferrin-proteins-a-laboratory-experiment
#9
Fernando Carmona, Ana González, Manu Sánchez, Natividad Gálvez, Rafael Cuesta, Mercè Capdevila, Jose M Dominguez-Vera
Iron metabolism is an important subject of study for undergraduate students of chemistry and biochemistry. Relevant laboratory exercises are scarce in the literature but would be very helpful in assisting students grasp key concepts. The experiment described here deals with different iron release mechanisms of two protagonists in iron metabolism: serum transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf). Despite having very similar structures and iron-binding sites, Tf releases practically all its iron at pH 5.5 while Lf requires a significantly lower pH of 3...
July 3, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666746/micrornas-as-important-regulators-of-exercise-adaptation
#10
REVIEW
Gustavo J J Silva, Anja Bye, Hamid El Azzouzi, Ulrik Wisløff
A significant body of evidence supports the protective role of exercise training (ET) in cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle dystrophies, several types of cancer, Alzheimer disease or even in the recovery of spinal cord injury. In spite of this, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise training are not well understood and remain elusive. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the past, but more recently microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules involved in a variety of basic biological processes that negatively modulate gene expression, recognized as important regulatory molecules...
June 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627731/cell-migration-analysis-a-low-cost-laboratory-experiment-for-cell-and-developmental-biology-courses-using-keratocytes-from-fish-scales
#11
Daniel Prieto, Gonzalo Aparicio, Jose R Sotelo-Silveira
Cell and developmental processes are complex, and profoundly dependent on spatial relationships that change over time. Innovative educational or teaching strategies are always needed to foster deep comprehension of these processes and their dynamic features. However, laboratory exercises in cell and developmental biology at the undergraduate level do not often take into account the time dimension. In this article, we provide a laboratory exercise focused in cell migration, aiming to stimulate thinking in time and space dimensions through a simplification of more complex processes occurring in cell or developmental biology...
June 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586517/extracellular-vesicles-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-therapeutic-resistance-clinical-biomarkers-and-targeting-strategies
#12
REVIEW
L Han, J Xu, Q Xu, B Zhang, E W-F Lam, Y Sun
Numerous studies have proved that cell-nonautonomous regulation of neoplastic cells is a distinctive and essential characteristic of tumorigenesis. Two way communications between the tumor and the stroma, or within the tumor significantly influence disease progression and modify treatment responses. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), malignant cells utilize paracrine signaling initiated by adjacent stromal cells to acquire resistance against multiple types of anticancer therapies, wherein extracellular vesicles (EVs) substantially promote such events...
June 6, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581156/the-usability-of-wechat-as-a-mobile-and-interactive-medium-in-student-centered-medical-teaching
#13
Juan Wang, Furong Gao, Jiao Li, Jieping Zhang, Siguang Li, Guo-Tong Xu, Lei Xu, Jianjun Chen, Lixia Lu
Biochemistry and cellular biology courses for medical students at Tongji University include the assessment that provides students with feedback to enhance their learning, which is a type of formative assessment. However, frequent instant feedback and guidance for students is often absent or inconsistently included in the teaching process. WeChat, the most popular Chinese social media, was introduced in biochemistry and cellular biology course. A WeChat official account (OA) was set up as an instant interactive platform...
June 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580785/applications-of-nonenzymatic-catalysts-to-the-alteration-of-natural-products
#14
Christopher R Shugrue, Scott J Miller
The application of small molecules as catalysts for the diversification of natural product scaffolds is reviewed. Specifically, principles that relate to the selectivity challenges intrinsic to complex molecular scaffolds are summarized. The synthesis of analogues of natural products by this approach is then described as a quintessential "late-stage functionalization" exercise wherein natural products serve as the lead scaffolds. Given the historical application of enzymatic catalysts to the site-selective alteration of complex molecules, the focus of this Review is on the recent studies of nonenzymatic catalysts...
June 5, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579059/neuroketotherapeutics-a-modern-review-of-a-century-old-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Scott J Koppel, Russell H Swerdlow
Neuroketotherapeutics represent a class of bioenergetic medicine therapies that feature the induction of ketosis. These therapies include medium-chain triglyceride supplements, ketone esters, fasting, strenuous exercise, the modified Atkins diet, and the classic ketogenic diet. Extended experience reveals persons with epilepsy, especially pediatric epilepsy, benefit from ketogenic diets although the mechanisms that underlie its effects remain unclear. Data indicate ketotherapeutics enhance mitochondrial respiration, promote neuronal long-term potentiation, increase BDNF expression, increase GPR signaling, attenuate oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and alter protein post-translational modifications via lysine acetylation and β-hydroxybutyrylation...
June 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549096/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-obesity-paradox
#16
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Clinical observations suggest a complex relationship between human obesity and cardiovascular disease. Whilst abdominal (visceral) adiposity leads to deleterious metabolic disturbances, subcutaneous fat accumulation has a benign effect on cardiometabolic risk. Notably, an accumulating body of evidence paradoxically links increased body mass index with a better prognosis in patients with established cardiovascular disease, a finding that has been termed the 'obesity paradox'. While this is now acknowledged to be an epidemiological finding, a metabolically healthy obese group associated with low cardiovascular risk has also been identified...
May 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509370/use-of-mushroom-tyrosinase-to-introduce-michaelis-menten-enzyme-kinetics-to-biochemistry-students
#17
William H Flurkey, Jennifer K Inlow
An inexpensive enzyme kinetics laboratory exercise for undergraduate biochemistry students is described utilizing tyrosinase from white button mushrooms. The exercise can be completed in one or two three-hour lab sessions. The optimal amounts of enzyme, substrate (catechol), and inhibitor (kojic acid) are first determined, and then kinetic data is collected in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. A Microsoft Excel template is used to plot the data and to fit the Michaelis-Menten equation to the data to determine the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km ...
May 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507196/health-benefits-of-exercise
#18
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Frank W Booth
Overwhelming evidence exists that lifelong exercise is associated with a longer health span, delaying the onset of 40 chronic conditions/diseases. What is beginning to be learned is the molecular mechanisms by which exercise sustains and improves quality of life. The current review begins with two short considerations. The first short presentation concerns the effects of endurance exercise training on cardiovascular fitness, and how it relates to improved health outcomes. The second short section contemplates emerging molecular connections from endurance training to mental health...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490539/physiological-redundancy-and-the-integrative-responses-to-exercise
#19
Michael J Joyner, Jerome A Dempsey
The biological responses to acute and chronic exercise are marked by a high level of physiological redundancy that operates at various levels of integration, including the molecular, cellular, organ-system, and whole-body scale. During acute exercise, this redundancy protects whole-body homeostasis in the face of 10-fold or more increases in whole-body metabolic rate. In some cases, there are "trade-offs" between optimizing the performance of a given organ or system versus whole-body performance. Physiological redundancy also plays a key role in the adaptive responses to exercise training and high levels of habitual physical activity, including the positive effects of regular exercise on health...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428077/molecular-bases-of-the-crosstalk-between-bone-and-muscle
#20
Gerard Karsenty, Paula Mera
Exercise is an evolutionary conserved survival function that nowadays has beneficial health effects. The increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscle affects the biology of many organs involved in regulating muscle functions. The discovery of hormones and cytokines secreted by bone and skeletal muscle during exercise, has recently added experimental credence to the notion that a crosstalk exists between these organs. Bone through the hormone osteocalcin, promotes exercise capacity in the mouse...
April 18, 2017: Bone
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