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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#1
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852752/temperature-induced-cardiac-remodeling-in-fish
#2
REVIEW
Adam N Keen, Jordan M Klaiman, Holly A Shiels, Todd E Gillis
Thermal acclimation causes the heart of multiple fish species to undergo significant remodeling. This includes changes in electrical activity, energy utilization and structural properties at the gross and molecular level of organization. The purpose of this Review is to summarize the current state of knowledge of temperature-induced structural remodeling in the fish ventricle across multiple levels of biological organization, and to examine how such changes result in the modification of the functional properties of the heart...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848901/herb-medicines-against-osteoporosis-active-compounds-relevant-biological-mechanisms
#3
Lei Wu, Zhuoyan Ling, Xueqin Feng, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Osteoporosis is one of common bone disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatments of osteoporosis consist of pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological interventions, such as mineral supplementation, lifestyle changes, and exercise programs. Due to the minimum side effects and favorable cost-effective therapeutic effects, herbal medicine has been widely applied in clinical practices for more than 2,000 years in China. Of the many traditional formulas reported for treating bone diseases, 4 single herbs namely (1) Herba Epimedii, (2) Rhizoma Drynariae, (3) Fructus Psoraleae, and (4) Cortex Eucommiae, are considered as the featured "Kidney-Yang" tonics, and frequently and effectively applied for preventing and treating osteoporosis...
November 16, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833825/epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-diagnosis-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#4
Angelo M Taveira-DaSilva, Joel Moss
INTRODUCTION: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a disease of women characterized by cystic lung destruction, lymphatic involvement, and renal angiomyolipomas. AREAS COVERED: LAM is caused by proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells containing mutations and perhaps epigenetic modifications of the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode, respectively, hamartin and tuberin, two proteins controlling the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway...
2016: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790107/do-dopaminergic-impairments-underlie-physical-inactivity-in-people-with-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Alexxai V Kravitz, Timothy J O'Neal, Danielle M Friend
Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the negative health consequences of obesity. Despite a wide consensus that people with obesity should exercise more, there are few effective methods for increasing physical activity in people with obesity. This lack is reflected in our limited understanding of the cellular and molecular causes of physical inactivity in obesity. We hypothesize that impairments in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in people with obesity, as in classic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711947/-opportunities-and-challenges-of-extrapolation-for-biosimilars
#6
M Weise, E Wolff-Holz
Although biosimilars approved in the European Union have proved to be safe and efficacious, their licensing requirements continue to be disputed by medical professionals. In particular, extrapolation to indications of the originator without one's own clinical data of the biosimilar is controversial. Conceptually, the development of biosimilars is derived from that of generics. However, due to their complexity and inherent variability, considerably more data are necessary for biosimilars to demonstrate comparability with the originator (the reference product) than for the usually low-molecular generics...
October 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677251/discovery-of-escherichia-coli-crispr-sequences-in-an-undergraduate-laboratory
#7
Kevin T Militello, Justine C Lazatin
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) represent a novel type of adaptive immune system found in eubacteria and archaebacteria. CRISPRs have recently generated a lot of attention due to their unique ability to catalog foreign nucleic acids, their ability to destroy foreign nucleic acids in a mechanism that shares some similarity to RNA interference, and the ability to utilize reconstituted CRISPR systems for genome editing in numerous organisms. In order to introduce CRISPR biology into an undergraduate upper-level laboratory, a five-week set of exercises was designed to allow students to examine the CRISPR status of uncharacterized Escherichia coli strains and to allow the discovery of new repeats and spacers...
September 28, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666582/introducing-the-concept-of-biocatalysis-in-the-classroom-the-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-provitamin-d3
#8
Belén M De Luca, Clara B Nudel, Rodrigo H Gonzalez, Alejandro D Nusblat
Biocatalysis is a fundamental concept in biotechnology. The topic integrates knowledge of several disciplines; therefore, it was included in the course "design and optimization of biological systems" which is offered in the biochemistry curricula. We selected the ciliate tetrahymena as an example of a eukaryotic system with potential for the biotransformation of sterol metabolites of industrial interest; in particular, we focused on the conversion of cholesterol to provitamin D3. The students work with wild type and recombinant strains and learn how sterol pathways could be modified to obtain diverse sterol moieties...
September 26, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664113/an-exercise-in-extrapolation-clinical-management-of-atypical-cml-mds-mpn-unclassifiable-and-mds-mpn-rs-t
#9
Chetasi Talati, Eric Padron
According to the recently published 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid malignancies, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) include atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and MDS/MPN ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T). MDS/MPN-RS-T was previously a provisional category known as refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts with thrombocytosis (RARS-T) which has now attained a distinct designation in the 2016 WHO classification...
September 24, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622493/molecular-biomarkers-to-assess-health-risks-due-to-environmental-contaminants-exposure
#10
Irais Poblete-Naredo, Arnulfo Albores
Biomarkers, or bioindicators, are metric tools that, when compared with reference values, allow specialists to perform risk assessments and provide objective information to decision makers to design effective strategies to solve health or environmental problems by efficiently using the resources assigned. Health risk assessment is a multidisciplinary exercise, and molecular biology is a discipline that greatly contributes to these evaluations because the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome could be affected by xenobiotics causing measurable changes that might be useful biomarkers...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555311/a-full-length-infectious-cdna-clone-of-zika-virus-from-the-2015-epidemic-in-brazil-as-a-genetic-platform-for-studies-of-virus-host-interactions-and-vaccine-development
#11
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Heather Kenney, Rubing Chen, Guangping Liu, Hasmik Manukyan, Stephen S Whitehead, Majid Laassri, Konstantin Chumakov, Alexander G Pletnev
UNLABELLED: An arthropod-borne virus, Zika virus (ZIKV), has recently emerged as a major human pathogen. Associated with complications during perinatal development and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, ZIKV raises new challenges for understanding the molecular determinants of flavivirus pathogenesis. This underscores the necessity for the development of a reverse genetic system based on an epidemic ZIKV strain. Here, we describe the generation and characterization in cell cultures of an infectious cDNA clone of ZIKV isolated from the 2015 epidemic in Brazil...
August 23, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538513/yogic-breathing-when-compared-to-attention-control-reduces-the-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-saliva-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Waleed O Twal, Amy E Wahlquist, Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Self-report measures indicate that Yoga practices are perceived to reduce stress; however, molecular mechanisms through which YB affects stress are just beginning to be understood. While invasive sampling such as blood has been widely used to measure biological indicators such as pro-inflammatory biomarkers, the use of saliva to measure changes in various biomolecules has been increasingly recognized. As Yoga practice stimulates salivary secretion, and saliva is considered a source of biomarkers, changes in salivary cytokines before and after Yogic breathing exercise as specified in an ancient Tamil script, Thirumanthiram, were examined using a Cytokine Multiplex to compare to Attention Control (AC) group...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537100/enhancing-student-retention-of-prerequisite-knowledge-through-pre-class-activities-and-in-class-reinforcement
#13
Ann T S Taylor, Eric L Olofson, Walter R P Novak
To foster the connection between biochemistry and the supporting prerequisite concepts, a collection of activities that explicitly link general and organic chemistry concepts to biochemistry ideas was written and either assigned as pre-class work or as recitation activities. We assessed student learning gains after using these activities alone, or in combination with regularly-integrated clicker and discussion questions. Learning gains were determined from student performance on pre- and post-tests covering key prerequisite concepts, biochemistry course exams, and student self-evaluation...
August 18, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484433/molecular-mechanisms-of-experience-dependent-structural-and-functional-plasticity-in-the-brain
#14
Makoto Kondo
Experiences and environments have a variety of effects on brain plasticity at levels ranging from the molecular and cellular to the behavioral. Brain plasticity is one of the most important characteristics of animal survival. In particular, environmental enrichment and exercise induce many structural and functional changes in the brain, and it is noteworthy that these changes result in further beneficial effects at behavioral levels, such as improved learning behavior and antidepressant effects. The effects of enrichment and exercise, and the mechanisms involved in both, provide crucial evidence for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders...
August 2, 2016: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383839/pathophysiology-associated-with-traumatic-brain-injury-current-treatments-and-potential-novel-therapeutics
#15
Matthew L Pearn, Ingrid R Niesman, Junji Egawa, Atsushi Sawada, Angels Almenar-Queralt, Sameer B Shah, Josh L Duckworth, Brian P Head
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death of young people in the developed world. In the United States alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur annually accounting for 50,000 deaths. The etiology of TBI includes traffic accidents, falls, gunshot wounds, sports, and combat-related events. TBI severity ranges from mild to severe. TBI can induce subtle changes in molecular signaling, alterations in cellular structure and function, and/or primary tissue injury, such as contusion, hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury...
July 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376979/the-molecularization-of-identity-science-and-subjectivity-in-the-21st-century
#16
Ian Vincent McGONIGLE, Ruha Benjamin
Recent advances in biological and computational technologies are changing the way different social groups imagine race, gender, kinship, citizenship and disease risk. Existing taxonomies are being displaced or reconfigured, impacting the ways in which people are governed, how lives are lived, how groups are known and how power is exercised. Herein we report on a two-day international symposium that we co-organized, titled 'The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century,' that was held on 29-30 April 2016 at the Program on Science, Technology and Society, at Harvard University...
2016: Genetics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353527/arsenic-based-life-an-active-learning-assignment-for-teaching-scientific-discourse
#17
R Jeremy Johnson
Among recent high profile scientific debates was the proposal that life could exist with arsenic in place of phosphorous in its nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Soon after its initial publication, scientists across diverse disciplines began to question this extraordinary claim. Using the original article, its claims, its scientific support, and the ensuing counterarguments, a two-day, active learning classroom exercise was developed focusing on the presentation, evaluation, and discussion of scientific argumentation and discourse...
June 29, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351985/comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-by-rna-seq-to-elucidate-differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-muscle-of-korean-thoroughbred-horses
#18
Mrinmoy Ghosh, Hyun-Woo Cho, Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Young Choi, Young-Hwa Chung, Neelesh Sharma, Amit Kumar Singh, Nam Eun Kim, Raj Kumar Mongre, Do Huynh, Zhang Jiao Jiao, Kyoung Tag Do, Hak-Kyo Lee, Ki-Duk Song, Byung-Wook Cho, DongKee Jeong
The athletic abilities of the horse serve as a valuable model to understand the physiology and molecular mechanisms of adaptive responses to exercise. We analyzed differentially expressed genes in triceps brachii muscle tissues collected from Eonjena Taeyang and Jigusang Seryeok Thoroughbred horses and their co-expression networks in a large-scale RNA-sequence dataset comparing expression before and after exercise. High-quality horse transcriptome data were generated, with over 22 million 90-bp pair-end reads...
June 28, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347893/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-by-micrornas
#19
Gabriela Placoná Diniz, Da-Zhi Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs highly conserved across species. miRNAs regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing to complementary sequences mainly in the 3'-untranslated region of their target mRNAs to induce mRNA cleavage and translational repression. Thousands of miRNAs have been identified in human and their function has been linked to the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes. The skeletal muscle is the largest human organ responsible for locomotion, posture, and body metabolism...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341603/vitamin-d-and-physical-activity-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-epidemiological-evidence-and-therapeutic-implications
#20
Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Kimmie Ng
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Notwithstanding major improvements in the early detection and treatment of CRC, an important proportion of patients who received a diagnosis of localized disease ultimately have a recurrence and die, underscoring the need of new therapeutic approaches. Vitamin D and physical activity (PA) have emerged as 2 potential interventions for both prevention and treatment of CRC. Plausible biological mechanisms have been described for the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and PA, and a wealth of epidemiological evidence indicates that 25(OH)D (the main circulating form of vitamin D) and PA levels are inversely associated with CRC risk...
May 2016: Cancer Journal
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