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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342176/the-handedness-of-language-directional-symmetry-breaking-of-sign-usage-in-words
#1
Md Izhar Ashraf, Sitabhra Sinha
Language, which allows complex ideas to be communicated through symbolic sequences, is a characteristic feature of our species and manifested in a multitude of forms. Using large written corpora for many different languages and scripts, we show that the occurrence probability distributions of signs at the left and right ends of words have a distinct heterogeneous nature. Characterizing this asymmetry using quantitative inequality measures, viz. information entropy and the Gini index, we show that the beginning of a word is less restrictive in sign usage than the end...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342062/potential-sex-bias-exists-in-orthopaedic-basic-science-and-translational-research
#2
Jessica Bryant, Paul Yi, Liane Miller, Kacy Peek, Daniel Lee
BACKGROUND: Potential sex bias has been shown in general surgery basic science and translational research, with unequal representation of male and female specimens. Because basic science research forms the foundation for clinical studies on which patient care is based, it is important that this research equally consider both sexes. The purpose of this study was to determine if potential sex bias exists in the basic science and translational orthopaedic literature. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of all articles published in 2014 in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, The Bone & Joint Journal, and the Journal of Orthopaedic Research (JOR)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341783/bell-inequalities-tailored-to-maximally-entangled-states
#3
Alexia Salavrakos, Remigiusz Augusiak, Jordi Tura, Peter Wittek, Antonio Acín, Stefano Pironio
Bell inequalities have traditionally been used to demonstrate that quantum theory is nonlocal, in the sense that there exist correlations generated from composite quantum states that cannot be explained by means of local hidden variables. With the advent of device-independent quantum information protocols, Bell inequalities have gained an additional role as certificates of relevant quantum properties. In this work, we consider the problem of designing Bell inequalities that are tailored to detect maximally entangled states...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341157/minimizing-inequality-in-access-to-precision-medicine-in-breast-cancer-by-real-time-population-based-molecular-analysis-in-the-scan-b-initiative
#4
L Rydén, N Loman, C Larsson, C Hegardt, J Vallon-Christersson, M Malmberg, H Lindman, A Ehinger, L H Saal, Å Borg
BACKGROUND: Selection of systemic therapy for primary breast cancer is currently based on clinical biomarkers along with stage. Novel genomic tests are continuously being introduced as more precise tools for guidance of therapy, although they are often developed for specific patient subgroups. The Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network - Breast (SCAN-B) initiative aims to include all patients with breast cancer for tumour genomic analysis, and to deliver molecular subtype and mutational data back to the treating physician...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340517/-indigenous-peoples-hiv-and-public-policy-in-latin-america-an-exploration-of-the-current-situations-of-epidemiological-prevalence-prevention-care-and-timely-treatment
#5
Patricia Ponce, Rubén Muñoz, Matías Stival
This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials - including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes - were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV) as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340514/racial-i-nter-dentification-the-racialization-of-maternal-health-through-the-oportunidades-program-and-in-government-clinics-in-m%C3%A3-xico
#6
Rosalynn Adeline Vega
Using an ethnographic approach, this article examines the role of racialization in health-disease-care processes specifically within the realm of maternal health. It considers the experiences of health care administrators and providers, indigenous midwives and mothers, and recipients of conditional cash transfers through the Oportunidades program in Mexico. By detailing the delivery of trainings of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social] for indigenous midwives and Oportunidades workshops to indigenous stipend recipients, the article critiques the deployment of "interculturality" in ways that inadvertently re-inscribe inequality...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340509/uncovering-a-tragic-flaw-in-revolutionary-health-policies-from-health-and-communicative-inequities-to-communicative-justice-in-health
#7
Charles L Briggs
This article analyzes a contradiction facing efforts by left-leaning governments in Latin America to transform health into a fundamental social right. Policies and practices that confront health inequities generally fail to address health/communicative inequities, hierarchical distributions of rights to shape what counts as legitimate knowledge of health. This ethnographic analysis focuses on an epidemic of a mysterious disease - identified clinically as bat-transmitted rabies - in the Delta Amacuro rainforest of Venezuela in 2007-2008, tracing how parents who lost 1-3 children faced acute health/communicative inequities in clinical settings, epidemiological investigations, work with healers, news coverage, health policy, and health communication...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340506/-on-ethnographic-positions-in-the-anthropology-of-health-in-south-america
#8
María Epele
Ethnographies on health issues in populations that live in conditions of poverty, inequality and segregation have proliferated over the last decades in South America. The aim of this article is to problematize - preliminarily - certain patterns in the positions and relations of ethnographers with respect to study subjects and populations during their fieldwork and in the writing of study results. This paper examines the relationships between these ethnographic positions and the dominant theoretical perspectives in the region...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338894/lgbt-populations-barriers-to-cancer-care
#9
REVIEW
Ulrike Boehmer
OBJECTIVE: To describe lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals' barriers to accessing and receiving quality cancer care. DATA SOURCES: Published data on cancer care and studies of LGBT individuals. CONCLUSION: There is a clustering of barriers among LGBT individuals, which suggests multiple inequities exist in LGBT individuals' cancer care, although data on disparities along the cancer control continuum are not consistently available...
January 12, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338803/socio-demographic-inequalities-in-the-clinical-characteristics-of-dengue-haemorrhagic-fever-in-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2007-2008
#10
Sheila Moura Pone, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Patricia Brasil, Cecília Carmen de Araújo Nicolai, Rogério Ferrari, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira
In 2007-2008, the city of Rio de Janeiro underwent an epidemiological change, with increases in the incidence in children and in severe forms of dengue. To describe the clinical profile and spatial distribution of dengue we performed an ecological study based on dengue surveillance data using the Brazilian classification (2005): dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue with complications. χ 2 test was used to describe the clinical and socio-demographic variables (P < 0.05). Spatial distribution of incidence and case-fatality was explored with thematic maps, Moran and Geary indices (P < 0...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337915/comparing-classic-and-interval-analytical-hierarchy-process-methodologies-for-measuring-area-level-deprivation-to-analyze-health-inequalities
#11
Pablo Cabrera-Barona, Omid Ghorbanzadeh
Deprivation indices are useful measures to study health inequalities. Different techniques are commonly applied to construct deprivation indices, including multi-criteria decision methods such as the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The multi-criteria deprivation index for the city of Quito is an index in which indicators are weighted by applying the AHP. In this research, a variation of this index is introduced that is calculated using interval AHP methodology. Both indices are compared by applying logistic generalized linear models and multilevel models, considering self-reported health as the dependent variable and deprivation and self-reported quality of life as the independent variables...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336508/national-audit-of-perinatal-hiv-infections-in-the-uk-2006-2013-what-lessons-can-be-learnt
#12
H Peters, C Thorne, P A Tookey, L Byrne
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate circumstances surrounding perinatal transmissions of HIV (PHIVs) in the UK. METHODS: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood conducts comprehensive surveillance of all pregnancies in women diagnosed with HIV infection and their infants in the UK; reports of all HIV-diagnosed children are also sought, regardless of country of birth. Children with PHIV born in 2006-2013 and reported by 2014 were included in an audit, with additional data collection via telephone interviews with clinicians involved in each case...
January 16, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336111/beyond-mere-pill-taking-sms-reminders-for-hiv-treatment-adherence-delivered-to-mobile-phones-of-clients-in-a-community-support-network-in-australia
#13
Limin Mao, Andrew Buchanan, Horas Tze Hoo Wong, Asha Persson
SMS reminders sent to personal mobiles are increasingly used by clinical services to promote patient engagement, including adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV. From August to September 2015, a 6-week, randomised SMS reminder for ART adherence intervention was implemented among 98 HIV-positive clients of Australian's largest HIV charitable organisation located in Sydney. This was followed by a mixed-method evaluation, comprising a self-completed online survey and a one-to-one interview. Of the 62 survey participants, all being men, the majority were gay (85...
January 15, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335166/ambient-soil-cation-exchange-capacity-inversely-associates-with-infectious-and-parasitic-disease-risk-in-regional-australia
#14
Craig Liddicoat, Peng Bi, Michelle Waycott, John Glover, Martin Breed, Philip Weinstein
Human contact with soil may be important for building and maintaining normal healthy immune defence mechanisms, however this idea remains untested at the population-level. In this continent-wide, cross-sectional study we examine the possible public health benefit of ambient exposures to soil of high cation exchange capacity (CEC), a surrogate for potential immunomodulatory soil microbial diversity. We compare distributions of normalized mean 2011/12-2012/13 age-standardized public hospital admission rates (cumulative incidence) for infectious and parasitic diseases across regional Australia (representing an average of 29,516 patients/year in 228 local government areas), within tertiles of socioeconomic status and soil exposure...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335161/health-equity-monitoring-for-healthcare-quality-assurance
#15
R Cookson, M Asaria, S Ali, R Shaw, T Doran, P Goldblatt
Population-wide health equity monitoring remains isolated from mainstream healthcare quality assurance. As a result, healthcare organizations remain ill-informed about the health equity impacts of their decisions - despite becoming increasingly well-informed about quality of care for the average patient. We present a new and improved analytical approach to integrating health equity into mainstream healthcare quality assurance, illustrate how this approach has been applied in the English National Health Service, and discuss how it could be applied in other countries...
January 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334951/the-surprising-implications-of-familial-association-in-disease-risk
#16
Morten Valberg, Mats Julius Stensrud, Odd O Aalen
BACKGROUND: A wide range of diseases show some degree of clustering in families; family history is therefore an important aspect for clinicians when making risk predictions. Familial aggregation is often quantified in terms of a familial relative risk (FRR), and although at first glance this measure may seem simple and intuitive as an average risk prediction, its implications are not straightforward. METHODS: We use two statistical models for the distribution of disease risk in a population: a dichotomous risk model that gives an intuitive understanding of the implication of a given FRR, and a continuous risk model that facilitates a more detailed computation of the inequalities in disease risk...
January 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334928/consumption-of-sweetened-beverages-and-poverty-in-colombia-when-access-is-not-an-advantage
#17
Oscar F Herran, Gonzalo A Patiño, Edna M Gamboa
BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the intake of sweetened beverages and establishes whether economic inequalities in their consumption exists. METHODS: Ecological study. Mixed methods using food frequency questionnaire and inequality indices. Based on the National Nutrition Survey, Colombia, 2010. The sweetened beverage intake of 17,514 subjects in 33 geodemographic units was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire and summarized. The calculation of inequality was based on the monetary poverty...
January 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334867/increasing-prevalence-of-emotional-symptoms-in-higher-socioeconomic-strata-trend-study-among-danish-schoolchildren-1991-2014
#18
Pernille Due, Mogens T Damsgaard, Katrine R Madsen, Line Nielsen, Signe B Rayce, Bjørn E Holstein
AIMS: The aims of this study were: (a) to examine trends in daily emotional symptoms among 11- to 15-year-olds from 1991 to 2014 in Denmark, and (b) to examine trends in social inequality in daily emotional symptoms, that is, whether the differences in prevalence between adolescents with parents of varying occupational social class changed over time. METHODS: We combined seven comparable cross-sectional Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys ( N=31,169)...
January 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333602/children-s-perceptions-of-economic-groups-in-a-context-of-limited-access-to-opportunities
#19
Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Children (N = 267, ages 8-14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper-middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same-aged peers from high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. From middle childhood to early adolescence children increasingly expected both high- and low-wealth groups to want access to opportunities for their own group. However, children viewed high-wealth groups as motivated in part by selfishness and low-wealth groups as concerned in part with broader economic inequality...
January 15, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332490/the-oppression-of-latina-mothers-experiences-of-exploitation-violence-marginalization-cultural-imperialism-and-powerlessness-in-their-everyday-lives
#20
Cecilia Ayón, Jill T Messing, Maria Gurrola, Dellanira Valencia-Garcia
Despite Latinos being the largest growing population in the United States, research has not examined the impact of social structures on the well-being of Latina immigrants; negative social discourse and restrictive laws exacerbate inequality and discrimination in this population. Through combined inductive/deductive analysis of in-depth semistructured interviews, we examined immigrant Mexican mothers' ( N = 32) descriptions of oppression in the United States. All five forms of oppression, described in Young's oppression framework are evident: exploitation, violence, marginalization, cultural imperialism, and powerlessness...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
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