Read by QxMD icon Read


Matthew E Dupre, Alicia Nelson
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197)...
October 15, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Yusuf Ransome, Ichiro Kawachi, Sarah Braunstein, Denis Nash
In the United States, research is limited on the mechanisms that link socioeconomic and structural factors to HIV diagnosis outcomes. We tested whether neighborhood income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and black racial concentration were associated with gender-specific rates of HIV in the advanced stages of AIDS (i.e., late HIV diagnosis). We then examined whether HIV testing prevalence and accessibility mediated any of the associations above. Neighborhoods with highest (relative to lowest) black racial concentration had higher relative risk of late HIV diagnosis among men (RR=1...
October 19, 2016: Health & Place
Paibul Suriyawongpaisal, Wichai Aekplakorn, Samrit Srithamrongsawat, Chaisit Srithongchai, Orawan Prasitsiriphon, Rassamee Tansirisithikul
BACKGROUND: Although bodies of evidence on copayment effects on access to care and quality of care in general have not been conclusive, allowing copayment in the case of emergency medical conditions might pose a high risk of delayed treatment leading to avoidable disability or death. METHODS: Using mixed-methods approach to draw evidence from multiple sources (over 40,000 records of administrative dataset of Thai emergency medical services, in-depth interviews, telephone survey of users and documentary review), we are were able to shed light on the existence of copayment and its related factors in the Thai healthcare system despite the presence of universal health coverage since 2001...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Kathleen Falster, Emily Banks, Sanja Lujic, Michael Falster, John Lynch, Karen Zwi, Sandra Eades, Alastair H Leyland, Louisa Jorm
BACKGROUND: Australian Aboriginal children experience a disproportionate burden of social and health disadvantage. Avoidable hospitalizations present a potentially modifiable health gap that can be targeted and monitored using population data. This study quantifies inequalities in pediatric avoidable hospitalizations between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. METHODS: This statewide population-based cohort study included 1 121 440 children born in New South Wales, Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012, including 35 609 Aboriginal children...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Maria do Carmo Leal, Ana Paula Esteves-Pereira, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Jacqueline Alves Torres, Mariza Theme-Filha, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Maria Elizabeth Moreira, Silvana Granado Gama
BACKGROUND: The rate of preterm birth has been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. This constitutes a significant public health challenge because of the higher levels of morbidity and mortality and long-term health effects associated with preterm birth. This study describes and quantifies factors affecting spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in Brazil. METHODS: Data are from the 2011-2012 "Birth in Brazil" study, which used a national population-based sample of 23,940 women...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Sonia Duarte de Azevedo Bittencourt, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Lenice Gnocchi da Costa Reis, Márcia Melo Ramos, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. METHODS: Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study "Birth in Brazil: national survey into labor and birth" conducted in 2011-2012...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Folkert de Groot, Stefano Capri, Jean-Claude Castanier, David Cunningham, Bruno Flamion, Mathias Flume, Harald Herholz, Lars-Åke Levin, Oriol Solà-Morales, Christoph J Rupprecht, Natalie Shalet, Andrew Walker, Olivier Wong
With finite resources, healthcare payers must make difficult choices regarding spending and the ethical distribution of funds. Here, we describe some of the ethical issues surrounding inequity in healthcare in nine major European countries, using cancer care as an example. To identify relevant studies, we conducted a systematic literature search. The results of the literature review suggest that although prevention, access to early diagnosis, and radiotherapy are key factors associated with good outcomes in oncology, public and political attention often focusses on the availability of pharmacological treatments...
October 21, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Haidar Nadrian, Farzaneh Golboni, Mohammad Hasan Kazemi-Galougahi, Nasrin Moghimi
Background: Considering the renewed emphasis on women's health, attention to the new aspects of their health, such as equity, among different groups is warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the economic inequalities among women with osteoporosis-related bone fractures (ORBFs) in Sanandaj, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, convenient sampling was employed to recruit 220 women with osteoporosis referring to the only rheumatology clinic in Sanandaj (the center of Kurdistan province in Iran) from January to April 2013...
2016: Health Promotion Perspectives
Naomi Priest, Laura Thompson, Tamara Mackean, Alison Baker, Elizabeth Waters
OBJECTIVE: Australian Indigenous children experience some of the most substantial health inequalities globally. In this context, research regarding their health and well-being has overemphasised physical illnesses with limited exploration of a diverse range of dimensions and determinants, particularly those based on Indigenous holistic understandings of health and well-being. This deficit-based approach has thus missed many strengths and assets of Indigenous children. This research aimed to gain insight into the perspectives of Indigenous children about their health and well-being in an urban setting in Australia...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Courtney Boen
Research links Black-White health disparities to racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES), but understanding of the role of SES in racial health gaps has been restricted by reliance on static measures of health and socioeconomic well-being that mask the dynamic quality of these processes and ignore the racialized nature of the SES-health connection. Utilizing twenty-three years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1984-2007), this study uses multilevel growth curve models to examine how multiple dimensions of socioeconomic well-being-including long-term economic history and differential returns to SES-contribute to the life course patterning of Black-White health disparities across two critical markers of well-being: body mass index (N = 9057) and self-rated health (N = 11,329)...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Chao Zhang, Lei Du, Dacheng Tao
The techniques of random matrices have played an important role in many machine learning models. In this letter, we present a new method to study the tail inequalities for sums of random matrices. Different from other work (Ahlswede & Winter, 2002; Tropp, 2012; Hsu, Kakade, & Zhang, 2012), our tail results are based on the largest singular value (LSV) and independent of the matrix dimension. Since the LSV operation and the expectation are noncommutative, we introduce a diagonalization method to convert the LSV operation into the trace operation of an infinitely dimensional diagonal matrix...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Ratilal Lalloo, Lisa M Jamieson, Diep Ha, Liana Luzzi
OBJECTIVE: Tooth decay is related to poverty, measured at individual and neighbourhood levels. It is however uncertain if living in an advantaged neighbourhood reduces tooth decay similarly in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. METHODS: This study describes tooth decay by neighbourhood characteristics and Indigenous status, and examines inequalities by Indigenous status. RESULTS: In deciduous dentition the percentage of children with tooth decay and untreated decay decreased on average 26% and 20% respectively in the non-Indigenous sample from poor to affluent neighbourhoods...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
John R Broughton, Herenia P Lawrence, Lisa Jamieson
: Early childhood caries is a global health issue for Indigenous populations. The study, "Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic dental disease among Indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention," is being conducted in Australia, Canada, and Aotearoa/New Zealand. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the research in New Zealand using a kaupapa Māori (Māori philosophy) approach. METHODS: This is a mixed-method study incorporating quantitative and qualitative data whilst acknowledging Māori cultural practices by the utilization of Te Whare Tapa Whā, a model for Māori health and well-being...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Charrissa Makowharemahihi, Justin Wall, Greg Keay, Cheryl Britton, Minnie McGibbon, Patrick LeGeyt, Joyce Maipi, Virginia Signal
A Quality Improvement Group for Māori oral health providers [Indigenous New Zealand oral health services] has been an effective and necessary mechanism for engaging Indigenous oral health expertise in decision-making for Indigenous oral health policy and sector developments to reduce oral health inequalities and improve Indigenous oral health outcomes.
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Samuel Pehrson, Héctor Carvacho, Chris G Sibley
Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Mirjam Allik, Denise Brown, Ruth Dundas, Alastair H Leyland
These data present a new small-area deprivation measure, but also include a variety of other indicators, such as the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) and the Carstairs score. The data are for Scottish 2001 Datazones and for the years 2001 and 2011. In addition the data provide standardised self-reported measures of general health and limiting long-term illness. The theoretical background for developing the new deprivation measure, and the implications of using different measures to study health inequalities are discussed in "Developing a new small-area measure of deprivation using 2001 and 2011 census data from Scotland" (Allik et al...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Kensuke Fujiwara, Ayako Yagahara, Takumi Tanikawa, Yuji Tani, Hisateru Ohba, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
The aim of this study is to analyze the maldistribution and the trends in the geographic distribution of radiological resources in secondary medical areas of Hokkaido. The distribution was measured by combining the Gini coefficient (GC), which is an indicator of inequality of distribution, and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), which is mainly used to assess market concentration. Data concerning the distribution of radiological resources, such as CT, MRI, radiotherapy facilities (RTF), radiological technologists (RT), and medical doctors were obtained from official publications...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Yan-Ning Li, Dong-Xiao Nong, Bo Wei, Qi-Ming Feng, Hong-Ye Luo
BACKGROUND: Healthcare in China has significantly improved, meanwhile many  socio-economic risk factors and health conditions factors affect accessibility and utilization of health services in rural areas. Inequity of health service in China needs to  be estimated and reduced. Andersen behavioral model is useful to assess the association of health service utilization with predisposing, enabling, and need factors. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 4634 residents of 897 households in 2012...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor, Devaki Nambiar, Anne Schlotheuber, Daniel Reidpath, Zev Ross
BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that the pursuit of sustainable development cannot be accomplished without addressing inequality, or observed differences between subgroups of a population. Monitoring health inequalities allows for the identification of health topics where major group differences exist, dimensions of inequality that must be prioritised to effect improvements in multiple health domains, and also population subgroups that are multiply disadvantaged. While availability of data to monitor health inequalities is gradually improving, there is a commensurate need to increase, within countries, the technical capacity for analysis of these data and interpretation of results for decision-making...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"