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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156310/context-and-characteristics-of-illicit-drug-use-in-coastal-and-interior-tanzania
#1
Jenny Tiberio, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Susie Welty, Alois Ngonyani, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Willi McFarland, Meghan D Morris
BACKGROUND: An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. METHODS: The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania...
November 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154476/valuing-our-communities-ethical-considerations-for-economic-evaluation-of-community-based-prevention
#2
Max Crowley, Damon Jones
Restricted public budgets and increasing efforts to link the impact of community interventions to public savings have increased the use of economic evaluation. While this type of evaluation can be important for program planning, it also raises important ethical issues about how we value the time of local stakeholders who support community interventions. In particular, researchers navigate issues of scientific accuracy, institutional inequality, and research utility in their pursuit of even basic cost estimates...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152809/the-harm-reduction-impact-of-cryptomarkets-inequality-and-opportunity
#3
Harry R Sumnall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151709/refinements-and-generalizations-of-some-inequalities-of-shafer-fink-s-type-for-the-inverse-sine-function
#4
Branko Malešević, Marija Rašajski, Tatjana Lutovac
In this paper, we give some sharper refinements and generalizations of inequalities related to Shafer-Fink's inequality for the inverse sine function stated in Theorems 1, 2, and 3 of Bercu (Math. Probl. Eng. 2017: Article ID 9237932, 2017).
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151708/sharp-bounds-for-a-special-quasi-arithmetic-mean-in-terms-of-arithmetic-and-geometric-means-with-two-parameters
#5
Wei-Mao Qian, Yu-Ming Chu
In the article, we present the best possible parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] on the interval [Formula: see text] such that the double inequality [Formula: see text] holds for any [Formula: see text] and all [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are the arithmetic, geometric and special quasi-arithmetic means of a and b, respectively.
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151706/chebyshev-type-inequalities-by-means-of-copulas
#6
Sever S Dragomir, Eder Kikianty
A copula is a function which joins (or 'couples') a bivariate distribution function to its marginal (one-dimensional) distribution functions. In this paper, we obtain Chebyshev type inequalities by utilising copulas.
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151667/searching-for-the-golden-model-of-education-cross-national-analysis-of-math-achievement
#7
Katerina Bodovski, Soo-Yong Byun, Volha Chykina, Hee Jin Chung
We utilized four waves of TIMSS data in addition to the information we have collected on countries' educational systems to examine whether different degrees of standardization, differentiation, proportion of students in private schools and governmental spending on education influence students' math achievement, its variation and socioeconomic status (SES) gaps in math achievement. Findings: A higher level of standardization of educational systems was associated with higher average math achievement. Greater expenditure on education (as % of total government expenditure) was associated with a lower level of dispersion of math achievement and smaller SES gaps in math achievement...
2017: Compare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151656/unmarried-mothers-postnatal-school-enrollment-the-role-and-intersection-of-demographic-and-socioeconomic-characteristics
#8
Melissa Radey
Drawing from a theoretical model of educational decisions and intersectionality theory, this study examined demographic, socioeconomic, and public assistance characteristics that influence unmarried mothers' postnatal enrollment. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), binomial and multinomial regression techniques were used to examine unmarried mothers' enrollment in their child's first nine years. Results showed unmarried mothers' educational commitment coupled with the influence of race and class indicate that they need additional opportunities to optimize their educations and job opportunities...
2017: Journal of Social Service Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151476/tobacco-control-measures-to-reduce-socioeconomic-inequality-in-smoking-the-necessity-time-course-perspective-and-future-implications
#9
Takahiro Tabuchi, Hiroyasu Iso, Eric Brunner
Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smoking inequality itself and to develop strategies to reduce smoking inequality, knowledge of the underlying principles or mechanisms of the inequality over a long time-course may be important...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151061/evolution-of-sanitary-epidemiological-services-in-poland-in-the-years-1944-2014
#10
Marek L Grabowski, Bożena Kosińska, Józef P Knap
This paper presents the history of sanitary-epidemiological services in the context of the health, economic and socio-political situation in Poland in the years 1944-2014, with a critical analysis of legal restraints, efficiency and achievements. Polish Sanitary Services, established in 1919, as a state service, have preserved for more than 95 years (also during World War II and the occupation) the continuity of its structures and essential objectives to enable their implementation in the field of public health protection...
November 8, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151052/prevalence-of-health-services-usage-and-associated-factors-in-the-amazon-region-of-brazil-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#11
Maria Elizete A Araujo, Marcus T Silva, Tais F Galvao, Mauricio G Pereira
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of healthcare use and associated factors in the Manaus metropolitan region and to describe the reasons for lack of access. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. SETTING: A survey conducted between May and August of 2015 in eight cities from Manaus metropolitan region, Amazonas, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 4001 adults ≥18 years of age. PRIMARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: Physician visits, dentist visits and hospitalisations in the last 12 months were the primary outcomes...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150888/systematic-review-of-disparities-in-surgical-care-for-m%C3%A4-ori-in-new-zealand
#12
REVIEW
Jamie-Lee Rahiri, Zanazir Alexander, Matire Harwood, Jonathan Koea, Andrew G Hill
BACKGROUND: Health equity for Indigenous peoples in the context of surgery has recently become topical amongst surgeons in Australasia. Health inequities are amongst the most consistent and compelling disparities between Māori and New Zealand Europeans (NZE) in New Zealand (NZ). We aimed to investigate where ethnic disparities in surgical care may occur and highlight some of the potential contributing factors, over all surgical specialties, between Māori and NZE adults in NZ. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement...
November 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150752/women-s-reproductive-health-in-sociocultural-context
#13
EDITORIAL
Yael Benyamini, Irina Todorova
PURPOSE: The special issue on Women's Reproductive Health in Cultural Context covers multiple dimensions of women's reproductive health and how it might be shaped by cultural meanings, social and gender inequities, and power differentials, employing a variety of methodological approaches. On the one hand, it aims to bring to the forefront the conversation about how women's health is uniquely experienced and constructed in local settings, and on the other hand, it aims to draw broader conclusions from a perspective of interconnectedness of women and the shared issues that they face...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150730/racial-differences-in-symptom-management-experiences-during-breast-cancer-treatment
#14
Cleo A Samuel, Jennifer Schaal, Linda Robertson, Jemeia Kollie, Stephanie Baker, Kristin Black, Olive Mbah, Crystal Dixon, Katrina Ellis, Eugenia Eng, Fatima Guerrab, Nora Jones, Amanda Kotey, Claire Morse, Jessica Taylor, Vickie Whitt, Samuel Cykert
PURPOSE: Racial disparities in cancer treatment-related symptom burden are well documented and linked to worse treatment outcomes. Yet, little is known about racial differences in patients' treatment-related symptom management experiences. Such understanding can help identify modifiable drivers of symptom burden inequities. As part of the Cancer Health Accountability for Managing Pain and Symptoms (CHAMPS) study, we examined racial differences in symptom management experiences among Black and White breast cancer survivors (BCS)...
November 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150666/dogs-reaction-to-inequity-is-affected-by-inhibitory-control
#15
Désirée Brucks, Friederike Range, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
Inequity aversion is thought to act as a mechanism to ensure cooperation and has been studied in many different species, consistently revealing inter-individual variation. Inhibitory control has been proposed to act as one factor responsible for this variation since individuals need to inhibit performing the required action and/or refuse rewards in order to exhibit inequity aversion. Here, we investigated if dogs' sensitivity to inequity is affected by their capacity for inhibitory control, assessed in a test battery and questionnaire...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150314/connecting-qualitative-research-on-exercise-and-environment-to-public-health-agendas-requires-an-equity-lens
#16
Stephanie E Coen
In this commentary, I respond to the special section in Health&Place (vol. 46) on "Exercise and environment: new qualitative work to link popular practice and public health" edited by Hitchings and Latham. I argue that if qualitative research is to effectively inform public health policy and practice it cannot ignore the fact that physical activity participation is inequitable. Without building in a critical equity lens, geographers risk perpetuating the "inequality paradox"-that is, the potential for population health interventions to inadvertently exacerbate health inequalities...
November 14, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150201/nations-within-a-nation-variations-in-epidemiological-transition-across-the-states-of-india-1990-2016-in-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#17
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149914/testing-the-effectiveness-of-a-motivational-interviewing-based-brief-intervention-for-substance-use-as-an-adjunct-to-usual-care-in-community-based-aids-service-organizations-study-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Bryan R Garner, Heather J Gotham, Stephen J Tueller, Elizabeth L Ball, David Kaiser, Patricia Stilen, Kathryn Speck, Denna Vandersloot, Traci R Rieckmann, Michael Chaple, Erika G Martin, Steve Martino
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2) increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3) reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project...
November 17, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149849/biobanking-in-israel-2016-17-expressed-perceptions-versus-real-life-enrollment
#19
Gideon Koren, Daniella Beller, Daphna Laifenfeld, Iris Grossman, Varda Shalev
BACKGROUND: As part of the preparations to establish a population-based biobank in a large Israeli health organization, we aimed to investigate through focus groups the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of insured Israelis, toward biobanking, and then, after input from focus groups' participants, to empirically assess the impact of a revised recruitment process on recruitment rates. METHODS: 1) Six Focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 per group) with individuals who had routine blood laboratory tests taken in the last 2 years...
November 17, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149335/liberty-in-health-care-a-comparative-study-between-hong-kong-and-mainland-china
#20
Jingxian Wu, Ying Mao
This essay contends that individual liberty, understood as the permissibility of making choices about one's own health care in support of one's own good and the good of one's family utilizing private resources, is central to the moral foundations of a health care system. Such individual freedoms are important not only because they often support more efficient and effective health care services, but because they permit individuals to fulfill important moral duties. A comparative study of the health care systems in Hong Kong and mainland China is utilized to illustrate the conceptual and moral concerns at stake...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
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