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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346106/spatial-position-measurement-system-for-surgical-navigation-using-3-d-image-marker-based-tracking-tools-with-compact-volume
#1
Zhencheng Fan, Guowen Chen, Junchen Wang, Hongen Liao
We develop a spatial position measurement system using three-dimensional (3-D) image marker-based tracking tools targeted at surgical navigation in minimally invasive surgery. We generate 3-D image markers with spatial information encoded to 2-D images, design tracking tools with the 3-D image markers, and analyze the tracking tools' theoretical spatial errors, which are primarily limited by the spatial distribution of reconstructed fiducial 3-D markers. A pattern analysis-based positional measurement algorithm is developed to calculate the tool's spatial information using its spatial configuration...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345588/the-role-of-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-total-occlusions-rationale-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Harsh Agrawal, Richard Lange, Ruben Montanez, Soma Wali, Khan Omar Mohammad, Subrata Kar, Mohamed Teleb, Debabrata Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) of a coronary artery is defined as an occluded segment with no antegrade flow and a known or estimated duration of at least 12 weeks. OBJECTIVE: We considered the current literature describing the indications and clinical outcomes for de-novo CTO- percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and discuss the role of CTO-PCI and future directions for this procedure. METHOD: Databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, and CINAHL were searched and relevant studies of CTO-PCI were selected for review...
January 16, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345547/are-current-physical-match-performance-metrics-in-elite-soccer-fit-for-purpose-or-is-the-adoption-of-an-integrated-approach-needed
#3
Paul S Bradley, Jack D Ade
Time-motion analysis is a valuable data-collection technique used to quantify the physical match performance of elite soccer players. For over 40 years researchers have adopted a 'traditional' approach when evaluating match demands by simply reporting the distance covered or time spent along a motion continuum of walking through to sprinting. This methodology quantifies physical metrics in isolation without integrating other factors and this ultimately leads to a one-dimensional insight into match performance...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345009/choosing-non-redundant-representative-subsets-of-protein-sequence-data-sets-using-submodular-optimization
#4
Maxwell W Libbrecht, Jeffrey A Bilmes, William Stafford Noble
Selecting a non-redundant representative subset of sequences is a common step in many bioinformatics workflows, such as the creation of non-redundant training sets for sequence and structural models or selection of "operational taxonomic units" from metagenomics data. Previous methods for this task, such as CD-HIT, PISCES and UCLUST, apply a heuristic threshold-based algorithm that has no theoretical guarantees. We propose a new approach based on submodular optimization. Submodular optimization, a discrete analogue to continuous convex optimization, has been used with great success for other representative set selection problems...
January 18, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343415/paradigms-for-restoration-of-somatosensory-feedback-via-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Cristian Pasluosta, Patrick Kiele, Thomas Stieglitz
The somatosensory system contributes substantially to the integration of multiple sensor modalities into perception. Tactile sensations, proprioception and even temperature perception are integrated to perceive embodiment of our limbs. Damage of somatosensory networks can severely affect the execution of daily life activities. Peripheral injuries are optimally corrected via direct interfacing of the peripheral nerves. Recent advances in implantable devices, stimulation paradigms, and biomimetic sensors enabled the restoration of natural sensations after amputation of the limb...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340922/prevention-of-internal-hernia-during-robotic-total-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer
#6
Toshiyasu Ojima, Masaki Nakamura, Mikihito Nakamori, Keiji Hayata, Masahiro Katsuda, Toshiaki Tsuji, Shimpei Maruoka, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: Postoperative internal hernia (IH) is a potentially life-threatening acute protrusion of viscus through an iatrogenic mesenteric defect. In our retrospective study of 1943 consecutive gastric cancer (GC) patients who had undergone surgery, the incidence of IH after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) was 4.9%.1 This high incidence seems to be caused by decreased adhesion formation after LTG. There is no consensus regarding orifice management during robotic total gastrectomy (RTG)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340732/-electronic-decision-support-to-promote-medication-safety
#7
REVIEW
Walter E Haefeli, Hanna M Seidling
Because of its inherent complexity, it is a considerable challenge to tailor drug treatment to a prevalent disease and its subgroups, which are increasingly defined by genomic variability (personalized medicine) and require consideration of context information such as co-morbidity, co-medication, patient preferences, and the specific characteristics of the healthcare sector. Thus, optimum treatment decisions might not be taken intuitively any longer, because decisions must be made both rapidly and increasingly based on analyses of complex relations of numerous variables that exceed the processing performance of a human brain...
January 16, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339817/cooperating-with-machines
#8
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339232/diapause-in-drosophila-melanogaster-photoperiodicity-cold-tolerance-and-metabolites
#9
Ane Martin Anduaga, Dora Nagy, Rodolfo Costa, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Unlike many insects where photoperiod per se induces diapause, reproductive arrest in Drosophila melanogaster adult females is observed at colder temperatures and can be enhanced by shorter photoperiods. Traditional experimental protocols raise flies at 25°C from the larval stage and then the adults are placed at 12°C for between 12 and 28 days. After 12 days diapause levels are usually higher than at 28 days, suggesting that the flies are in a cold induced quiescence, rather than a true diapause. By raising flies at more realistic lower temperatures, we observe quite dramatic and counter-intuitive effects on diapause, whose levels nevertheless correlate with various indices of cryoprotectant metabolites as well as resistance to chill shock...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337877/virtual-environments-for-visualizing-structural-health-monitoring-sensor-networks-data-and-metadata
#10
Rebecca Napolitano, Anna Blyth, Branko Glisic
Visualization of sensor networks, data, and metadata is becoming one of the most pivotal aspects of the structural health monitoring (SHM) process. Without the ability to communicate efficiently and effectively between disparate groups working on a project, an SHM system can be underused, misunderstood, or even abandoned. For this reason, this work seeks to evaluate visualization techniques in the field, identify flaws in current practices, and devise a new method for visualizing and accessing SHM data and metadata in 3D...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337724/statistical-significance-versus-clinical-importance-of-observed-effect-sizes-what-do-p-values-and-confidence-intervals-really-represent
#11
Patrick Schober, Sebastiaan M Bossers, Lothar A Schwarte
Effect size measures are used to quantify treatment effects or associations between variables. Such measures, of which >70 have been described in the literature, include unstandardized and standardized differences in means, risk differences, risk ratios, odds ratios, or correlations. While null hypothesis significance testing is the predominant approach to statistical inference on effect sizes, results of such tests are often misinterpreted, provide no information on the magnitude of the estimate, and tell us nothing about the clinically importance of an effect...
January 15, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337264/indirect-reciprocity-with-negative-assortment-and-limited-information-can-promote-cooperation
#12
Eleanor Brush, Åke Brännström, Ulf Dieckmann
Cooperation is ubiquitous in biological and social systems, even though cooperative behavior is often costly and at risk of exploitation by non-cooperators. Several studies have demonstrated that indirect reciprocity, whereby some members of a group observe the behaviors of their peers and use this information to discriminate against previously uncooperative agents in the future, can promote prosocial behavior. Some studies have shown that differential propensities of interacting among and between different types of agents (interaction assortment) can increase the effectiveness of indirect reciprocity...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337199/designing-an-intuitive-web-application-for-drug-discovery-scientists
#13
Nikiforos Karamanis, Miguel Pignatelli, Denise Carvalho-Silva, Francis Rowland, Jennifer A Cham, Ian Dunham
Here, we discuss how we designed the Open Targets Platform (www.targetvalidation.org), an intuitive application for bench scientists working in early drug discovery. To meet the needs of our users, we applied lean user experience (UX) design methods: we started engaging with users very early and carried out research, design and evaluation activities within an iterative development process. We also emphasize the collaborative nature of applying lean UX design, which we believe is a foundation for success in this and many other scientific projects...
January 11, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336551/first-gut-instincts-are-always-right-the-resolution-required-for-a-mass-defect-analysis-of-polymer-ions-can-be-as-low-as-oligomeric
#14
Thierry Nicolas Jean Fouquet, Takaya Satoh, Hiroaki Sato
Its recent adaptation to low-resolution mass spectra of polymers using fractional base units raises the question of the minimal resolution needed for a Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analysis. Intuiting an oligomeric resolution since the mass of a repeat unit is the sole value to be known, it is challenged by the relative failure of the KMD plots computed from an isotopically resolved MALDI-TOF mass spectrum to display clear alignments in the high mass range. Another procedure based on the remainders of Kendrick mass (RKMs) overcomes this pitfall with oligomers perfectly aligned in a new RKM plot...
January 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336231/a-new-and-universal-classification-system-of-skin-substitutes-inspired-by-factorial-design
#15
Evan Davison-Kotler, Vaibhav Sharma, Norbert Kang, Elena García-Gareta
The complexity of the dermal layer of skin means that damage to this section can result in permanent impairment of function. Partial or total dermal loss is a feature of deep burns and chronic wounds such as pressure sores or diabetic ulcers. The issues posed by traditional skin grafts have led to substantial research being carried out in the fields of tissue engineering and biomaterials science to develop a vast array of alternative skin substitutes. Given the large number of different materials, manufacturing methods, and techniques for implementation described for artificial skin substitutes, many classification systems have been created to simplify their categorization...
January 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335139/-the-analogon-a-caregiving-resource-in-geriatric-psychiatry
#16
REVIEW
Cyril Hazif-Thomas, Philippe Thomas
Few caregivers know what analogons are, yet they use them on occasion, intuitively, for the benefit of their patients. An analogon, an identifying object, enables patients with cognitive disorders to 'decipher' their environment and find meaning in it. Caregivers sometimes use analogons without being aware of the theory behind them.
January 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334951/the-surprising-implications-of-familial-association-in-disease-risk
#17
Morten Valberg, Mats Julius Stensrud, Odd O Aalen
BACKGROUND: A wide range of diseases show some degree of clustering in families; family history is therefore an important aspect for clinicians when making risk predictions. Familial aggregation is often quantified in terms of a familial relative risk (FRR), and although at first glance this measure may seem simple and intuitive as an average risk prediction, its implications are not straightforward. METHODS: We use two statistical models for the distribution of disease risk in a population: a dichotomous risk model that gives an intuitive understanding of the implication of a given FRR, and a continuous risk model that facilitates a more detailed computation of the inequalities in disease risk...
January 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334170/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#18
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334168/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#19
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333754/a-guide-to-analysis-and-reconstruction-of-serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy-data
#20
E Cocks, M Taggart, F C Rind, K White
Serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is a relatively new technique that allows the acquisition of serially sectioned, imaged and digitally aligned ultrastructural data. There is a wealth of information that can be obtained from the resulting image stacks but this presents a new challenge for researchers - how to computationally analyse and make best use of the large datasets produced. One approach is to reconstruct structures and features of interest in 3D. However, the software programmes can appear overwhelming, time-consuming and not intuitive for those new to image analysis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
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