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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166220/does-the-cognitive-reflection-test-actually-capture-heuristic-versus-analytic-reasoning-styles-in-older-adults
#1
Christopher Hertzog, R Marit Smith, Robert Ariel
Background/Study Context: This study evaluated adult age differences in the original three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 25-42) and an expanded seven-item version of that test (Toplak et al., 2013, Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168). The CRT is a numerical problem-solving test thought to capture a disposition towards either rapid, intuition-based problem solving (Type I reasoning) or a more thoughtful, analytical problem-solving approach (Type II reasoning)...
November 22, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166114/communication-recovering-the-flat-plane-condition-in-electronic-structure-theory-at-semi-local-dft-cost
#2
Akash Bajaj, Jon Paul Janet, Heather J Kulik
The flat-plane condition is the union of two exact constraints in electronic structure theory: (i) energetic piecewise linearity with fractional electron removal or addition and (ii) invariant energetics with change in electron spin in a half filled orbital. Semi-local density functional theory (DFT) fails to recover the flat plane, exhibiting convex fractional charge errors (FCE) and concave fractional spin errors (FSE) that are related to delocalization and static correlation errors. We previously showed that DFT+U eliminates FCE but now demonstrate that, like other widely employed corrections (i...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166097/volatility-of-the-catalytic-hydrogenation-products-of-1-4-bis-phenylethynyl-benzene
#3
Hom N Sharma, Elizabeth A Sangalang, Cheng K Saw, Gareth A Cairns, William McLean, Robert S Maxwell, Long N Dinh
Measurements of equilibrium vapor pressures by effusion thermogravimetry and melting points by differential scanning calorimetry reveal that the melting temperature and equilibrium vapor pressures of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (DEB) do not vary monotonically with the hydrogenation extent. Contrary to intuition which suggests increasing volatility with hydrogenation, results indicate decreasing volatility for the first two hydrogenation steps before a non-monotonic upward trend, in which trans-isomers are less volatile...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165915/development-and-implementation-of-a-radiation-therapy-incident-learning-system-compatible-with-local-workflow-and-a-national-taxonomy
#4
Logan Montgomery, Palma Fava, Carolyn R Freeman, Tarek Hijal, Ciro Maietta, William Parker, John Kildea
PURPOSE: Collaborative incident learning initiatives in radiation therapy promise to improve and standardize the quality of care provided by participating institutions. However, the software interfaces provided with such initiatives must accommodate all participants and thus are not optimized for the workflows of individual radiation therapy centers. This article describes the development and implementation of a radiation therapy incident learning system that is optimized for a clinical workflow and uses the taxonomy of the Canadian National System for Incident Reporting - Radiation Treatment (NSIR-RT)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165610/gramene-2018-unifying-comparative-genomics-and-pathway-resources-for-plant-research
#5
Marcela K Tello-Ruiz, Sushma Naithani, Joshua C Stein, Parul Gupta, Michael Campbell, Andrew Olson, Sharon Wei, Justin Preece, Matthew J Geniza, Yinping Jiao, Young Koung Lee, Bo Wang, Joseph Mulvaney, Kapeel Chougule, Justin Elser, Noor Al-Bader, Sunita Kumari, James Thomason, Vivek Kumar, Daniel M Bolser, Guy Naamati, Electra Tapanari, Nuno Fonseca, Laura Huerta, Haider Iqbal, Maria Keays, Alfonso Munoz-Pomer Fuentes, Amy Tang, Antonio Fabregat, Peter D'Eustachio, Joel Weiser, Lincoln D Stein, Robert Petryszak, Irene Papatheodorou, Paul J Kersey, Patti Lockhart, Crispin Taylor, Pankaj Jaiswal, Doreen Ware
Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a knowledgebase for comparative functional analysis in major crops and model plant species. The current release, #54, includes over 1.7 million genes from 44 reference genomes, most of which were organized into 62,367 gene families through orthologous and paralogous gene classification, whole-genome alignments, and synteny. Additional gene annotations include ontology-based protein structure and function; genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic diversity; and pathway associations...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165593/funcoup-4-new-species-data-and-visualization
#6
Christoph Ogris, Dimitri Guala, Mateusz Kaduk, Erik L L Sonnhammer
This release of the FunCoup database (http://funcoup.sbc.su.se) is the fourth generation of one of the most comprehensive databases for genome-wide functional association networks. These functional associations are inferred via integrating various data types using a naive Bayesian algorithm and orthology based information transfer across different species. This approach provides high coverage of the included genomes as well as high quality of inferred interactions. In this update of FunCoup we introduce four new eukaryotic species: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Plasmodium falciparum, Bos taurus, Oryza sativa and open the database to the prokaryotic domain by including networks for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165065/electrochemical-nucleic-acid-based-biosensing-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals
#7
Susana Campuzano, Maia Pedrero, Jose M Pingarron
Nowadays, studies of the interactions of DNA with small molecular drugs, especially anti-tumor agents, antibiotics and drugs of abuse are currently performed to explore their mechanism of action and develop new drugs with lower side effects and high curative properties. Currently, electrochemical biosensors are considered a very promising alternative analytical tool to conventional more complex techniques for drug determination due to rapidness, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology, intuitively understandable design and simple operation mode...
November 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164716/mechanism-matters-the-cause-of-fluctuations-in-boom-bust-populations-governs-optimal-habitat-restoration-strategy
#8
Gina K Himes Boor, Cheryl B Schultz, Elizabeth E Crone, William F Morris
Many populations exhibit boom-bust dynamics in which abundance fluctuates dramatically over time. Past research has focused on identifying whether the cause of fluctuations is primarily exogenous, e.g., environmental stochasticity coupled with weak density dependence, or endogenous, e.g., over-compensatory density dependence. Far fewer studies have addressed whether the mechanism responsible for boom-bust dynamics matters with respect to at-risk species management. Here, we ask whether the best strategy for restoring habitat across a landscape differs under exogenously versus endogenously driven boom-bust dynamics...
November 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164219/conformational-isomerism-in-cyclic-peptoids-and-its-specification
#9
A D'Amato, R Schettini, G Della Sala, C Costabile, C Tedesco, I Izzo, F De Riccardis
Most of the structural studies made on the secondary structure of peptoids describe their geometric attributes in terms of the classic Ramachandran plot (based on the local analysis of ω, ψ, χ, φ dihedral angles). However, little intuitive understanding is available from internal coordinates when stereochemistry is involved. In this contribution we list all the conformationally stable cyclic peptoids reported up to the year 2017 and propose a simple method to define their geometric arrangement in terms of planar chirality...
November 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163313/intuitive-choices-lead-to-intensified-positive-emotions-an-overlooked-reason-for-intuition-bias
#10
Geir Kirkebøen, Gro H H Nordbye
People have, for many well-documented reasons, a tendency to overemphasize their intuitions and to follow them, even when they should not. This "intuition bias" leads to several kinds of specific intuitive biases in judgments and decision making. Previous studies have shown that characteristics of the decision process have a tendency to "leak" into the experience of the choice outcome. We explore whether intuitive choices influence the experience of the choice outcomes differently from "non-intuitive," analytic choices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163294/constructing-a-reward-related-quality-of-life-statistic-in-daily-life-a-proof-of-concept-study-using-positive-affect
#11
REVIEW
Simone J W Verhagen, Claudia J P Simons, Catherine van Zelst, Philippe A E G Delespaul
Background: Mental healthcare needs person-tailored interventions. Experience Sampling Method (ESM) can provide daily life monitoring of personal experiences. This study aims to operationalize and test a measure of momentary reward-related Quality of Life (rQoL). Intuitively, quality of life improves by spending more time on rewarding experiences. ESM clinical interventions can use this information to coach patients to find a realistic, optimal balance of positive experiences (maximize reward) in daily life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163254/using-self-generated-cues-to-facilitate-recall-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca L Wheeler, Fiona Gabbert
We draw upon the Associative Network model of memory, as well as the principles of encoding-retrieval specificity, and cue distinctiveness, to argue that self-generated cue mnemonics offer an intuitive means of facilitating reliable recall of personally experienced events. The use of a self-generated cue mnemonic allows for the spreading activation nature of memory, whilst also presenting an opportunity to capitalize upon cue distinctiveness. Here, we present the theoretical rationale behind the use of this technique, and highlight the distinction between a self-generated cue and a self-referent cue in autobiographical memory research...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163123/closed-loop-hybrid-gaze-brain-machine-interface-based-robotic-arm-control-with-augmented-reality-feedback
#13
Hong Zeng, Yanxin Wang, Changcheng Wu, Aiguo Song, Jia Liu, Peng Ji, Baoguo Xu, Lifeng Zhu, Huijun Li, Pengcheng Wen
Brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR) guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG) signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163041/revisiting-the-quantum-brain-hypothesis-toward-quantum-neuro-biology
#14
Peter Jedlicka
The nervous system is a non-linear dynamical complex system with many feedback loops. A conventional wisdom is that in the brain the quantum fluctuations are self-averaging and thus functionally negligible. However, this intuition might be misleading in the case of non-linear complex systems. Because of an extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, in complex systems the microscopic fluctuations may be amplified and thereby affect the system's behavior. In this way quantum dynamics might influence neuronal computations...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162559/enhancing-the-usability-of-an-optical-reader-system-to-support-point-of-care-rapid-diagnostic-testing-an-iterative-design-approach
#15
Jess Hohenstein, Dakota O'Dell, Elizabeth L Murnane, Zhengda Lu, David Erickson, Geri Gay
BACKGROUND: In today's health care environment, increasing costs and inadequate medical resources have created a worldwide need for more affordable diagnostic tools that are also portable, fast, and easy to use. To address this issue, numerous research and commercial efforts have focused on developing rapid diagnostic technologies; however, the efficacy of existing systems has been hindered by usability problems or high production costs, making them infeasible for deployment in at-home, point-of-care (POC), or resource-limited settings...
November 21, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162248/predicting-syndesmotic-injuries-in-ankle-fractures-a-new-system-based-on-the-medial-malleolar-focus
#16
Enrique Sánchez-Morata, José Carlos Martínez-Ávila, Elena Vacas Sánchez, Verónica Jiménez Díaz, Jaime Zorrilla Sánchez de Neyra, Jesús Vilá Y Rico
The early establishment of the diagnosis of a syndesmotic injury is essential for treatment selection. However, such injuries may not be apparent radiographically. Previous studies have attempted to describe correlations between medial malleolar fracture geometry and syndesmotic disruption. The main objective of this study was to create predictive models for assessing syndesmotic injuries based on an originally described angle, i.e., the medial crural-focal angle (MCFA). This study included 138 ankle fractures involving the medial malleolus...
November 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162008/a-perceptual-like-population-coding-mechanism-of-approximate-numerical-averaging
#17
Noam Brezis, Zohar Z Bronfman, Marius Usher
Humans possess a remarkable ability to rapidly form coarse estimations of numerical averages. This ability is important for making decisions that are based on streams of numerical or value-based information, as well as for preference formation. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying rapid approximate numerical averaging remains unknown, and several competing mechanism may account for it. Here, we tested the hypothesis that approximate numerical averaging relies on perceptual-like processes, based on population coding...
November 21, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161868/dynamics-of-epidemic-models-with-asymptomatic-infection-and-seasonal-succession
#18
Yilei Tang, Dongmei Xiao, Weinian Zhang, Di Zhu
In this paper, we consider a compartmental SIRS epidemic model with asymptomatic infection and seasonal succession, which is a periodic discontinuous differential system. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and evaluated directly for this model, and uniform persistence of the disease and threshold dynamics are obtained. Specially, global dynamics of the model without seasonal force are studied. It is shown that the model has only a disease-free equilibrium which is globally stable if R0 ≤ 1, and as R0 > 1 the disease-free equilibrium is unstable and there is an endemic equilibrium, which is globally stable if the recovering rates of asymptomatic infectives and symptomatic infectives are close...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161843/mathematical-analysis-and-modeling-of-dna-segregation-mechanisms
#19
Bashar Ibrahim
The precise regulation of cell life division is indispensable to the reliable inheritance of genetic material, i.e. DNA, in successive generations of cells. This is governed by dedicated biochemical networks which ensure that all requirements are met before transition from one phase to the next. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) is an evolutionarily mechanism that delays mitotic progression until all chromosomes are properly linked to the mitotic spindle. During some asymmetric cell divisions, such as those observed in budding yeast, an additional mechanism, the Spindle Position Checkpoint (SPOC), is required to delay exit from mitosis until the mitotic spindle is correctly aligned...
April 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161836/a-frailty-model-for-intervention-effectiveness-against-disease-transmission-when-implemented-with-unobservable-heterogeneity
#20
Ping Yan
For an intervention against the spread of communicable diseases, the idealized situation is when individuals fully comply with the intervention and the exposure to the infectious agent is comparable across all individuals. Some level of non-compliance is likely where the intervention is widely implemented. The focus is on a more accurate view of its effects population-wide. A frailty model is applied. Qualitative analysis, in mathematical terms, reveals how large variability in compliance renders the intervention less effective...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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