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High Blood Pressure

Giulia Gava, Ilaria Mancini, Silvia Cerpolini, Maurizio Baldassarre, Renato Seracchioli, Maria Cristina Meriggiola
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate and compare safety and efficacy of short and long-acting testosterone (T) parenteral formulations over five years in transmen. DESIGN AND METHODS: Fifty transmen between 21-42 years of age were enrolled. Twenty-five received T undecanoate 1000 mg IM (weeks 0 and 6 then every 12-16 weeks) and 25 received T enanthate 250 mg IM (every 3-4 weeks). Hormonal and biochemical parameters, anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and then every 12 months...
July 19, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Naoki Kiyota, Yukihiro Shiga, Kohei Ichinohasama, Masayuki Yasuda, Naoko Aizawa, Kazuko Omodaka, Naoto Honda, Hiroshi Kunikata, Toru Nakazawa
Purpose: To use laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) to assess blood flow (BF) in the optic nerve head (ONH) tissue and choroid during elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: This prospective study included 20 eyes of 20 healthy volunteers. The testing protocol had a baseline phase, two elevated IOP phases (+10 and +20 mm Hg), and a recovery phase. IOP was elevated by pushing against the eyelid with a novel tubular device attached to the LSFG apparatus. Measurement parameters in each phase included: LSFG-derived mean blur rate (MBR) and flow acceleration index (FAI); systemic parameters, and IOP...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Isabelle Cote, Hale Z Toklu, Sara M Green, Drake Morgan, Christy S Carter, Nihal Tumer, Philip J Scarpace
Reducing body weight has been shown to lower blood pressure in obesity-related hypertension. However, success of those lifestyle interventions is limited due to poor long-term compliance. Emerging evidence indicate that feeding schedule plays a role on the regulation of blood pressure. With two studies, we examined the role of feeding schedule on energy homeostasis and blood pressure. In Study 1, rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 24 hours (Control) or for 12 hours during the dark phase (time-restricted feeding; TRF)...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Heath G Gasier, Ivan T Demchenko, Sergei Yu Zhilyaev, Alexander N Moskvin, Alexander I Krivchenko, Claude A Piantadosi
Exposure to extreme-hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2), > 5-6 atmospheres absolute (ATA), produces baroreflex impairment, sympathetic hyperactivation, hypertension, tachycardia, and cerebral hyperemia, known as Phase II, culminating in seizures. We hypothesized that attenuation of the effects of high sympathetic outflow would preserve regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and protect against HBO2-induced seizures. To explore this possibility, we tested four adrenoceptor antagonists in conscious and anesthetized rats exposed to HBO2 at 5 and 6 ATA, respectively: phentolamine (nonselective α1 and 2), prazosin (selective α1), propranolol (nonselective β1 and 2) and atenolol (selective β1)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Thomas P Zonneveld, Edo Richard, Mervyn DI Vergouwen, Paul J Nederkoorn, Rob de Haan, Yvo Bwem Roos, Nyika D Kruyt
BACKGROUND: Stroke is an important cause of death and disability worldwide. Since high blood pressure is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence, drugs that lower blood pressure might play an important role in secondary stroke prevention. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether blood pressure-lowering drugs (BPLDs) started at least 48 hours after the index event are effective for the prevention of recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
July 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kemi Ogunsina, Daniel T Dibaba, Tomi Akinyemiju
Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases has increased rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Past studies have reported an association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardio-metabolic risk factors, but most have focused on upper income countries. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between SES over the life-course and the burden of cardio-metabolic risk factors in middle-income countries. Methods: A total of 38 297 adults from China, Mexico, India, South Africa and Russia were included in this cross-sectional study...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Tadesse M Abegaz, Ousman A Abdela, Akshaya S Bhagavathula, Fitsum S Teni
Background: Hypertension is an important public health problem worldwide. There is lack of data on uncontrolled blood pressure in developing countries. Objectives: To determine the magnitude and predicting factors of uncontrolled blood pressure in hypertensive patients attending Gondar university hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2015 to March 2016. All hypertensive patients were followed and the blood pressure levels were measured...
April 2018: Pharmacy Practice
J David Spence
Resistant hypertension (failure to achieve target blood pressures with three or more antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic) is an important and preventable cause of stroke. Hypertension is highly prevalent in China (>60% of persons above age 65), and only ~6% of hypertensives in China are controlled to target levels. Most strokes occur among persons with resistant hypertension; approximately half of strokes could be prevented by blood pressure control. Reasons for uncontrolled hypertension include (1) non-compliance; (2) consumption of substances that aggravated hypertension, such as excess salt, alcohol, licorice, decongestants and oral contraceptives; (3) therapeutic inertia (failure to intensify therapy when target blood pressures are not achieved); and (4) diagnostic inertia (failure to investigate the cause of resistant hypertension)...
June 2018: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
Lin Chang, Xiangjie Zhao, Minerva Garcia-Barrio, Jifeng Zhang, Y Eugene Chen
PURPOSE: Arterial stiffness is an inevitable consequence of the aging process and is considered an early stage in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a distinct functional integral layer of the vasculature actively involved in blood pressure regulation and atherosclerosis development via PVAT-derived paracrine/autocrine factors. However, there is little knowledge regarding the relationship between PVAT and arterial stiffness. METHODS: Using unique mice lacking PVAT, high-fat diet-induced obesity, and in mice overexpressing brown adipocyte selective mitoNEET, we investigated the relationship between PVAT and arterial stiffness in mice...
July 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Ejaz Cheema, Paul Sutcliffe, Martin O Weickert, Donald R J Singer
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to determine whether structured written and verbal education provided to patients by community pharmacists about high blood pressure (BP) and its treatment would be (a) better retained and (b) be associated with improved BP control as compared to patients receiving verbal advice only. METHODS: The study was designed as a randomised controlled trial and was conducted in the West Midlands, UK, between January 2014 and June 2014. The primary outcome measures were differences in systolic and diastolic BP from baseline and retention of information about high BP assessed with a questionnaire at 2-, 4- and 26-week follow-up points...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Gowri Raman, Marissa Shams-White, Esther E Avendano, Fan Chen, Janet A Novotny, Aedin Cassidy
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in the impact of increased flavan-3-ol intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes outcomes. Through evidence mapping, we determined the extent of the evidence base to initiate a future systematic review investigating the impact of flavan-3-ol intake on CVD and diabetes outcomes. METHODS: We developed a research protocol, convened a technical expert panel (TEP) to refine the specific research questions, conducted a systematic search in multiple databases, double-screened abstracts and full-text articles, performed data extractions, and synthesized the data...
July 18, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Alberto Mazza, Salvatore Lenti, Laura Schiavon, Ezio Di Giacomo, Monica Tomasi, Roberto Manunta, Gioia Torin, Danyelle M Townsend, Domenico Rubello
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a world-wide epidemic disease with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategies of MetS include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions and in this respect a relevant role has been shown for nutraceutical compounds (NCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of NCs incorporated with diet and lifestyle management versus diet alone, in lowering blood pressure (BP) values and improving lipid and glucose profile, in a group of hypertensives and hyper-cholesterolemic patients with MetS...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhi-Hui Xiong, Jing Wei, Meng-Qi Lu, Mei-Yuan Jin, Hong-Ling Geng
AIM: This study aims to investigate the effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell exosomes (hucMSC-Ex) on placental tissue and angiogenesis in rats with preeclampsia (PE). METHOD: The expression of MSC surface markers were identified by flow cytometry. Alizarin red staining and oil red O staining were used to examine osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hucMSCs. Western blotting was used to determine expressions of CD63 and CD81 in hucMSC-Ex. PE rat models were established using endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS)NG -Nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester, which were then treated with exosome (Exo) of low dosage (L-Exo), Exo of medium dosage (M-Exo) and Exo of high dosage (H-Exo)...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Thomas W Kamarck, Xingyuan Li, Aidan G C Wright, Matthew F Muldoon, Stephen B Manuck
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether associations between daily psychosocial stressor exposures and carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) may be stronger among those showing larger stress-related cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) during the course of daily living. METHODS: 474 healthy working adults (ages 30-54) collected ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and recorded their daily experiences, using electronic diaries, during two 2-day periods over the course of a week...
July 16, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
C I Hatleberg, L Ryom, A d'Arminio Monforte, E Fontas, P Reiss, O Kirk, W El-Sadr, A Phillips, S de Wit, F Dabis, R Weber, M Law, J D Lundgren, C Sabin
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that hypertension in HIV-positive individuals is associated primarily with traditional risk factors such as older age, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. However, controversy remains as to whether exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs poses additional risk, and we investigated this question in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort. METHODS: The incidence of hypertension [systolic blood pressure (BP) > 140 and/or diastolic BP > 90 mmHg and/or initiation of antihypertensive treatment] was determined overall and in strata defined by demographic, metabolic and HIV-related factors, including cumulative exposure to each individual ARV drug...
July 18, 2018: HIV Medicine
Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Nicole Martin, Charlene Bridges, Julii S Brainard, Xia Wang, Tracey J Brown, Sarah Hanson, Oluseyi F Jimoh, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Katherine Ho Deane, Fujian Song, Lee Hooper
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the health effects of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is equivocal. Fish oils are rich in omega-3 PUFA and plant oils in omega-6 PUFA. Evidence suggests that increasing PUFA-rich foods, supplements or supplemented foods can reduce serum cholesterol, but may increase body weight, so overall cardiovascular effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing total PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, lipids and adiposity in adults...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lee Hooper, Lena Al-Khudairy, Asmaa S Abdelhamid, Karen Rees, Julii S Brainard, Tracey J Brown, Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alex T O'Brien, Lauren E Winstanley, Daisy H Donaldson, Fujian Song, Katherine Ho Deane
BACKGROUND: Omega-6 fats are polyunsaturated fats vital for many physiological functions, but their effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is debated. OBJECTIVES: To assess effects of increasing omega-6 fats (linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) on CVD and all-cause mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase to May 2017 and clinicaltrials...
July 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Peter Lloyd-Sherlock, Fransesc Gomez-Olive, Sizzy Ngobeni, Ryan Wagner, Stephen Tollman
Background This paper describes a pilot study to assess the feasibility of a novel intervention to improve the management of hypertension among older people in rural South Africa. Older South Africans have the highest rates of uncontrolled hypertension recorded for any country. Notably, South Africa has a widely-available old age grant (pension), which is delivered on a monthly basis to citizens living in rural villages. Methods We assessed the feasibility of engaging with older people at the point of pension delivery in the Agincourt sub-district of Mpumalanga Province...
July 17, 2018: Current Aging Science
Nina Zaproudina, Jukka A Lipponen, Mika P Tarvainen, Anu Vierola, Saara M Rissanen, Pasi A Karjalainen, Matti Närhi
BACKGROUND: Systemic autonomic changes are well-known in migraineurs. Also, masticatory dysfunctions including tooth clenching are reported to be associated with migraine. However, if those phenomena are interrelated, and how, is unclear. Moreover, the knowledge on the autonomic responses to masticatory stimuli in migraineurs is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate tooth clenching-related cardiac autonomic regulation in migraineurs. METHODS: We compared maximal tooth clenching-induced systemic autonomic responses, indicated by heart rate variability and blood pressure changes, in headache-free migraineurs (n=17) and control subjects (n=22)...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Manfred Berger, Meryem Emir, Tanja Brünnler, Felix Rockmann, Ralf Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors of hs-cTnT in a non-ACS patient cohort admitted to the emergency department. METHOD: We performed a retrospective, single centre study encompassing in total 1003 patients. Individuals were retrospectively divided in ACS- and non-ACS patients by two independent investigators reviewing the medical records. In order to identify predictors of hs-cTnT elevation hazard ratios were calculated for age, gender, vital signs, cardiovascular risk factors, LVEF, serum levels of CRP, haemoglobin, and creatinine...
July 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
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