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Strep pneumoniae

Nobuaki Mori, Sakiko Hosoo, Yoshitaka Oyamada, Yasushi Sera, Yasuhiro Yamada, Momoko Sugawara, Akiko Higuchi, Yasuko Aoki, Takashi Takahashi
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) infections can develop into life-threatening disorders. However, the occurrence of some GAS pneumonia cases is relatively rare in a local community. We report here characteristics of mucoid GAS isolates obtained from the sputum of two patients with pneumonia in a local community. Although case-patients did not have contact with each other, case-patient 1's child and case-patient 2's grandchild attended the same kindergarten where a GAS pharyngitis epidemic had occurred...
2016: IDCases
Nadia A Mohamed, Nahed A Abd El-Ghany, Mona M Fahmy
In this work, chitosan (CS) was cross-linked with different amounts of pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea moieties. The structure of the cross-linked CS was confirmed by elemental analyses, FTIR and (1)H- NMR spectroscopy. The cross-linking process proceeds via reacting of the amino groups of CS with the isothiocyanate groups of the N,N'-bis [4-(isothiocyanate carbonyl)phenyl] pyromellitimide cross-linker. The amount of the cross-linker was varied with respect to CS to produce four new pyromellitimide benzoyl thiourea cross-linked CS (PIBTU-CS) hydrogels designated as PIBTU-CS-1, PIBTU-CS-2, PIBTU-CS-3, and PIBTU-CS-4 of increasing cross-linking degree percent of 11, 22, 44 and 88%, respectively...
January 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nitesh K Kunda, Iman M Alfagih, Eliane N Miyaji, Douglas B Figueiredo, Viviane M Gonçalves, Daniela M Ferreira, Sarah R Dennison, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Gillian A Hutcheon, Imran Y Saleem
Pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, mainly affects the immunocompromised, the very young and the old, and remains one of the leading causes of death. A steady rise in disease numbers from non-vaccine serotypes necessitates a new vaccine formulation that ideally has better antigen stability and integrity, does not require cold-chain and can be delivered non-invasively. In this study, a dry powder vaccine containing an important antigen of S. pneumoniae, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) that has shown cross-reactivity amongst serotypes to be delivered via the pulmonary route has been formulated...
November 30, 2015: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Kathie-Anne Walters, Felice D'Agnillo, Zong-Mei Sheng, Jason Kindrachuk, Louis M Schwartzman, Rolf E Kuestner, Daniel S Chertow, Basil T Golding, Jeffery K Taubenberger, John C Kash
To study bacterial co-infection following 1918 H1N1 influenza virus infection, mice were inoculated with the 1918 influenza virus, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) 72 h later. Co-infected mice exhibited markedly more severe disease, shortened survival time and more severe lung pathology, including widespread thrombi. Transcriptional profiling revealed activation of coagulation only in co-infected mice, consistent with the extensive thrombogenesis observed. Immunohistochemistry showed extensive expression of tissue factor (F3) and prominent deposition of neutrophil elastase on endothelial and epithelial cells in co-infected mice...
January 2016: Journal of Pathology
Laura M Koeth, Jeanna M DiFranco-Fisher, Sandra McCurdy
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is performed to assess the in vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against various bacteria. The AST results, which are expressed as minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are used in research for antimicrobial development and monitoring of resistance development and in the clinical setting for antimicrobial therapy guidance. Dalbavancin is a semi-synthetic lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent that was approved in May 2014 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by Gram-positive organisms...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kesav C Parvataneni, Sugantha Iyer, Riad Khatib, Louis D Saravolatz
Facklamia sp are Gram-positive cocci that are often mistaken for viridans streptococci, but they rarely cause invasive disease. In this report, we describe a case of mixed Facklamia sp and Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in an immunocompetent host with sinusitis. This case demonstrates that Facklamia sp may be part of normal human flora but can be associated with invasive disease.
April 2015: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Hongdong Li, Chao Song, Dong Liu, Qing Ai, Jialin Yu
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) results in considerable morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. VAP is associated with polymicrobial biofilms that form on endotracheal tubes (ETTs). We aimed to evaluate the diversity and the bacterial community in biofilms on ETTs extubated from mechanically ventilated newborns. ETTs (N = 29) and aerobic sputum cultures were obtained from 20 mechanically ventilated newborns. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to characterize the bacterial species in the biofilms on the ETTs...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Evelyne Deplazes, Stephanie L Begg, Jessica H van Wonderen, Rebecca Campbell, Bostjan Kobe, James C Paton, Fraser MacMillan, Christopher A McDevitt, Megan L O'Mara
Prokaryotic metal-ion receptor proteins, or solute-binding proteins, facilitate the acquisition of metal ions from the extracellular environment. Pneumococcal surface antigen A (PsaA) is the primary Mn(2+)-recruiting protein of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and is essential for its in vivo colonization and virulence. The recently reported high-resolution structures of metal-free and metal-bound PsaA have provided the first insights into the mechanism of PsaA-facilitated metal binding. However, the conformational dynamics of metal-free PsaA in solution remain unknown...
December 2015: Biophysical Chemistry
Renata Barbara Klekotka, Elżbieta Mizgała, Wojciech Król
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to develop many types of infections, which affect the transport of glucose into tissues. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to different kinds of respiratory infections, is often identified as an independent risk factor for developing lower respiratory tract infections. Pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria and fungi may occur with an increased frequency, whereas infections due to Streptococcus pneumonia or influenza virus may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
2015: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
Julien Nourikyan, Morten Kjos, Chryslène Mercy, Caroline Cluzel, Cécile Morlot, Marie-Francoise Noirot-Gros, Sébastien Guiral, Jean-Pierre Lavergne, Jan-Willem Veening, Christophe Grangeasse
Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are produced by a multi-protein membrane complex, in which a particular type of tyrosine-autokinases named BY-kinases, regulate their polymerization and export. However, our understanding of the role of BY-kinases in these processes remains incomplete. In the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, the BY-kinase CpsD localizes at the division site and participates in the proper assembly of the capsule. In this study, we show that the cytoplasmic C-terminal end of the transmembrane protein CpsC is required for CpsD autophosphorylation and localization at mid-cell...
September 2015: PLoS Genetics
María de Gracia Retamosa, Roberto Díez-Martínez, Beatriz Maestro, Esther García-Fernández, Bas de Waal, E W Meijer, Pedro García, Jesús M Sanz
A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative...
November 9, 2015: Angewandte Chemie
Juho Vuononvirta, Ville Peltola, Jorma Ilonen, Jussi Mertsola, Qiushui He
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, and up to 50% of children acquire S. pneumoniae in their nasopharynx during the first 12 months of life. The cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) plays an important role in host defense against extracellular bacterial pathogens. We investigated the effect of IL-17 G-152A polymorphism on pneumococcal colonization in children. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were collected from healthy Finnish children at 2...
September 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Thiago Lisboa, Jorge I F Salluh, Gilberto Friedman
Several observational studies as well as experimental data suggest that the use of macrolides is associated with better outcomes in patients with severe pneumonia. In severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP), data demonstrate a benefit of combination therapy, including a beta-lactam plus a macrolide or floroquinolone, at least in the subgroup of patients with critical disease. Such combination seems to have a more significant impact in those with increased disease severity, particularly in those presenting with shock...
February 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Kenneth T Bono, Julie Balch Samora, Kevin E Klingele
Septic arthritis in infants is rare and can be difficult to diagnose. This study reviewed a series of patients younger than 3 months to identify factors that may assist in early diagnosis and treatment. A query of records at a large Midwestern pediatric hospital (1994-2010) was performed to identify all patients younger than 3 months at the time of diagnosis. Analysis included birth history, joint involvement, physical examination findings, laboratory results, imaging results, method of treatment, and outcome...
September 2015: Orthopedics
Krzysztof Trzciński, Yuan Li, Daniel M Weinberger, Claudette M Thompson, Derrick Cordy, Andrew Bessolo, Richard Malley, Marc Lipsitch
UNLABELLED: Competitive interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae strains during host colonization could influence the serotype distribution in nasopharyngeal carriage and pneumococcal disease. We evaluated the competitive fitness of strains of serotypes 6B, 14, 19A, 19F, 23F, and 35B in a mouse model of multiserotype carriage. Isogenic variants were constructed using clinical strains as the capsule gene donors. Animals were intranasally inoculated with a mixture of up to six pneumococcal strains of different serotypes, with separate experiments involving either clinical isolates or isogenic capsule-switch variants of clinical strain TIGR4...
2015: MBio
Michał T Pstrągowski, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
The objective of this paper is to review and summarize the antimicrobial efficacy of the acyldepsipeptides and to indicate the prospects of the therapeutic values of these compounds. This work is enriched by the description of the mutations within the clpP1clpP2 and c1pP3clpP4 operons of Streptomyces lividans, which are considered to be the potential mechanism of the acyldepsipeptide (ADEP)-resistance development. The researchers' conclusions demonstrated a significant impact on microorganisms including the destabilization of bacterial cell division in Bacillus subtilis 168, Staphylococcus aureus HG001 and Streptococcus pneumoniae G9A strains...
2015: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Sudha R Somarajan, Sabina Leanti La Rosa, Kavindra V Singh, Jung H Roh, Magnus Höök, Barbara E Murray
The interaction between bacteria and fibronectin is believed to play an important role in the pathogenicity of clinically important Gram-positive cocci. In the present study, we identified a gene encoding a predicted fibronectin-binding protein of Enterococcus faecium (fnm), a homologue of Streptococcus pneumoniae pavA, in the genomes of E. faecium strain TX82 and all other sequenced E. faecium isolates. Full-length recombinant Fnm from strain TX82 bound to immobilized fibronectin in a concentration-dependent manner and also appeared to bind collagen type V and laminin, but not other proteins, such as transferrin, heparin, bovine serum albumin, mucin, or collagen IV...
December 2015: Infection and Immunity
Katrin Reppe, Peter Radünzel, Kristina Dietert, Thomas Tschernig, Thorsten Wolff, Sven Hammerschmidt, Achim D Gruber, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
Pulmonary infection with influenza virus is frequently complicated by bacterial superinfection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae being the most prevalent causal pathogen and hence often associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Local immunosuppression due to pulmonary influenza virus infection has been identified as a major cause of the pathogenesis of secondary bacterial lung infection. Thus, specific local stimulation of the pulmonary innate immune system in subjects with influenza virus infection might improve the host defense against secondary bacterial pathogens...
December 2015: Infection and Immunity
Teruhiko Sekiguchi, Akira Inaba
A 67-year-old man was transported to our hospital and diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis. We immediately administered ceftriaxone and vancomycin according to the guidelines, but did not administer dexamethasone to him because he had been previously administered antibiotics. His left eye became complicated by endogenous endophthalmitis on the next day, which resulted in blindness, although his meningitis rapidly ameliorated. In comparison to other patients who have been reported to recover from complications with endophthalmitis after the combination therapy of antibiotics, corticosteroids and vitreous surgery, we consider that this patient's poor visual outcome may have been caused by severe inflammation or the breakdown of the blood ocular barrier due to the action of S...
2015: Internal Medicine
Yue Fu, Kevin E Bruce, Britta Rued, Malcolm E Winkler, David P Giedroc
FtsX is an integral membrane protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that harbors an extracellular loop 1 domain (FtsX(Spn)ECL1) that interacts with PcsB, an peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for cell growth and division. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain resonance assignments and a secondary structural analysis of FtsX(Spn)ECL1 (residues 47-168 of FtsX) as first steps toward structure determination of FtsX(Spn)ECL1.
April 2016: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
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