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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738137/public-health-and-economic-consequences-of-vaccine-hesitancy-for-measles-in-the-united-states
#1
Nathan C Lo, Peter J Hotez
Importance: Routine childhood vaccination is declining in some regions of the United States due to vaccine hesitancy, which risks the resurgence of many infectious diseases with public health and economic consequences. There are ongoing policy debates on the state and national level, including legislation around nonmedical (personal-belief) exemptions for childhood vaccination and possibly a special government commission on vaccine safety, which may affect vaccine coverage. Objective: To estimate the number of measles cases in US children and the associated economic costs under scenarios of different levels of vaccine hesitancy, using the case example of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination and measles...
July 24, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737301/vaccine-preventable-admissions-to-an-irish-paediatric-intensive-care
#2
Y Doyle, M Healy, C McMahon, S Crowe
In the Republic of Ireland, the schedule of state-funded immunisation for children is comprehensive and includes diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, pneumococcus, hepatitis B, meningococcus C, haemophilus B, polio, measles, rubella and mumps. Varicella and meningococcal B vaccines are commercially available but are not currently funded by the government. Each of the illnesses preventable by these vaccines can cause substantial morbidity, and rarely mortality, in infants and children. Our PICU continues to see serious illness due to avoidable infection...
May 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736200/the-web-and-public-confidence-in-mmr-vaccination-in-italy
#3
Francesco Aquino, Gabriele Donzelli, Emanuela De Franco, Gaetano Privitera, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Annalaura Carducci
Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage in Italy has been decreasing starting from 2012 and, at the present, none of the Italian regions has achieved the goal of 95% coverage target. A decision of the Court of Justice of Rimini in March 2012 that awarded vaccine-injury compensation for a case of autism has been indicated as a probable trigger event leading to a reduction of vaccine confidence in Italy. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between MMR vaccination coverage to online search trends and social network activity on the topic "autism and MMR vaccine", during the period 2010-2015...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725301/review-of-infectious-etiology-of-acute-pancreatitis
#4
REVIEW
Prashanth Rawla, Sathyajit S Bandaru, Anantha R Vellipuram
While gallstones and alcoholism are widely known to be the most common causative agents of acute pancreatitis, about 10% of cases are thought to be caused by infectious microorganisms. These microorganisms include viruses (e.g. mumps, Coxsackie B, and hepatitis), bacteria (e.g. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and leptospirosis), and parasites (e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides, Fasciola hepatica, and hydatid disease). Each organism causes acute pancreatitis through diverse mechanisms. The review is primarily conducted in an attempt to provide a better understanding of the possibility of acute pancreatitis presenting as a complication relating to these organisms, and the aim is to guide future diagnoses, management, and predictions of complications...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#5
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709617/mumps-measles-and-rubella-vaccine-for-the-treatment-of-a-recalcitrant-subungual-wart
#6
C Morales-Raya, L Maroñas-Jiménez, R Aragón-Miguel, C Postigo-Llorente
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708344/-it-s-never-too-late-to-be-infected-with-mumps
#7
Noëlle Métraux, Milen Popova, Francis Vu, Nicolas Senn
Mumps, although rare since the introduction of a systematic vaccination of children in 1981 in Switzerland, occurs principally in children and is uncommon in adults. Nevertheless, it should be considered in adult patients with a typical clinical presentation or with an atypical presentation suggesting the disease. The diagnosis is established based on the clinical presentation and the treatment is symptomatic.
February 1, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705180/etiology-and-prognosis-of-acute-viral-encephalitis-and-meningitis-in-chinese-children-a-multicentre-prospective-study
#8
Junhong Ai, Zhengde Xie, Gang Liu, Zongbo Chen, Yong Yang, Yuning Li, Jing Chen, Guo Zheng, Kunling Shen
BACKGROUND: In China, there were few studies about the pathogens of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in children in recent years. The aims of this study were to characterize the etiology and prognosis of acute viral encephalitis and meningitis in Chinese children. METHODS: This was a multicentre prospective study. Two hundred and sixty one viral encephalitis patients and 285 viral meningitis patients were enrolled. The mean age of viral encephalitis and meningitis were 5...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704520/a-self-affirmation-exercise-does-not-improve-intentions-to-vaccinate-among-parents-with-negative-vaccine-attitudes-and-may-decrease-intentions-to-vaccinate
#9
Rachael D Reavis, Jacob B Ebbs, Adaobi K Onunkwo, L Mariah Sage
Two studies investigated the effectiveness of a self-affirmation exercise on vaccine safety beliefs and intent to vaccinate future children. In Study 1, a sample of 585 parents with at least one child under the age of 18 in the home participated through Amazon's MTurk. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 x 2 design. Participants read either correcting information refuting a link between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism or a control passage about bird feeding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704350/measles-outbreak-minnesota-april-may-2017
#10
Victoria Hall, Emily Banerjee, Cynthia Kenyon, Anna Strain, Jayne Griffith, Kathryn Como-Sabetti, Jennifer Heath, Lynn Bahta, Karen Martin, Melissa McMahon, Dave Johnson, Margaret Roddy, Denise Dunn, Kristen Ehresmann
On April 10, 2017, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized child aged 25 months who was evaluated for fever and rash, with onset on April 8. The child had no history of receipt of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and no travel history or known exposure to measles. On April 11, MDH received a report of a second hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 34 months, with an acute febrile rash illness with onset on April 10. The second patient's sibling, aged 19 months, who had also not received MMR vaccine, had similar symptoms, with rash onset on March 30...
July 14, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696824/age-appropriate-versus-up-to-date-coverage-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-young-children-in-israel
#11
Chen Stein-Zamir, Avi Israeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare to the up-to-date vaccination coverage. METHODS: Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892)...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693082/-study-of-mumps-immunity-after-administrating-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine-among-children-aged-2-7-years-old-in-jiangsu-province-in-2015
#12
Y B Liu, Y Hu, X Y Deng, Z G Wang, X Sun, P S Lu, H X Guo, F Y Tang, M H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the immunity to mumps after administrating measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) among children aged 2-7 years old in Jiangsu province in 2015. Methods: A total of 4 190 healthy children aged 2-7 years old, living in local places for at least 3 months, and having been vaccinated at least 1 dose MMR were recruited to the study from Wujin district of Changzhou city, Gaogang district of Taizhou city and Ganyu district of Lianyungang city by using stratified cluster random sampling method between September and November, 2015...
July 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687402/shift-within-age-groups-of-mumps-incidence-hospitalizations-and-severe-complications-in-a-highly-vaccinated-population-spain-1998-2014
#13
Noemí López-Perea, Josefa Masa-Calles, María de Viarce Torres de Mier, Aurora Fernández-García, Juan E Echevarría, Fernando De Ory, María Victoria Martínez de Aragón
The mumps vaccine (Jeryl-Lynn-strain) was introduced in Spain in 1981, and a vaccination policy which included a second dose was added in 1995. From 1992-1999, a Rubini-strain based vaccine was administered in many regions but later withdrawn due to lack of effectiveness. Despite high levels of vaccination coverage, epidemics have continued to appear. We characterized the three epidemic waves of mumps between 1998 and 2014, identifying major changes in susceptible populations using Poisson regression. For the period 1998-2003 (P1), the most affected group was from 1 to 4years old (y) [Incidence Rate (IR)=71...
July 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674944/a-functional-genomics-approach-to-henipavirus-research-the-role-of-nuclear-proteins-micrornas-and-immune-regulators-in-infection-and-disease
#14
Cameron R Stewart, Celine Deffrasnes, Chwan Hong Foo, Andrew G D Bean, Lin-Fa Wang
Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are zoonotic RNA viruses that cause lethal disease in humans and are designated as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) agents. Moreover, henipaviruses belong to the same group of viruses that cause disease more commonly in humans such as measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial virus. Due to the relatively recent emergence of the henipaviruses and the practical constraints of performing functional genomics studies at high levels of containment, our understanding of the henipavirus infection cycle is incomplete...
July 4, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671426/vaccine-adverse-events-separating-myth-from-reality
#15
Jeanne P Spencer, Ruth H Trondsen Pawlowski, Stephanie Thomas
Vaccines are one of the most successful medical advances in modern times. Most vaccine-preventable illnesses are unfamiliar to modern parents. Because of this, parents are increasingly questioning the necessity of immunizing their children, especially because no vaccine is completely free of adverse effects or the risk of complications. Family physicians should be aware of the risks and benefits of recommended immunizations. Thimerosal is currently used only in multidose vials of influenza vaccine, and exposure through vaccines is not associated with adverse neurologic outcomes...
June 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662327/mumps-in-the-eastern-bohemia-region-of-the-czech-republic-a-serological-survey-2008-2012
#16
Miroslav Fajfr, Vlasta Štěpánová, Jana Fajfrová
BACKGROUND: The incidence of mumps has decreased in many countries since the introduction of vaccination programmes, however, in the past decade a rapid increase in the disease occurrence has been reported worldwide. The reason for this situation is still not clear. We present the results of a serological survey carried out in the Eastern Bohemia Region of the Czech Republic during the years 2008-2012. METHODS: In total, 2,536 samples of 2,034 patients were examined during the study period...
June 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659487/mumps-virus-sh-protein-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-by-interacting-with-tnfr1-il-1r1-and-tlr3-complexes
#17
Stephanie Franz, Paul Rennert, Maria Woznik, Josephine Grützke, Amy Lüdde, Eva Maria Arriero Pais, Tim Finsterbusch, Henriette Geyer, Annette Mankertz, Nicole Friedrich
The mumps virus (MuV) small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type I membrane protein expressed in infected cells. SH has been reported to interfere with innate immunity by inhibiting TNFα-mediated apoptosis and NF-κB activation. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we generated recombinant MuVs (rMuVs) expressing either the SH protein with an N-terminal FLAG epitope or lacking SH expression due to the insertion of three stop codons into the SH gene. Using these viruses, we were able to show that SH reduces the phosphorylation of IKKβ, IκBα, and p65 as well as the translocation of p65 into the nucleus of infected A549 cells...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657894/humoral-immunity-in-arsenic-exposed-children-in-rural-bangladesh-total-immunoglobulins-and-vaccine-specific-antibodies
#18
Rubhana Raqib, Sultan Ahmed, Khalid Bin Ahsan, Maria Kippler, Evana Akhtar, Anjan Kumar Roy, Ying Lu, Shams El Arifeen, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Marie Vahter
BACKGROUND: Early-life arsenic exposure has been associated with reduced cell-mediated immunity, but little is known about its effects on humoral immunity. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether prenatal and childhood arsenic exposure was associated with humoral immune function in school-aged children. METHODS: Children born in a prospective mother-child cohort in rural Bangladesh were immunized with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines at 9 years of age ()...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633890/universal-measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination-to-new-recruits-and-the-incidence-of-mumps-in-the-military
#19
Jong Youn Moon, Jaehun Jung, Kyungmin Huh
In response to the resurgence of mumps, the Korean Armed Forces started the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination to all new recruits regardless of prior vaccination history. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vaccination by comparing the incidence between the military and civilian populations before and after implementation of the new policy. The standardized incidence ratio of mumps in the military was 7.06 in the prevaccine period, which declined to 0.96 in the postvaccine period. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 86...
July 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633302/mumps-clinical-diagnostic-uncertainty
#20
Fabio Magurano, Melissa Baggieri, Antonella Marchi, Paola Bucci, Giovanni Rezza, Loredana Nicoletti
During recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among populations vaccinated for mumps worldwide. In Italy, improving routine coverage with two doses of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is one of the key strategies to eliminate measles and rubella. To monitor the effect of the vaccination programme on the population, the surveillance of these vaccine-preventable diseases has been implemented. This provided the opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of those diseases, including mumps...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
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