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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893360/vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-pediatric-patients-a-review-of-measles-mumps-rubella-and-varicella
#1
Deborah A Levine
Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887796/vaccine-strategies-optimising-outcomes
#2
Karin Hardt, Paolo Bonanni, Susan King, Jose Ignacio Santos, Mostafa El-Hodhod, Gregory D Zimet, Scott Preiss
Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine...
November 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879555/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-dtap5-ipv-compared-with-dtap5-plus-ipv-as-the-fifth-dose-in-children-4-to-6-years-of-age
#3
Michael J Smith, Emilia Jordanov, Xiaohua Sheng, Peter H Tsang
BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity and safety of stand-alone diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus (IPV) combination vaccine (DTaP5-IPV) was compared with separate DTaP5 plus IPV vaccines as fifth dose in children 4-6 years of age. METHODS: In this phase III, controlled, multicenter, randomized, open-label study participants were randomized to DTaP5-IPV plus measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) and varicella virus (VZV) vaccines (Group 1; N=324), DTaP5+IPV with MMR and VZV (Group 2; N=327), DTaP5-IPV with/without MMR/VZV (Group 3; N=2419), or DTaP5+IPV with/without MMR/VZV (Group 4; N=302)...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873563/comparative-dynamics-seasonality-in-transmission-and-predictability-of-childhood-infections-in-mexico
#4
A S Mahmud, C J E Metcalf, B T Grenfell
The seasonality and periodicity of infections, and the mechanisms underlying observed dynamics, can have implications for control efforts. This is particularly true for acute childhood infections. Among these, the dynamics of measles is the best understood and has been extensively studied, most notably in the UK prior to the start of vaccination. Less is known about the dynamics of other childhood diseases, particularly outside Europe and the United States. In this paper, we leverage a unique dataset to examine the epidemiology of six childhood infections - measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, scarlet fever and pertussis - across 32 states in Mexico from 1985 to 2007...
November 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864361/causes-of-male-infertility-a-9-year-prospective-monocentre-study-on-1737-patients-with-reduced-total-sperm-counts
#5
M Punab, O Poolamets, P Paju, V Vihljajev, K Pomm, R Ladva, P Korrovits, M Laan
STUDY QUESTION: What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months...
November 17, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862309/study-of-greek-children-and-youths-with-cystic-fibrosis-identifies-immunisation-gaps-and-delays
#6
Helena C Maltezou, Stavros Doudounakis, Maria Lekaditi, Kalliopi Tanou, Panos Katerelos, Maria Theodoridou
AIM: Data about immunisation rates in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are scarce. We estimated the rates and timeliness of immunisations in CF patients aged 0.55-22 years. METHODS: We studied 122 subjects at a hospital in Greece in 2014. A standard questionnaire was used to collect data and parents' opinions about immunisations. RESULTS: The complete immunisation rates were 92.6% for diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliomyelitis-Haemophilus influenzae (DTaP-IPV-Hib), 96...
November 10, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854416/rubella-in-poland-in-2014
#7
Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Justyna Rogalska, Aleksandra Polkowska
BACKGROUND: In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852634/calibration-and-evaluation-of-quantitative-antibody-titers-for-measles-virus-using-the-bioplex-2200
#8
Todd F Hatchette, Heidi Scholz, Shelly Bolotin, Natasha S Crowcroft, Colleen Jackson, Elizabeth McLachlan, Alberto Severini
The BioPlex 2200 (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, Ca) is a rapid, automated platform, which can screen large numbers of specimens for antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella and varicella. Although approved for producing qualitative results, in this study we have validated the test (off-label) to allow reporting of quantitative results. To do this, we used the 3(rd) anti-measles WHO standard to generate a calibration curve that allowed relative fluorescence intensity to be translated into quantitative antibody titer (Antibody Units/mL (AU/mL))...
November 16, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847355/crystal-structure-of-the-marburg-virus-vp35-oligomerization-domain
#9
Jessica F Bruhn, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Sarah M Urata, Sheng Li, Ian J Tickle, Gérard Bricogne, Erica Ollmann Saphire
: Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that is classified in a distinct genus from Ebola virus (EBOV) (genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus). Both viruses produce a multifunctional protein termed VP35, which acts as a polymerase co-factor, a viral protein chaperone and an antagonist of the innate immune response. VP35 contains a central oligomerization domain with a predicted coiled-coil motif. This domain has been shown to be essential for RNA polymerase function. Here we present crystal structures of the MARV VP35 oligomerization domain...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843864/bilateral-painful-parotid-lumps-and-a-lump-in-the-groin-an-uncommon-presentation-of-common-kikuchi-s-disease
#10
Sumeet Prakash Mirgh, Jinendra Satiya, Jehangir Soli Sorabjee
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is an under-recognized disease most commonly presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and cytopenias in young females. Bilateral parotid enlargement is usually caused by infections (e.g., mumps) and autoimmune conditions (e.g., Sjogren syndrome). Parotid enlargement, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and pyrexia of unknown origin are uncommon presenting features of KFD and should be suspected in the appropriate setting.
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836435/vaccine-safety-evaluation-practical-aspects-in-assessing-benefits-and-risks
#11
Alberta Di Pasquale, Paolo Bonanni, Nathalie Garçon, Lawrence R Stanberry, Mostafa El-Hodhod, Fernanda Tavares Da Silva
Vaccines are different from most medicines in that they are administered to large and mostly healthy populations including infants and children, so there is a low tolerance for potential risks or side-effects. In addition, the long-term benefits of immunisation in reducing or eliminating infectious diseases may induce complacency due to the absence of cases. However, as demonstrated in recent measles outbreaks in Europe and United States, reappearance of the disease occurs as soon as vaccine coverage falls...
November 8, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828815/using-text-reminder-to-improve-childhood-immunization-adherence-in-the-philippines
#12
Mary Joy Garcia-Dia, Joyce J Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth A Madigan, John W Peabody
A comparative descriptive study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of text messages with pictures compared with plain text messages or verbal reminders in improving measles, mumps, and rubella immunization compliance in the rural areas of the Philippines. We found that text messaging with or without pictures is a feasible and useful tool in measles, mumps, rubella immunization compliance for childhood immunization. Texting with pictures (n = 23), however, was no more effective than plain text messaging (n = 19) or verbal reminder (n = 17) in improving measles, mumps, and rubella immunization compliance...
November 8, 2016: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822935/seroprevalences-of-specific-igg-antibodies-to-measles-mumps-and-rubella-in-korean-infants
#13
Hye Kyung Cho, Hyunju Lee, Han Wool Kim, Sung Soon Kim, Hae Ji Kang, In Tae Kim, Kyung Hyo Kim
In this study, the seroprevalences of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in infants were determined to assess the immunization strategy and control measures for these infectious diseases. Serum samples from infants < 1 year of age and their mothers were collected to measure the concentrations of specific IgG antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For selected infant serum samples, measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels were determined by using the plaque reduction neutralization test...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822926/effectiveness-of-varicella-vaccination-program-in-preventing-laboratory-confirmed-cases-in-children-in-seoul-korea
#14
Young Hwa Lee, Young June Choe, Sung Il Cho, Cho Ryok Kang, Ji Hwan Bang, Myoung Don Oh, Jong Koo Lee
A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818687/pericardial-tamponade-in-an-adult-suffering-from-acute-mumps-infection
#15
Sascha Kahlfuss, Robert Rainer Flieger, Annette Mankertz, Kadir Yilmaz, Torsten Kai Roepke
Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811320/cross-reactive-and-cross-neutralizing-activity-of-human-mumps-antibodies-against-a-novel-mumps-virus-from-bats
#16
Shannon M Beaty, Raffael Nachbagauer, Ariana Hirsh, Frederic Vigant, James Duehr, Kristopher Azarm, Alice J Stelfox, Thomas A Bowden, W Paul Duprex, Florian Krammer, Benhur Lee
To evaluate the antigenic relationship between bat mumps virus (BMV) and the JL5 vaccine strain of mumps virus (MuV(JL5)), we rescued a chimeric virus bearing the F and HN glycoproteins of BMV in the genomic background of MuV(JL5) Cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization between this chimeric rMuV(JL5)-F/HN(BMV) virus and rMuV(JL5) were demonstrated using hyperimmune mouse sera and a curated panel of human sera. All mouse and human sera that were able to neutralize rMuV(JL5) infection had cross-neutralizing activity against rMuV(JL5)-F/HN(BMV) Our data suggests that people who have neutralizing antibodies against MuV might be protected from infection by BMV...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780480/measles-mumps-rubella-and-vzv-importance-of-serological-testing-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-young-adults-living-with-hiv-in-germany
#17
C Schwarze-Zander, R Draenert, C Lehmann, M Stecher, C Boesecke, S Sammet, J C Wasmuth, U Seybold, D Gillor, U Wieland, T Kümmerle, C P Strassburg, A Mankertz, A M Eis-Hübinger, G Jäger, G Fätkenheuer, J R Bogner, J K Rockstroh, J J Vehreschild
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779833/chickenpox-in-poland-in-2014
#18
Monika Roberta Korczyńska, Justyna Rogalska
BACKGROUND: A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children between 0-14 years old and among those who are not vaccinated, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. AIM. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years. AIM: To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2014 in comparison to previous years...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779832/mumps-in-poland-in-2014
#19
Monika Roberta Korczyńska, Justyna Rogalska
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common disease among the children. AIM: To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771122/-vaccination-status-in-psoriasis-patients-on-immunosuppressant-therapy-including-biologics
#20
A Bonhomme, E Fréling, M Reigneau, C Poreaux, A Valois, F Truchetet, A Barbaud, J-L Schmutz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the vaccine coverage of psoriasis patients prior to initiating or changing immunosuppressant therapy, and to verify that the prescribed vaccines have been administered. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a bi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study over 9 months. Psoriasis patients in whom immunosuppressant therapy (comprising cyclosporine, methotrexate, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or ustekinumab) was indicated were included. Medical history, previous treatments, vaccination status, viral serology results (for hepatitis B, measles, and chickenpox), and reasons for non-vaccination were assessed via questionnaire...
October 19, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
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