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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545047/the-natural-history-of-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-norway-further-insights-on-exogenous-boosting-and-progressive-immunity-to-herpes-zoster
#1
Luigi Marangi, Grazina Mirinaviciute, Elmira Flem, Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba, Giorgio Guzzetta, Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio, Piero Manfredi
We use age-structured models for VZV transmission and reactivation to reconstruct the natural history of VZV in Norway based on available pre-vaccination serological data, contact matrices, and herpes zoster incidence data. Depending on the hypotheses on contact and transmission patterns, the basic reproduction number of varicella in Norway ranges between 3.7 and 5.0, implying a vaccine coverage between 73 and 80% to effectively interrupt transmission with a 100% vaccine efficacy against infection. The varicella force of infection peaks during early childhood (3-5 yrs) and shows a prolonged phase of higher risk during the childbearing period, though quantitative variations can occur depending on contact patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542541/varicella-zoster-virus-glycoprotein-c-increases-chemokine-mediated-leukocyte-migration
#2
Víctor González-Motos, Carina Jürgens, Birgit Ritter, Kai A Kropp, Verónica Durán, Olav Larsen, Anne Binz, Werner J D Ouwendijk, Tihana Lenac Rovis, Stipan Jonjic, Georges M G M Verjans, Beate Sodeik, Thomas Krey, Rudolf Bauerfeind, Thomas F Schulz, Benedikt B Kaufer, Ulrich Kalinke, Amanda E I Proudfoot, Mette M Rosenkilde, Abel Viejo-Borbolla
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly prevalent human pathogen that establishes latency in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Primary infection causes varicella whereas reactivation results in zoster, which is often followed by chronic pain in adults. Following infection of epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, VZV spreads within the host by hijacking leukocytes, including T cells, in the tonsils and other regional lymph nodes, and modifying their activity. In spite of its importance in pathogenesis, the mechanism of dissemination remains poorly understood...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542182/modelling-the-transmission-and-control-strategies-of-varicella-among-school-children-in-shenzhen-china
#3
Xiujuan Tang, Shi Zhao, Alice P Y Chiu, Hanwu Ma, Xu Xie, Shujiang Mei, Dongfeng Kong, Yanmin Qin, Zhigao Chen, Xin Wang, Daihai He
OBJECTIVES: Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly transmissible childhood disease. Between 2010 and 2015, it displayed two epidemic waves annually among school populations in Shenzhen, China. However, their transmission dynamics remain unclear and there is no school-based vaccination programme in Shenzhen to-date. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to compare a school-based vaccination intervention scenario with a baseline (i.e. no intervention) scenario. METHODS: Data on varicella reported cases were downloaded from the Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540752/herpes-zoster-typical-and-atypical-presentations
#4
Roy Rafael Dayan, Roni Peleg
Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc...
May 25, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536762/bilateral-acute-retinal-necrosis-after-bilateral-cataract-surgery-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-a-case-report
#5
Chun Yue Mak, Helena Pui-Yee Sin, Mary Ho, Vesta Cheuk-Ki Chan, Alvin Lerrmann Young, Marten Erik Brelen
PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurring after both eyes sequential cataract surgery in an elderly immunocompromised patient. METHODS: Medical records and investigation results of the patient were reviewed. RESULTS: Patient experienced floaters and blurring of vision in both eyes 4 weeks after her second uncomplicated cataract surgery. Clinical signs of granulomatous keratic precipitates, prominent vitritis, retinitis and vascular thrombosis were noted in both eyes...
May 23, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536235/a-case-of-acyclovir-neurotoxicity-presenting-with-atypical-cerebrospinal-fluid-findings
#6
Guramrinder Singh Thind, Richard Roach
An 82-year-old man with a history of end-stage renal disease presented with progressively worsening confusion and somnolence for the past 4-5 days. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster by his primary care physician 5 days ago and was started on a course of valacyclovir 1 g three times a day (dose not adjusted for renal impairment).A lumbar puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies revealed 37 white blood cells (WBCs)/hpf (100% monocytes), protein 64 mg/dL and glucose 52 mg/dL...
May 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535793/intermittent-preventive-treatment-for-malaria-among-children-in-a-refugee-camp-in-northern-uganda-lessons-learned
#7
Matthew E Coldiron, Estrella Lasry, Malika Bouhenia, Debashish Das, Peter Okui, Dan Nyehangane, Juliet Mwanga, Celine Langendorf, Greg Elder, Léon Salumu, Rebecca F Grais
Northern Uganda hosts a large population of refugees from South Sudan, and malaria is one of the major health problems in the area. In 2015, intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTc) was implemented in two refugee camps among children aged 6 months to 14 years. Three distributions of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) were conducted at 8-week intervals. The first dose was directly administered at IPTc distribution sites and the second and third doses were given to caregivers to administer at home...
May 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528765/impact-and-effectiveness-of-childhood-varicella-vaccine-program-in-queensland-australia
#8
Sarah L Sheridan, Helen E Quinn, Brynley P Hull, Robert S Ware, Keith Grimwood, Stephen B Lambert
BACKGROUND: In November 2005, Australia introduced a publicly funded single dose of varicella vaccine for children aged 18-months. We describe the impact of this program on varicella hospitalisations in Queensland and provide the first assessment of single-dose varicella vaccine effectiveness in Australia since the program commenced. METHODS: Age-standardised varicella hospitalisation rates were calculated for 2000-2014 and pre- and post-public funding period rates compared...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525973/varicella-zoster-virus-seroprevalence-in-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pre-varicella-vaccine-era-germany
#9
Miriam Wiese-Posselt, Anette Siedler, Annette Mankertz, Andreas Sauerbrei, Hartmut Hengel, Ole Wichmann, Christina Poethko-Müller
BACKGROUND: In 2004, universal childhood varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany. We aimed to determine the age-specific prevalence of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG-antibodies among children in the pre-varicella vaccine era in Germany, to identify factors associated with VZV seropositivity, and to assess the suitability of a commercially available ELISA for VZV seroepidemiological studies by comparing it with an in-house fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test (FAMA) as the gold standard...
May 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521810/estimation-of-the-burden-of-varicella-in-europe-before-the-introduction-of-universal-childhood-immunization
#10
Margarita Riera-Montes, Kaatje Bollaerts, Ulrich Heininger, Niel Hens, Giovanni Gabutti, Angel Gil, Bayad Nozad, Grazina Mirinaviciute, Elmira Flem, Audrey Souverain, Thomas Verstraeten, Susanne Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Varicella is generally considered a mild disease. Disease burden is not well known and country-level estimation is challenging. As varicella disease is not notifiable, notification criteria and rates vary between countries. In general, existing surveillance systems do not capture cases that do not seek medical care, and most are affected by underreporting and underascertainment. We aimed to estimate the overall varicella disease burden in Europe to provide critical information to support decision-making regarding varicella vaccination...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514943/sex-differences-underlying-orofacial-varicella-zoster-associated-pain-in-rats
#11
Crystal Stinson, Mohong Deng, Michael B Yee, Larry L Bellinger, Paul R Kinchington, Phillip R Kramer
BACKGROUND: Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster...
May 17, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511204/-current-immunization-status-of-d%C3%A3-sseldorf-s-nursery-school-children-and-staff-members-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Delbar Dilmaghani, Michael Schäfer, Renate Bredahl, Klaus Göbels
Background The local health authority (Gesundheitsamt) in Düsseldorf, Germany aimed to investigate the current immunization status of nursery school children and pedagogues in Düsseldorf, Germany. Furthermore, analysing the association between Düsseldorf's 5 social environment clusters and immunization status was of interest. Especially due to recent changes in the German Infection Protection Act closely monitoring adverse immunization trends becomes increasingly important. Methods Weighted cluster random sampling was used in order to draw a sample of 50 nursery schools from the 5 social environment clusters...
May 16, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509605/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-bio-pox%C3%A2-a-live-varicella-vaccine-oka-strain-in-indian-children-a-comparative-multicentric-randomized-phase-ii-iii-clinical-trial
#13
Anand Prakash Dubey, Mohammad Moonis Akbar Faridi, Monjori Mitra, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur, Aashima Dabas, Jaydeep Choudhury, Mallar Mukherjee, Devendra Mishra
Varicella or chickenpox is a highly contagious disease with a high secondary attack rate. Almost 30% of Indian adolescents lack protective antibodies against varicella, emphasising the need of routine varicella immunization. The Oka VZV is a well-established, safe and efficacious vaccine strain that is highly immunogenic and produces lifelong protective immunity. The present multicentric, open label, randomized, controlled Phase II/III study, compared the Bio Pox™ (indigenous investigational vaccine) with a licensed vaccine, Varivax™, for its safety and immunogenicity profile in 252 healthy subjects in the age group of 1-12 years (cohort I: 6-12 years, II:1-6 years) in three tertiary medical institutions...
May 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501392/acute-retinal-necrosis-presenting-characteristics-and-clinical-outcomes-in-a-cohort-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-positive-patients
#14
Nicholas J Butler, Ahmadreza Moradi, Sherveen S Salek, Bryn M Burkholder, Theresa G Leung, James P Dunn, Jennifer E Thorne
PURPOSE: To identify determinants of adverse outcomes in acute retinal necrosis (ARN), presenting characteristics and incidence rates of vision loss and ocular complications in a cohort of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive eyes were analyzed. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: Forty-one eyes of 36 patients with clinically-diagnosed ARN, PCR-positive for herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus and evaluated between January 2002 and June 2013, were included...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498303/varicella-zoster-virus-associated-necrotizing-retinitis-after-chickenpox-in-a-10-year-old-female-a-case-report
#15
Yong Un Shin, Jihong Kim, Eun Hee Hong, Jieun Kim, Joo Hyun Sohn, Heeyoon Cho
A necrotizing retinitis in children is a rare but vision threatening ocular complication of chickenpox. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed chickenpox one month before presenting with panuveitis and necrotizing retinitis. After prompt antiviral treatment, her inflammatory signs were resolved. Early detection and treatment of varicellar zoster-associated necrotizing retinitis after chickenpox can achieve good visual outcome.
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495603/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-therapeutic-applications-of-clinacanthus-nutans-burm-f-lindau-a-comprehensive-review
#16
REVIEW
Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Long Chiau Ming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, a widely used medicinal plant, is extensively grown in tropical Asia and Southeast Asian countries. C. nutans, with its broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, has been traditionally used to treat cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, insect bites, and skin problems, consumed as a vegetable, mixed with fresh juices, in concoctions, and as a whole plant. The present review analyzes the advances in the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of C...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494237/microbial-vertical-transmission-during-human-pregnancy
#17
REVIEW
Nitin Arora, Yoel Sadovsky, Terence S Dermody, Carolyn B Coyne
Congenital infections with pathogens such as Zika virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidium, parvovirus, HIV, varicella zoster virus, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpesviruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the devastating impact of microbial infections on the developing fetus, relatively little is known about how pathogens associated with congenital disease breach the placental barrier to transit vertically during human pregnancy. In this Review, we focus on transplacental transmission of pathogens during human gestation...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491889/infections-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-recipients-results-from-the-organ-transplant-infection-project-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Mindy G Schuster, Angela A Cleveland, Erik R Dubberke, Carol A Kauffman, Robin K Avery, Shahid Husain, David L Paterson, Fernanda P Silveira, Tom M Chiller, Kaitlin Benedict, Kathleen Murphy, Peter G Pappas
BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. The study included 4 US transplant centers and 444 HCT recipients. Data were prospectively collected for up to 30 months after HCT using a standardized data collection tool...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491814/varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-multifocal-vasculopathy-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-diagnostic-and-treatment-dilemma
#19
Stephen Osiro, Nadim Salomon
Cerebral vasculopathy due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection is well-documented. We report a fatal case of VZV multifocal vasculopathy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented with subacute changes in mental status and had multiple areas of hemorrhagic infarcts on brain imaging. However, the correct diagnosis was delayed by several confounding factors including the absence of zoster rash, normal cerebral angiography, persistently low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose and negative initial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for VZV DNA in the CSF...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491476/increased-intracranial-pressure-in-the-setting-of-enterovirus-and-other-viral-meningitides
#20
Jules C Beal
Increased intracranial pressure due to viral meningitis has not been widely discussed in the literature, although associations with Varicella and rarely Enterovirus have been described. Patients with increased intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid analysis suggestive of a viral process are sometimes classified as having atypical idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). However, a diagnosis of IIH requires normal cerebrospinal fluid, and therefore in these cases an infection with secondary intracranial hypertension may be a more likely diagnosis...
2017: Neurology Research International
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