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Physical performance

Elisabeth Waldmann, Georg Heinze, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Irina GessI, Daniela Sallinger, Philip Jeschek, Martha Britto-Arias, Petra Salzl, Elisabeth Fasching, Bernd Jilma, Michael Kundi, Michael Trauner, Monika Ferlitsch
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of (pre)cancerous colorectal lesions are higher in men than in women, although transition rates from advanced lesions to cancer is similar in both sexes. Our aim was to investigate whether the sex-specific difference in incidence of premalignant colorectal lesions might be explained by the impact of risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study analysing health check-up examinations and screening colonoscopies performed within a national quality assurance program...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Ikram Bezrati, Raouf Hammami, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Domenico Martone, Johnny Padulo, Moncef Feki, Anis Chaouachi, Naziha Kaabachi
Vitamin D is thought to regulate skeletal muscle function and boost physical performance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D and physical performance in physically active children. This cross-sectional study included 125 children who practice football as a leisure activity. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Vitamin D inadequacy was defined as 25-OHD < 20 ng/mL. Physical performance testing included measurements of muscle strength (maximal isometric contraction), jumping ability (vertical jump, standing broad jump, triple hop test), linear sprint (10 m and 20 m), and agility (9 × 4-m shuttle run)...
July 13, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Karin Riemann-Lorenz, Marlene Eilers, Gloria von Geldern, Karl-Heinz Schulz, Sascha Köpke, Christoph Heesen
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors have been discussed to influence risk or disease course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Specific diets are widely used among patients with MS. OBJECTIVE: To design and pilot-test an evidence based patient education program on dietary factors in MS. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on the effectiveness of dietary interventions in MS. A web-based survey among 337 patients with MS and 136 healthy controls assessed knowledge, dietary habits and information needs...
2016: PloS One
Nastasia Marinus, Liene Bervoets, Guy Massa, Kenneth Verboven, An Stevens, Tim Takken, Dominique Hansen
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is advised ahead of exercise intervention in obese adolescents to assess medical safety of exercise and physical fitness. Optimal validity and reliability of test results are required to identify maximal exercise effort. As fat oxidation during exercise is disturbed in obese individuals, it remains an unresolved methodological issue whether the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is a valid marker for maximal effort during exercise testing in this population...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Rafael E Pedro, Débora A Guariglia, Sidney B Peres, Solange M Moraes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is a major problem among people living with HIV/aids. The exercise training has been used for its treatment; however, the knowledge about benefits and safety still is emerging. The aim was systematically review the literature for physiological, metabolic, immunologic, and morphologic adaptations to aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training in people living with HALS. METHODS: A search of the Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library and PEDro was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Xuemin Cheng, Yikang Yang, Qun Hao
The thermal environment is an important factor in the design of optical systems. This study investigated the thermal analysis technology of optical systems for navigation guidance and control in supersonic aircraft by developing empirical equations for the front temperature gradient and rear thermal diffusion distance, and for basic factors such as flying parameters and the structure of the optical system. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to study the relationship between flying and front dome parameters and the system temperature field...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
Jong-Ho Lee, Illsoo Sohn, Yong-Hwa Kim
In this paper, we consider a transmit power allocation problem for secure transmission in multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF) full-duplex relay (FDR) networks, where multiple FDRs are located at each hop and perform cooperative beamforming to null out the signal at multiple eavesdroppers. For a perfect self-interference cancellation (PSIC) case, where the self-interference signal at each FDR is completely canceled, we derive an optimal power allocation (OPA) strategy using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to maximize the achievable secrecy rate under an overall transmit power constraint...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
Ai Phing Lim, Zufarzaana Zulkeflee, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
Dead calcareous skeletons (CSs) as low-cost adsorbents were studied to remove lead ions (Pb (II)) in an aqueous solution. Factors influencing the efficiency of CSs were evaluated by adsorbent size, contact time, initial concentration, dosage concentration and pH. The optimum CS size for removal of Pb (II) was 710 μm at an equilibrium time of 720 min. The best dosage of CS was 10 g/L for a 99% removal efficiency without pH adjustment. Pb (II) ions were effectively removed in the initial pH of the metal solution...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
A E Cullen, L Bowers, M Khondoker, S Pettit, E Achilla, L Koeser, L Moylan, J Baker, A Quirk, F Sethi, D Stewart, P McCrone, A D Tulloch
AIMS: Within acute psychiatric inpatient services, patients exhibiting severely disturbed behaviour can be transferred to a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and/or secluded in order to manage the risks posed to the patient and others. However, whether specific patient groups are more likely to be subjected to these coercive measures is unclear. Using robust methodological and statistical techniques, we aimed to determine the demographic, clinical and behavioural predictors of both PICU and seclusion...
October 20, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Hui-Hsu Gavin Tsai, Jia-Cheng Hu, Chun-Jui Tan, Yung-Ching Sheng, Chih-Chiang Chiu
The loading of dye sensitizers on a semiconductor is crucial for determining the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitizer solar cells (DSSCs). The interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2 film such as adsorption configurations and adsorption energy can influence the total amount of dye sensitizers that loads and the stability of a DSSC device. Therefore, it is important to characterize the adsorption properties of dye sensitizers on TiO2 film atomically and electronically to ensure rational structure-based dye design for high-performance DSSCs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Djordje Mirkovic, Phillip M Stepanian, Jeffrey F Kelly, Phillip B Chilson
The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nora K Horick, Adoma Manful, Jan Lowery, Susan Domchek, Patricia Moorman, Constance Griffin, Kala Visvanathan, Claudine Isaacs, Anita Y Kinney, Dianne M Finkelstein
PURPOSE: Registries provide a unique tool for tracking quality of life in rare cancer survivors, whose survivorship experience is less known than for common cancers. This paper reports on these outcomes in 321 patients enrolled in the Rare Cancer Genetics Registry diagnosed with rare gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecologic, sarcoma, head/neck, or hematologic cancers. METHODS: Four outcomes were assessed, reflecting registrants' self-reported physical and mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
V A Doss, Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. METHODS: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Vinuta V Patil, Bala H Subramanya, N Kiranchand, S Bala Bhaskar, Srinivasalu Dammur
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: C-MAC(®) video laryngoscope (VL) with Macintosh blade has been found to improve Cormack-Lehane (C-L) laryngoscopic view as well as intubating conditions for orotracheal intubation. However, studies done on the performance of C-MAC(®) VL for nasotracheal intubation (NTI) are very few in number. Hence, we compared laryngoscopy and intubating conditions between Macintosh direct laryngoscope and C-MAC(®) VL for NTI. METHODS: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I, II patients, aged 8-18 years, posted for tonsillectomy surgeries under general anaesthesia with NTI were randomised, into two groups...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
John Cairney, Scott Veldhuizen, Sara King-Dowling, Brent E Faught, John Hay
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have lower cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than typically developing (TD) children. This has been hypothesized to be due to an activity deficit, whereby poor motor functioning discourages children from participating in physical activities, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. In this study, we use longitudinal data to measure the extent to which physical activity explains differences in CRF between children with and without motor coordination deficits...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Claire Cleland, Ade Kearns, Carol Tannahill, Anne Ellaway
BACKGROUND: It is recognised that life events (LEs) which have been defined as incidents necessitating adjustment to habitual life either permanently or temporarily, not only have the potential to be detrimental to health and well-being, but research suggests some LEs may be beneficial. This study aimed to determine the individual and cumulative occurrence of LEs; and to establish their effect on health and well-being. RESULTS: Demographic factors (gender, age and highest educational attainment), LE occurrence and self-reported health data were collected as part of the longitudinal GoWell community health and wellbeing survey (2008-2011)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Faraz Kureshi, Kevin F Kennedy, Philip G Jones, Randal J Thomas, Suzanne V Arnold, Praneet Sharma, Timothy Fendler, Donna M Buchanan, Mohammed Qintar, P Michael Ho, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, Neil B Oldridge, John A Spertus
Importance: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and referral to CR has been introduced as a performance measure of high-quality care. The association of participation in CR with patients' health status (eg, quality of life, symptoms, and functional status) is poorly defined. Objective: To examine the association of participation in CR with health status outcomes after AMI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients enrolled in 2 AMI registries: PREMIER, from January 1, 2003, to June 28, 2004, and TRIUMPH, from April 11, 2005, to December 31, 2008...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Anne van der Vorst, G A Rixt Zijlstra, Nico De Witte, Daan Duppen, Andreas E Stuck, Gertrudis I J M Kempen, Jos M G A Schols
BACKGROUND: Most older people wish to age in place, for which functional status or being able to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) is an important precondition. However, along with the substantial growth of the (oldest) old, the number of people who develop limitations in ADLs or have functional decline dramatically increases in this part of the population. Therefore, it is important to gain insight into factors that can contribute to developing intervention strategies at older ages...
2016: PloS One
Wendy Yajun Huang, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Gang He, J O Salmon
PURPOSE: This study examined the prospective associations of reallocating time spent in different types of sedentary behavior, physical activity, and sleep with body mass index (BMI) in children using isotemporal substitution analysis. METHODS: Chinese children in grades 1-3 were recruited to a cohort study in 2009 and were followed up over a 2-yr period. Reports were gathered from the parents on children's sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and sociodemographic variables...
November 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mariana Carvalho de Menezes, Lydiane Bragunci Bedeschi, Luana Caroline Dos Santos, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes
INTRODUCTION: The multi-behavioral Transtheoretical Model (TTM) addresses multiple behaviors and it is a promising strategy to control multifactorial morbidities, such as chronic diseases. The results obtained using the TTM are positive, but are not consistently methodical. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically review the effectiveness of the Transtheoretical Model in multi-behavioral interventions for changing eating habits and levels of physical activity...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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