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Yizong Guo, Xueyan Zhu, Fei Fang, Xiao Hong, Huimin Wu, Dajing Chen, Xiaojun Huang
Enzymatic membrane bioreactors (EMBRs), with synergistic catalysis-separation performance, have increasingly been used for practical applications. Generally, the membrane properties, particularly the pore structures and interface interactions, have a significant impact on the catalytic efficiency of the EMBR. Therefore, a biomimetic interface based on a phospholipid assembled onto a polysulfone hollow-fiber membrane with perfect radial gradient pores (RGM-PSF) has been prepared in this work to construct a highly efficient and stable EMBR...
January 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marcel Vasconcellos, Keren Cozer, Victor Senna Diniz, Wagner Baetas-da-Cruz, Manoel Luiz Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Silva, Alberto Schanaider
PURPOSE: To evaluate the actual incidence of both microlithiasis and acute cholecystitis during treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone in a new rabbit model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were treated with intravenous ceftriaxone or saline for 21 days. Ultrasound monitoring of the gallbladder was performed every seven days until the 21st day when histopathology, immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), pro-caspase-3 and CD68, liver enzyme biochemistry, and chromatography analysis of the bile and sediments were also performed...
December 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
N Gopalakrishnan, R Arul, J Dhanapriya, T Dinesh Kumar, R Sakthirajan, T Balasubramaniyan
Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive (AR) disease caused by mutation in the LCAT gene. LCAT enzyme esterifies cholesterol molecules in high-density lipoprotein(HDL) and low density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles. This enzyme deficiency is characterised by progressive corneal opacification, glomerulopathy, mild - moderate haemolytic anaemia and very low plasma levels of HDL. We here report a 34 year-old lady who presented with hypertension, nephrotic proteinuria, renal failure, corneal ring opacities, anemia and dyslipidemia...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Juan Huang, Qiang Wang, Tong Li, Nan Xia, Qiang Xia
BACKGROUND: Linseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid are bioactive ingredients, which play an important role in human's nutrition and health. However, their application in functional foods is limited because of their instabilities and poor solubilities in hydrophilic matrices. Multilayer emulsions are particularly useful to protect encapsulated bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to fabricate multilayer emulsions by high pressure homogenization method to encapsulate linseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid simultaneously...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Amanda Missimer, Maria Luz Fernandez, Diana M DiMarco, Gregory H Norris, Christopher N Blesso, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Bruno S Lemos, Isabel Medina-Vera, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill
BACKGROUND: Habitual consumption of eggs has been hypothesized to positively modify biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk through proposed antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVES: To examine this relationship, 50 young, healthy men and women were enrolled into a randomized crossover clinical intervention. METHODS: Participants consumed either 2 eggs per day or one packet of oatmeal a day for 4 weeks, followed by a 3-week wash-out and crossed over to the alternate breakfast...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Farooq Aziz, Khizra Bano, Ahmad Hassan Siddique, Sadia Zafar Bajwa, Aalia Nazir, Anam Munawar, Ayesha Shaheen, Madiha Saeed, Muhammad Afzal, M Zubair Iqbal, Aiguo Wu, Waheed S Khan
We report a novel strategy for the fabrication of lecithin-coated gold nanoflowers (GNFs) via single-step design for CT imaging application. Field-emission electron microscope confirmed flowers like morphology of the as-synthesized nanostructures. Furthermore, these show absorption peak in near-infrared (NIR) region at λmax 690 nm Different concentrations of GNFs are tested as a contrast agent in CT scans at tube voltage 135 kV and tube current 350 mA. These results are compared with same amount of iodine at same CT scan parameters...
January 9, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Asuka Hirose, Masakazu Terauchi, Yurika Osaka, Mihoko Akiyoshi, Kiyoko Kato, Naoyuki Miyasaka
BACKGROUND: Lecithin is a complex mixture of phospholipids which compose lipid bilayer cell membranes. Lipid replacement therapy, or administration of phospholipids for the purpose of repairing the dmaged cell membranes, had been shown to alleviate fatigue. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on fatigue in middle-aged women, as well as other menopausal symptoms and various health parameters. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 96 women aged 40 to 60 years who complained of fatigue...
January 8, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Yu Wang, Siming Wang, Lijiao Zhang, Jie Zeng, Ruiyue Yang, Hongxia Li, Yueming Tang, Wenxiang Chen, Jun Dong
The measurement of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT, EC activity is important in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism study and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment. However, current methods suffer from complex design and preparation of exogenous substrate, low reproducibility, and interference of cofactors. In this study, we developed a simple and precise high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the measurement of LCAT activity. By using 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(10:0PC) as substrates, and an LCAT activating peptide (P642) as activator and emulsifier, the substrate reagent was easily made by vortex...
January 6, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Longkai Chen, Liling Mei, Disang Feng, Di Huang, Xin Tong, Xin Pan, Chune Zhu, Chuanbin Wu
To address the issue of initial burst release from poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres prepared by water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsion technique, PLGA composite microspheres containing anhydrous reverse micelle (ARM) lecithin nanoparticles were developed by a modified solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) technique. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded ARM lecithin nanoparticles, which were obtained by initial self-assembly and subsequent lipid inversion of the lecithin vesicles, were then encapsulated into PLGA matrix by the S/O/W technique to form composite microspheres...
December 21, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Alessia Arelli, Andrea Nuzzo, Claudia Sabia, Ibrahim M Banat, Giulio Zanaroli, Fabio Fava
Washing is a rapid and effective treatment to remediate contaminated sands impacted by oil spills, although synthetic additives used to increase extraction efficiency may cause additional pollution issues due to their intrinsic toxicity and very often low biodegradability. In this study, different biogenic mobilizing agents (soybean lecithins, cyclodextrins, cholic acids, plant-derived cleaners, rhamnolipids and sophorolipids) were tested in the washing of beach sands artificially contaminated with the Intermediate Fuel Oil IFO-180...
December 27, 2017: New Biotechnology
Makoto Shiota, Yuichi Shimomura, Mariko Kotera, Shu Taira
Firstly, we report the localization analysis of the lipid components of a water-in-oil (W/O) semi-solid emulsion by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Uniform emulsion droplets were prepared using microchannel emulsification devices with lecithin, stearic acid-binding monoglyceride (St-MAG), and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as emulsifiers. The mass image gives us the localization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in lecithin, St-MAG, tripalmitin (PPP), medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and high-melting-point triglyceride tristearin (C18-TAG)...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Bárbara Bianca Gerbelli, Emerson R Silva, Bruna Miranda Soares, Wendel Andrade Alves, Elisabeth Andreoli de Oliveira
In the present work, we investigate the effect of two short phenylalanine-based peptides on lipid membranes. A simplified model membrane composed of lecithin vesicles was used to incorporate different amounts of the two amino acid sequences, the dimmer L,L-diphenylallanine (FF) and the trimmer cysteine-diphenylallanine (CFF). Spectroscopic and scattering techniques were applied to probe in detail the structural behavior of lipid membranes in presence of the peptides. The experimental results demonstrate that both peptides are located mainly at the interface of the membrane interacting with phosphate groups modifying membrane thickness and flexibility...
December 28, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Handrean Soran, Yifen Liu, Safwaan Adam, Tarza Siahmansur, Jan H Ho, Jonathan D Schofield, See Kwok, Matthew Gittins, Michael France, Naveed Younis, J Martin Gibson, Paul N Durrington, Martin K Rutter
BACKGROUND: Statin therapy is recommended in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) although views on treatment intensity and therapeutic targets remain divided. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to compare the effects of high-intensity and moderate-intensity atorvastatin treatment on lipoprotein metabolism and inflammatory markers and how frequently treatment goals are met in high-risk T2DM patients. METHODS: Patients with T2DM and albuminuria (urinary albumin:creatinine ratio >5 mg/mmol, total cholesterol <7 mmol/L, proteinuria <2 g/d, creatinine <200 μmol/L) were randomized to receive atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 59) or 80 mg (n = 60) daily...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Wenjun Ma, Qinglin Hu, Lei Diao, Youjin Cai, Jun Feng
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effects differences and partial mechanism for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP) among drug oil moxibustion, simple moxibustion, and conventional western medicine. METHODS: A total of 120 patients who met the criteria of inclusion were randomly assigned into a drug oil moxibustion group, a moxibustion group and a western medication group, 40 cases in each one. Moxibustion was used at Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongji (CV 3), Qihai (CV 6) and bilateral Yinlingquan (SP 9), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenshu (BL 23), Mingmen (GV 4), Pangguangshu (BL 28), Ciliao (BL 32), and Zhibian (BL 54), etc...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Hossein Barani, Aminoddin Haji, Homa Maleki
The keratin macromolecule in wool fiber may be found in α-helix or β-sheet conformations besides a disordered portion. The physical and chemical treatments may cause transformations between α-helix and β-sheet conformations. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lecithin treatment on the wool fiber using the micro-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Characteristic bands found in the FTIR spectra of wool fibers including the amide A, amide B and amide I-III, which are assigned to the peptide bonds of wool keratin and arise from the amide bonds that link the amino acids...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
A Riva, P Allegrini, F Franceschi, S Togni, L Giacomelli, R Eggenhoffner
Standard pharmacological treatment of musculoskeletal conditions is often associated with relevant side effects. Botanical preparations endowed with a good tolerability profile, therefore, could have a role in the management of these disorders. Among different natural products, Boswellia serrata extracts have long been used for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, given their marked anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to promote tissue regeneration. However, standard preparations of Boswellia serrata show overall modest pharmacokinetic properties, a limitation which may ultimately lead to reduced efficacy...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
John O Trimble, Bob Light
Transdermal compositions for hormone replacement are comprised of exogenous hormones that are biochemically similar to those produced endogenously by the ovaries or elsewhere in the body. In this work, estradiol, estriol, and testosterone were loaded in transdermal vehicles, prepared using one of three selected penetration enhancer mixtures: Vehicle 1 (olive oil and oleic acid), Vehicle 2 (isopropyl palmitate and lecithin), and Vehicle 3 (isopropyl myristate and lecithin). The influence of penetration enhancers on transdermal delivery was evaluated using Franz-type diffusion cells and Normal Human 3D Model of Epidermal Tissue...
November 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Irina N Gorshkova, Xiaohu Mei, David Atkinson
ApoA-I activates LCAT that converts lipoprotein cholesterol to cholesteryl ester (CE). Molecular dynamic simulations suggested earlier that helices 5 of two antiparallel apoA-I molecules on discoidal HDL form an amphipathic tunnel for migration of acyl chains and unesterified cholesterol to the active sites of LCAT. Our recent crystal structure of Δ(185-243)apoA-I showed the tunnel formed by helices 5/5, with two positively charged residues Arg123 positioned at the edge of the hydrophobic tunnel. We hypothesized that these uniquely positioned Arg123 are poised for interaction with fatty acids produced by LCAT hydrolysis of the sn2-chains of phosphatidylcholine thus positioning the fatty acids for esterification to cholesterol...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Ryoko Shimada, Kiyoshi Ebihara
We examined whether soybean (SB) and soy protein isolate (SPI) can prevent the betaine-induced elevation of plasma cholesterol as well as maintain the betaine-induced reduction of plasma Hcy concentration. Rats were fed casein-, SB-, or SPI-based diet with or without betaine; SPI-based diet with betaine containing soybean fiber (SF) or soy lecithin (SL) or the combination of SF and SL. Plasma Hcy concentration was decreased by feeding betaine to rats fed the casein-, SB-, and SPI-based diets. Betaine-induced elevation of plasma cholesterol was decreased by feeding the SB-based diet compared with the casein-based diet, but was not decreased by feeding the SPI-based diet...
December 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Nauman Khalid, Gaofeng Shu, Brenden J Holland, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Colin J Barrow
This study evaluates the effect of modified lecithin (ML) and sodium caseinate (SC) on the formulation, stability and bioaccessibility of astaxanthin (AXT) loaded oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions. These nanoemulsions were formulated using high-pressure homogenization in four passes at 100MPa. The volume mean diameter (d4,3) of nanoemulsions produced by ML and SC were 163±5 and 144±12 nm, respectively. The physiochemical stability of nanoemulsions was recorded at 25°C. The nanoemulsions prepared by ML were stable for 30 minutes against a wide range of pH and heating temperatures (60-120 °C)...
December 2017: Food Research International
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