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Sravan Kumar Pitta, Narendar Dudhipala, Arjun Narala, Kishan Veerabrahma
The aim was to prepare an optimized zolmitriptan (ZT) loaded transfersome formulation using Box-Behnken design for improving the bioavailability by nasal route for quick relief of migraine and further to compare with a marketed nasal spray. Here, three factors were evaluated at three levels. Independent variables include: amount of soya lecithin (X1), amount of drug (X2) and amount of tween 80 (X3). The dependent responses were vesicle size (Y1), flexibility index (Y2) and regression co-efficient of drug release kinetics (Y3)...
November 10, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Yoshinari Taguchi, Takanori Suzuki, Natsukaze Saito, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Masato Tanaka
The soft microcapsules containing Eucalyptus oil, Ubiquinone and the fine water droplets could be prepared with interfacial dehydration reaction between hydroxy methyl cellulose and tannic acid using the (W/O)/W emulsion. The diameters of the microcapsules and the content and the microencapsulation efficiency of the core materials were significantly affected by the revolution velocity (Nr1) to form the (W/O) emulsion and that (Nr2) to form the (W/O)/W emulsion and the lecithin concentration. The mean diameters of the inner water droplets and those of the microcapsules were proportional to Nr1(-1...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
L Borsatti, S L Vieira, C Stefanello, L Kindlein, E O Oviedo-Rondón, C R Angel
A study was conducted to determine the AMEn contents of fat by-products from the soybean oil industry for broiler chickens. A total of 390 slow-feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed into 13 treatments having 6 replicates of 5 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet from placement to 21 d. Experimental corn-soy diets were composed of four fat sources, added at 3 increasing levels each, and were fed from 21 to 28 d. Fat sources utilized were acidulated soybean soapstock (ASS), glycerol (GLY), lecithin (LEC), and a mixture (MIX) containing 85% ASS, 10% GLY and 5% LEC...
November 3, 2017: Poultry Science
Mohamed E I Badawy, Abdel-Fattah S A Saad, El-Sayed H M Tayeb, Sondos A Mohammed, Amany D Abd-Elnabi
Nanoemulsions are particularly suitable as a platform in the development of delivery systems for lipophilic functional agents. Current research describes the formation of oil-in-water (O/W) diazinon nanoemulsions using synthetic and natural additives by adopting a high-energy (ultrasound) emulsification method. The diazinon nanoemulsions were spontaneously formed by adding dropwise a mixture of diazinon, solvent and co-solvent in an aqueous solution containing a surfactant (tween or lecithin) with continuous stirring...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Arnau Vidal, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins of cereals worldwide, and its occurrence has been widely reported in raw wheat. The free mycotoxin form is not the only route of exposure; modified forms can also be present in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a common DON plant conjugate. The mycotoxin concentration could be affected by food processing; here, we studied the stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking of small doughs made from white wheat flour and other ingredients...
November 7, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Andrew B Matheson, Georgios Dalkas, Andrei Gromov, Stephen R Euston, Paul S Clegg
We demonstrate that by mixing the phytosterol-ester oryzanol with lecithin in an organic solvent, both components may be dispersed at much higher concentrations than they may be individually. Dynamic light scattering and molecular dynamics simulations show that the mechanism for this is the formation of r ∼ 4 nm mixed micelles. Infrared spectroscopy and simulations suggest that these micelles are formed due in part to hydrogen bonding of the phosphate of the lecithin head-group, and the phenol group of the oryzanol...
November 7, 2017: Food & Function
Vassilis I Zannis, Shi Su, Panagiotis Fotakis
In this review, we focus on the pathway of biogenesis of HDL, the essential role of apoA-I, ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the formation of plasma HDL; the generation of aberrant forms of HDL containing mutant apoA-I forms and the role of apoA-IV and apoE in the formation of distinct HDL subpopulations. The biogenesis of HDL requires functional interactions of the ABCA1 with apoA-I (and to a lesser extent with apoE and apoA-IV) and subsequent interactions of the nascent HDL species thus formed with LCAT...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
Qingwei Meng, Shishuai Sun, Yuecheng Sun, Jianan Li, Di Wu, Anshan Shan, Baoming Shi, Baojing Cheng
A 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lecithin and l-carnitine on fatty acid composition and lipid-metabolic genes expression in subcutaneous fat and longissimus thoracis of growing-finishing pigs. 160 barrows were assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates with 5 pigs in each. The total PUFA, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous fat were increased by lecithin but the effect of lecithin was dependent of l-carnitine where supplementation of lecithin together with l-carnitine decreased total PUFA, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3...
October 19, 2017: Meat Science
Andrew J Clulow, Albin Parrow, Adrian M Hawley, Jamal Khan, Anna Pham, Per Larsson, Christel A S Bergström, Ben J Boyd
The absorption of hydrophobic drugs and nutrients from the intestine is principally determined by the amount that can be dissolved by the endogenous fluids present in the gut. Human intestinal fluids (HIFs) comprise a complex mixture of bile salts, phospholipids, steroids and glycerides that vary in composition in the fed and fasted state and between subjects. A number of simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) compositions have been developed to mimic fasted and fed state intestinal conditions and allow the in vitro determination of drug solubility as a proxy for the maximum intestinal concentration possible to reach...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
A K Singh, A Kumar, M Honparkhe, S Kaur, H Kaur, Sps Ghuman, P S Brar
The objective of this study was to compare different extenders for post-thaw in vitro sperm function and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Accordingly, sperm of 30 ejaculates extended in egg yolk (TRIS with 20% egg yolk; EY), two soya lecithin-based (SL-1; AndroMed(®) and SL-2; Bioxcell(®) ) and a liposome-based extender (LS; OptiXcell(®) ) were tested. The post-thaw semen was evaluated for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), sperm viability, membrane and acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and acrosome reaction and first service pregnancy rate (FSPR) in a fixed-time artificial insemination programme...
October 28, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Bingqing Xu, Baiba K Gillard, Antonio M Gotto, Corina Rosales, Henry J Pownall
OBJECTIVE: Reverse cholesterol transport comprises cholesterol efflux from ABCA1-expressing macrophages to apolipoprotein (apo) AI, giving nascent high-density lipoprotein (nHDL), esterification of nHDL-free cholesterol (FC), selective hepatic extraction of HDL lipids, and hepatic conversion of HDL cholesterol to bile salts, which are excreted. We tested this model by identifying the fates of nHDL-[(3)H]FC, [(14)C] phospholipid (PL), and [(125)I]apo AI in serum in vitro and in vivo. APPROACH AND RESULTS: During in vitro incubation of human serum, nHDL-[(3)H]FC and [(14)C]PL rapidly transfer to HDL and low-density lipoproteins (t1/2=2-7 minutes), whereas nHDL-[(125)I]apo AI transfers solely to HDL (t1/2<10 minutes) and to the lipid-free form (t1/2>480 minutes)...
October 26, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
I F Della Mónica, M S Godoy, A M Godeas, J M Scervino
AIMS: The aim of this work is to analyse the effect of pH, fungal identity and P chemical nature on microbial development and phosphatase release, discussing solubilization and mineralization processes in P cycling. METHODS AND RESULTS: P solubilizing fungi (Talaromyces flavus, T. helicus L, T. helicus N, T. diversus and Penicillium purpurogenum) were grown under three pH conditions (6, 6.5 and 8.5) and with different inorganic (calcium, iron, aluminium, rock) and organic (lecithin, phytate) P sources...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Irene Rossi, Fabio Sonvico, Jason McConville, Francesca Rossi, Eleonore Fröhlich, Sarah Zellnitz, Alessandra Rossi, Elena Del Favero, Ruggero Bettini, Francesca Buttini
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant substance indicated as a dietary supplement which has been proposed as adjuvant in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and cancer for its protective and immunostimulating activities. The aim of this work was the production by high-pressure homogenization, characterization and stability investigation of three different CoQ10 nanosuspensions designed to be administered to the lungs by nebulization. Three surfactants, i.e. Lecithin, PEG32 Stearate and Vitamin-E TPGS, were selected to stabilize CoQ10 formulations...
October 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Akshata Mirajkar, Shashikant Nikam, Padmaja Nikam, Giridhar Patil
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a growing concern for health workers. The two major components of dyslipidemia in HIV infected patients are hypertriglyceridemia and decreased levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) which contribute to increased atherosclerotic risk. The study included 150 newly diagnosed HIV patients and 150 healthy controls. In all these cases Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activity was assessed by measuring the difference between esterified and free cholesterol by digitonin precipitation method and levels of Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) were measured by immunoturbidimetric method...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Angela Fabiano, Elisa Brilli, Stefano Fogli, Denise Beconcini, Sara Carpi, Germano Tarantino, Ylenia Zambito
This paper presents a comparative evaluation of different oral ferric iron formulations for ability to retain Fe(3+) in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), be internalized by cells lining intestinal epithelium, and cross it to reach the bloodstream. In all formulations iron was ferric pyrophosphate, the excipients were different types and fractions of lecithin plus sucrose esters of fatty acids matrix (Sideral® RM; PRT1; PRT2) or lecithin without sucrester (SUN). Dissolution kinetics of formulations in SGF was studied by USP method...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Takayasu Ideta, Yohei Shirakami, Masaya Ohnishi, Akinori Maruta, Koki Obara, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Hiroyuki Tomita, Takuji Tanaka, William S Blaner, Masahito Shimizu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease that can develop into a more serious form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although hepatic retinoid stores are progressively lost during the development of liver disease, how this affects steatohepatitis and its related hepatocarcinogenesis is unknown. In order to investigate these, we used subcutaneous injection of streptozotocin (0.2 mg/body) and high-fat diet to induce steatohepatitis and hepatic tumorigenesis in lecithin:retinol acyltransferase -deficient mice (n = 10), which lack stored retinoid in the liver, and control mice (n = 12)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Goo-Young Seo, Jeong-Min Lee, Young-Saeng Jang, Seung Goo Kang, Sung-Il Yoon, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Geun-Shik Lee, Seok-Rae Park, Cathryn R Nagler, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim
The present study extends an earlier report that retinoic acid (RA) down-regulates IgE Ab synthesis in vitro. Here, we show the suppressive activity of RA on IgE production in vivo and its underlying mechanisms. We found that RA down-regulated IgE class switching recombination (CSR) mainly through RA receptor α (RARα). Additionally, RA inhibited histone acetylation of germ-line ε (GL ε) promoter, leading to suppression of IgE CSR. Consistently, serum IgE levels were substantially elevated in vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice and this was more dramatic in VAD-lecithin:retinol acyltransferase deficient (LRAT(-/-)) mice...
October 3, 2017: Cellular Immunology
Henok D Belayneh, Randy L Wehling, Edgar Cahoon, Ozan N Ciftci
There is no information on the chemical composition of camelina seed lecithin; therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and emulsifying properties of lecithin recovered from camelina seed oil by water (WDCL) and enzymatic degumming (EDCL) using phospholipase A1 (PLA1). The lecithin obtained by both WDLC and EDLC was rich in phosphatidylinositol (PI), and contents were 37.8 and 25.2wt%, respectively. Lecithin recovered by enzymatic degumming contained more lysophospholipids compared to water degumming...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Le Sun, Bing Zhang, Jin Sun
This study intended to evaluate the effect of cyclodextrins on the apparent solubility and permeability of lipophilic drugs under physiological conditions and establish in silico model to choose the optimal amount of cyclodextrins for cyclodextrin-containing oral formulations. In order to study the effect of cyclodextrins under physiological conditions, bile salts and lecithin were added into the rat intestinal perfusion solution to simulate the fasted intestinal fluid. In addition, the in vivo oral absorption performances of cyclodextrin-containing formulations were simulated by gastrointestinal simulation technology based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model (ACAT)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kelly A Manthei, Joomi Ahn, Alisa Glukhova, Wenmin Yuan, Christopher Larkin, Taylor D Manett, Louise Chang, James A Shayman, Milton J Axley, Anna Schwendeman, John J G Tesmer
Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport by transferring an acyl group from phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol, promoting the maturation of high density lipoproteins (HDL) from discoidal to spherical particles. LCAT is activated through an unknown mechanism by apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and other mimetic peptides that form a belt around HDL. Here we report the crystal structure of LCAT with an extended lid that blocks access to the active site, consistent with an inactive conformation...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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