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Irina Tammenmaa-Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sandrina Lampis, Maura Carboni, Daniela Steri, Sergio Murgia, Maura Monduzzi
Lipid based formulations, endowed of long term stability as a result of the formation of lamellar liquid crystals, were prepared using the natural lipids lecithin and glycerol trioleate in water, and characterized using optical microscopy, SAXRD and NMR. The formulations, designed as possible carriers for lysozyme and caffeine, were evaluated for structural features and stability after the loading of the guest molecules. Release experiments were performed at 37 °C using the PBS medium. No burst release was observed either for lysozyme or caffeine...
March 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xue Li, Jun Cao, Xinpeng Bai, Zefang Jiang, Xuanri Shen
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFS) are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids which upon microencapsulation, can be used as a source of high quality lipids in infant formula. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the microencapsulation condition of HMFS as a functional product. The microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) of microencapsulated HMFS was investigated with respect to four variables including concentration of soy lecithin (A), ratio of demineralized whey powder to malt dextrin (B), HFMS concentration (C), and homogenizing pressure (D)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Zhao Dong, Haozhe Shi, Mingming Zhao, Xin Zhang, Wei Huang, Yuhui Wang, Lemin Zheng, Xunde Xian, George Liu
OBJECTIVE: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a pivotal role in HDL metabolism but its influence on atherosclerosis remains controversial for decades both in animal and clinical studies. Because lack of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a major difference between murine and humans in lipoprotein metabolism, we aimed to create a novel Syrian Golden hamster model deficient in LCAT activity, which expresses endogenous CETP, to explore its metabolic features and particularly the influence of LCAT on the development of atherosclerosis...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Yuntong Kou, Mike Halpenny, Heidi Elmoazzen, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of cord blood (CB) represents a safety risk for transplantation patients. CB sterility testing at Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank is performed using a 1:1 mix of CB-derived plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). Culture bottles of an automated culture system, which lack antimicrobial neutralization properties, are used for bacterial screening of CB. This process is unsuitable for CB-containing antibiotics, potentially resulting in false-negative results...
March 7, 2018: Transfusion
Laura Falchi, Grazia Galleri, Gian Mario Dore, Maria Teresa Zedda, Salvatore Pau, Luisa Bogliolo, Federica Ariu, Alessandra Pinna, Stefano Nieddu, Plinio Innocenzi, Sergio Ledda
BACKGROUND: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are able to store and release oxygen, conferring them scavenger activity against oxidative stress. However, their effects in reproductive systems are not yet well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of exposure of refrigerated ram semen to CeO2 NPs for 96 h on the main structural and kinematic parameters of spermatozoa. METHODS: The ejaculates of 5 Sarda rams were collected, pooled and diluted in a soybean lecithin extender...
March 6, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Zahra H Mohammad, Amer A Hasan, Chris R Kerth, David G Riley, T Matthew Taylor
Sanitizer neutralizers can assist foodborne pathogen detection during routine testing by counteracting sanitizer residues carried over into fluids collected and tested from food samples. This study tested sanitizer-matched neutralizers applied at increasing concentrations to facilitate Salmonella enterica survival following exposure to cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or peracetic acid (PAA), identifying minimum required concentrations of neutralizers to facilitate pathogen survival. Salmonella isolates were individually inoculated into a non-selective medium followed immediately by CPC (0...
March 3, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Tugce Senturk Parreidt, Michael Schott, Markus Schmid, Kajetan Müller
Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0-3.5%, w / w ), plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0-20%, w / w ), surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0-5%, w / w ), and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0-5%, w / w ) were used to prepare edible coating solutions...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paula K Okuro, Iris Tavernier, Mohd D Bin Sintang, Andre G Skirtach, António A Vicente, Koen Dewettinck, Rosiane L Cunha
In this study, the effect of lecithin (LEC) on the crystallization and gelation of fruit wax (FW) with sunflower oil was researched. A synergistic effect on the gel strength was observed at FW : LEC ratios of 75 : 25 and 50 : 50, compared to the corresponding single component formulations (100 : 0 and 0 : 100). Even below the critical gelling concentration (Cg ) of FW, the addition of lecithin enabled gel formation. Lecithin affected the thermal behavior of the structure by delaying both crystallization and gel formation...
March 6, 2018: Food & Function
Aric J Schultz, Vern B Carruthers
Egress is a crucial phase of the Toxoplasma gondii intracellular lytic cycle. This is a process that drives inflammation and is strongly associated with the pathogenesis observed during toxoplasmosis. Despite the link between this process and virulence, little is known about egress on a mechanistic or descriptive level. Previously published work has suggested that a phospholipase, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), secreted from the parasite's dense granules contributes to parasite growth, virulence, and egress...
January 2018: MSphere
Fouad Affane, Sabrine Louala, Nour El Imane Harrat, Fatima Bensalah, Hadjera Chekkal, Amine Allaoui, Myriem Lamri-Senhadji
AIMS: Fish by-products valorization on account of their richness in bioactive compounds may represent a better alternative to marine products with a view to economic profitability and sustainable development. In this study, we compared the effect of sardine by-product proteins (SBy-P), with those of the fillets (SF-P) or casein (Cas), on growth parameters, serum leptin level, lipids disorders, lipid peroxidation and reverse cholesterol transport, in diet-induced obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Obesity was induced by feeding rats a high-fat diet (20% sheep fat), during 12 weeks...
March 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Solomon Oladapo Rotimi, Isaacson Bababode Adelani, Goodness Esther Bankole, Oluwakemi Anuoluwapo Rotimi
Naringin, a citrus-derived flavonoid with antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties, is reported to be a useful nutraceutical in the management of diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the mechanism of antiatherogenic properties of naringin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using high fat-low streptozocin rat model of T2DM. Rats were treated daily with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg naringin orally for 21days. Levels of biomarkers of T2DM, lipid profile and activity of paraoxonase (PON) were assayed spectrophotometrically...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Efrem N Tessema, Tsige Gebre-Mariam, Getahun Paulos, Johannes Wohlrab, Reinhard H H Neubert
Deficiency or altered composition of stratum corneum (SC) lipids such as ceramides (CERs), causing skin barrier dysfunction and skin dryness, have been associated with skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, and ageing. Replenishing the depleted native CERs with exogenous CERs has also been shown to have beneficial effects in restoring the skin barrier. Phyto-derived CERs such as oat CERs were shown to be potential for skin barrier reinforcement. To effect this, however, the oat CERs should overcome the SC barrier and delivered deep into the lipid matrix using the various novel formulations...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Venkatraman Sriramavaratharajan, Ramar Murugan
In the present study, antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities of nanoemulsions of the leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum litseifolium Thwaites collected from two different locations in the Western Ghats namely, Kannikatty, Kalakad Mundandurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu (Cl1 ) and Karamanayar, Agasthyamalai hills, Kerala (Cl2 ), India were studied. Essential oils were extracted from the leaves and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS. Slight variation in the composition of leaf essential oils was observed. Essential oil based nanoemulsions were prepared using a surfactant (Tween-80), co-surfactant (propylene glycol) and an emulsifier (lecithin) by homogenization followed by ultra-sonication...
March 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Concetta Di Natale, Alessandra Monaco, Carlo Pedone, Alessandro Tessitore, Antonio De Mase, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Paolo Antonio Netti, Paolo Abrescia
24-hydroxycholesterol (24OH-C) is synthesized almost exclusively in neurons. This oxysterol is mostly present as ester form in both cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase esterifies 24OH-C in the brain, and the level of 24OH-C esters in cerebrospinal fluid was found to be correlated with the level of 24OH-C esters in plasma. Decreased levels of 24OH-C esters levels were previously found in Alzheimer's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. This finding was attributed to the inhibitory effect of oxidative stress on lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in neurodegenerative conditions...
February 24, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Hai-Xia Lin, Ming-Sheng Yang, Chao Tian, Chun-Rui Han, Jie Song, Jiu-Fang Duan, Jian-Xin Jiang
A novel rosin-based ester tertiary amine (RETA) with three hydrophilic groups and a rigid hydrophobic group was synthesized from rosin by Diels-Alder addition, acylation and esterification reactions. RETA was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13 C NMR). Results from testing surface tension, zeta potential, and transmission electron spectroscopy showed that RETA had unique pH responsiveness. RETA self-assembled into worm-like micelles, spherical micelles 130 nm in diameter and big spherical worm-like aggregates with diameter of 2 μm at pH = 5...
January 31, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Corina L Reichert, Hanna Salminen, Gabriela Badolato Bönisch, Christian Schäfer, Jochen Weiss
HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the emulsifying properties of mixed surfactant systems of Quillaja saponins and food-grade co-surfactants (Na-caseinate, pea protein, rapeseed lecithin, and egg lecithin). We hypothesized to these mixtures may build mixed adsorption layers and thus enhance emulsion stabilization. EXPERIMENTS: Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, pH 7) were prepared with different concentrations of co-surfactants (0.1-5.0%) alone or mixed with Quillaja saponins (0...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Leqi Cui, Jing Fan, Yifei Sun, Zhenbao Zhu, Jianhua Yi
Salts reduction/substitution have gained a lot interest from food industry since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a draft guidance for salt reduction. However how changes of salts in food formulation could influence lipid oxidation is still not fully understood. Using oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by a natural emulsifier - lecithin at pH 7.0 as a model system, this study evaluated how salts affect the physical parameters of the emulsion, the chelating activity of lecithin and thus the lipid oxidation of these emulsions...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Chia-En Chang, Chien-Ming Hsieh, Ling-Chun Chen, Chia-Yu Su, Der-Zen Liu, Hua-Jing Jhan, Hsiu-O Ho, Ming-Thau Sheu
The synergistic combination of docetaxel (DTX) and cisplatin (CIS) by local drug delivery with a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) to facilitate high drug concentrations at tumor sites and less nonspecific distribution to normal organs is thought to be beneficial in chemotherapy. In this study, using Capryol-90 (C90) with the addition of lecithin as the oil phase was developed to carry DTX, which was then incorporated into a PLO-containing CIS to formulate a dual-drug injectable PLO for local delivery. An optimal PLO composite, P13 L0...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Songqi Gao, Shirin Kahremany, Jianye Zhang, Beata Jastrzebska, Janice Querubin, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Krzysztof Palczewski
The retinoid (visual) cycle consists of a series of biochemical reactions needed to regenerate the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal and sustain vision. Genetic or environmental factors affecting chromophore production can lead to blindness. Using animal models that mimic human retinal diseases, we previously demonstrated that mechanism-based pharmacological interventions can maintain vision in otherwise incurable genetic diseases of the retina. Here, we report that after 9-cis-retinal administration to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-deficient (Lrat-/-) mice, the drug was rapidly absorbed and then cleared within 1-2 h...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
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