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Céline M Gossner, Joana M Haussig, Chiara de Bellegarde de Saint Lary, Kaja Kaasik Aaslav, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Bertrand Sudre
Since December 2016, Brazil has faced a large outbreak of yellow fever with ca 1,500 confirmed human cases. In the first 2 months of 2018, Brazil reported almost as many cases as in 2017 as a whole. In these 2 months, five imported cases were reported among unvaccinated European travellers. Three had travelled to Ilha Grande, a popular destination among European tourists. Physicians and European travellers visiting Brazil should follow yellow fever vaccination recommendations.
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Gislene Mitsue Namiyama, Gabriela Bastos Cabral, João Leandro Ferreira, Noemi Taniwaki, Ana Maria Sardinha Afonso, Isabella Rillo Lima, Luís Fernando Macedo de Brigido
A great variety of viruses which cause exanthema share other clinical manifestations, making the etiologic identification a very difficult task, relying exclusively on the clinical examination. Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In the present report, we described the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) particles in urine samples and also ZIKV isolation in SIRC cells from the urine of a patient in acute phase of suspected rubella disease...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
A P Ortiz, G Tortolero-Luna, J Romaguera, C M Pérez, D González, C Muñoz, L González, E Marrero, E Suárez, J M Palesfky, G Panicker, E R Unger
BACKGROUND: To understand risk factors for HPV exposure in Puerto Rican women, we evaluated HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 serology in women aged living in the San Juan metropolitan area. METHODS: As part of a cross-sectional study, a population-based sample of 524 HPV unvaccinated Hispanic women ages 16-64 years completed face-to-face and computer assisted interviews and provided blood and self-collected anal and cervical specimens. Serology used multiplex virus-like particle based-IgG ELISA and HPV DNA was detected with L1-consensus PCR...
March 16, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Víctor-Guillermo Sequera, Marisa Mena, Malen Hollmann, Estefani Mani, Viviana Ramas, Sylvia Bonilla, Alicia Guerra, Fernando Borgia
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) among a high-risk group of HPV-unvaccinated women in Montevideo. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographics, sexual behavior and gynecological history and received a gynecological examination. HPV DNA was detected by PCR using MY09/11 primers. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with high-risk HPV infection and HSIL...
March 16, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Jemma L Walker, Nick J Andrews, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Harriet Forbes, Sinead M Langan, Sara L Thomas
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against herpes zoster was introduced in the United Kingdom in 2013 for individuals aged 70 years, with a phased catch-up campaign for 71-79 year olds. Vaccine introduction has resulted in a marked fall in incident herpes zoster and in post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), but formal evaluation of vaccine effectiveness is needed. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study of older individuals born between 1933 and 1946, we used linked UK anonymised primary care health records for the first three years of the vaccination programme (01/09/2013-31/08/2016) and multivariable Poisson regression to obtain incidence rates and vaccine effectiveness (VE) against zoster and PHN...
March 16, 2018: Vaccine
Joan Torres Puig-Gros, Rosa Mar Alzuria Alós
OBJECTIVE: Sometimes and when a registry is not available, influenza vaccination (IV) is based on vaccination records reported by citizens. When the opportunity of comparing both information sources exists, sometimes, discrepancies between both have been observed. The objectives of this study are: to know the IV coverage in pregnant women (both referred and recorded in the clinical history), to determine the concordance between both sources of information and to quantify the lost opportunities of IV due to errors in verbalization...
March 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Tanaz Petigara, Dongmu Zhang
INTRODUCTION: This study examined pneumococcal vaccine coverage in adults aged 19-64 years newly diagnosed with diabetes, chronic heart, lung, or liver disease. These conditions are indicated for pneumococcal vaccination by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in 2016 using the Truven Health MarketScan® database. The study population was adults aged 19-64 years with at least one new chronic condition during 2009-2013 and continuous health plan enrolment for 2 years before and 1 year after the initial diagnosis...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Smita Joshi, Richard Muwonge, Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy, Partha Basu, Priya Prabhu, Neerja Bhatla, Bhagwan M Nene, Janmesh Shaw, Usha Rani Reddy Poli, Yogesh Verma, Eric Zomawia, Sharmila Pimple, Massimo Tommasino, Michael Pawlita, Tarik Gheit, Tim Waterboer, Peter Sehr, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a major strategy for preventing cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Worldwide HPV vaccination introduction and coverage will be facilitated if a single dose of vaccine is as effective as two or three doses or demonstrates significant protective effect compared to 'no vaccination'. METHODS: In a multi-centre cluster randomized trial of two vs three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccination (GARDASIL©) in India, suspension of the vaccination due to events unrelated to the study led to per protocol and partial vaccination of unmarried 10-18 year old girls leading to four study groups, two by design and two by default...
March 15, 2018: Vaccine
Michaela K Nichols, Melissa K Andrew, Todd F Hatchette, Ardith Ambrose, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Ayman Chit, Gael Dos Santos, May ElSherif, Karen Green, Francois Haguinet, Scott A Halperin, Barbara Ibarguchi, Jennie Johnstone, Kevin Katz, Phillipe Lagacé-Wiens, Joanne M Langley, Jason LeBlanc, Mark Loeb, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Anne McCarthy, Janet E McElhaney, Allison McGeer, Andre Poirier, Jeff Powis, David Richardson, Anne Schuind, Makeda Semret, Vivek Shinde, Stephanie Smith, Daniel Smyth, Grant Stiver, Geoffrey Taylor, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Lingyun Ye, Shelly A McNeil
BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Tiantian Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Xingui Tian, Wenkuan Liu, Duo Xu, Ye Fan, Jiayi Liao, Shujun Gu, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Human adenoviruses types 3 (HAdV-3), 7 (HAdV-7) and 55 (HAdV-55) are major pathogens of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children and adults. More than one type of HAdV can infect patients simultaneously, and the infections are sometimes fatal. However, there is currently no vaccine approved for general use in children and adults. Thus, development of a multivalent HAdV vaccine to combat HAdV infection becomes imperative. In this study, we constructed a new recombinant trivalent human adenovirus vaccine (rAdMHE3-h55), which expresses the hexon protein of HAdV-55 in the E3 region of rAdMHE3, a previously prepared bivalent vaccine candidate against HAdV-3 and HAdV-7...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Jiwoon Jeong, Seeun Kim, Changhoon Park, Ikjae Kang, Kee Hwan Park, Hee Jin Ham, Chanhee Chae
The objective of this field study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of sows after vaccination with a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) subunit vaccine (PRRSFREE PRRS subunit vaccine, Reber Genetics, Taiwan, Republic of China) under field conditions. The study was performed in three farms with endemic infections with both PRRS virus (PRRSV)-1 and PRRSV-2, a situation representative of most Korean farms. Pregnant sows were immunised intramuscularly with 2.0 ml of the PRRS subunit vaccine at 58 and 79 days of gestation (eight and five weeks antepartum) according to the manufacturer's recommendation...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
Shelly Popowich, Ashish Gupta, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Lisanework Ayalew, Neil Ambrose, Davor Ojkic, Thushari Gunawardana, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Philip Willson, Suresh K Tikoo, Susantha Gomis
Historically, fowl adenovirus (FAdV) associated inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was considered a secondary disease in broiler chickens associated with immunosuppression. However, we previously reported the occurrence of IBH as a primary disease in the broiler chicken industry in Canada as a result of infections with various FAdV serotypes. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop an immunization strategy in broiler breeders using live FAdV 11-1047 and FAdV8a-TR59 to confer homologous and heterologous protection in broiler progeny against IBH and to study the efficacy of natural exposure of naïve broiler breeders to a vaccine virus from live FAdV vaccinated birds as an immunization technique...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Joan Torres Puig-Gros, Rosa Mar Alzuria Alós
OBJECTIVE: Sometimes and when a registry is not available, influenza vaccination (IV) is based on vaccination records reported by citizens. When the opportunity of comparing both information sources exists, sometimes, discrepancies between both have been observed. The objectives of this study are: to know the IV coverage in pregnant women (both referred and recorded in the clinical history), to determine the concordance between both sources of information and to quantify the lost opportunities of IV due to errors in verbalization...
March 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
J Jeong, I Kang, S Kim, S-J Park, K H Park, T Oh, S Yang, C Chae
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a commercially available porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-1 modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine against PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 challenge in late-term pregnancy gilts. Gilts were vaccinated with the PRRSV-1 MLV vaccine at 4 weeks prior to breeding and then challenged intranasally with PRRSV-1 or PRRSV-2 at 93 days of gestation. After PRRSV-1 challenge, vaccinated pregnant gilts had a significantly longer gestation period, significantly higher numbers of live-born and weaned piglets and a significantly lower number of stillborn piglets at birth compared to unvaccinated pregnant gilts...
March 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Matthew Graham, Jonathan E Suk, Saki Takahashi, C Jessica Metcalf, Adela Paez Jimenez, Vladimir Prikazsky, Matthew J Ferrari, Justin Lessler
We report on and evaluate the process and findings of a real-time modeling exercise in response to an outbreak of measles in Lola prefecture, Guinea, in early 2015 in the wake of the Ebola crisis. Multiple statistical methods for the estimation of the size of the susceptible (i.e., unvaccinated) population were applied to weekly reported measles case data on seven subprefectures throughout Lola. Stochastic compartmental models were used to project future measles incidence in each subprefecture in both an initial and a follow-up iteration of forecasting...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Arto A Palmu, Kari Auranen, J Pekka Nuorti, Maija Toropainen, Lotta Siira, Mikko J Virtanen, Hanna Nohynek, Jukka Jokinen
BACKGROUND: The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Programme (NVP) in September 2010. The impact of PCV10 vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in vaccine-eligible children has been high. We evaluated the long-term impact of PCV10 vaccination against IPD in vaccine-eligible and older, unvaccinated children six years after PCV10 introduction with a special focus on cross-protection against PCV10-related serotypes (serotypes in the same serogroups as the PCV10 types)...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
Gaetano Brindicci, Danilo Carboni, Roberto Genga, Eleonora Moschini, Giulia Montorzi, Felicetta Viscogliosi, Giovanni Muratori, Gabriele Ripanti
Pertussis is a contagious, infectious disease that affects mainly children and is caused by Bordetella pertussis. The pertussis vaccine has changed the epidemiology of the disease up to the point when it almost vanished, with a minimum number of cases recorded in Italy (2008) when vaccination coverage was 97%. For the same reason the natural history of the disease was also modified. Indeed, in high-income countries the lack of immunity acquired with the vaccine causes adolescents and adults to become an important source of infection for unvaccinated subjects, the newborn and children who have not completed their primary education...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Javier Fernández Cotrina, Virginia Iniesta, Isabel Monroy, Victoria Baz, Christophe Hugnet, Francisco Marañon, Mercedes Fabra, Luis Carlos Gómez-Nieto, Carlos Alonso
Canine leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. Extensive research is currently ongoing to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect from disease development. The European Commission has granted a marketing authorization for LetiFend®, a new vaccine containing recombinant Protein Q. The efficacy of LetiFend® vaccination in a large-scale dog population of both sexes, different breeds and ages in endemic areas is reported in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled field trial...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Sharon Rikin, Haomiao Jia, Celibell Y Vargas, Yaritza Castellanos de Belliard, Carrie Reed, Philip LaRussa, Elaine L Larson, Lisa Saiman, Melissa S Stockwell
BACKGROUND: A barrier to influenza vaccination is the misperception that the inactivated vaccine can cause influenza. Previous studies have investigated the risk of acute respiratory illness (ARI) after influenza vaccination with conflicting results. We assessed whether there is an increased rate of laboratory-confirmed ARI in post-influenza vaccination periods. METHODS: We conducted a cohort sub-analysis of children and adults in the MoSAIC community surveillance study from 2013 to 2016...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Simon Perrett, Sandrine Lesellier, Fiona Rogers, Gareth A Williams, Sonya Gowtage, Si Palmer, Deanna Dalley, Dipesh Davé, Ute Weyer, Emma Wood, Francisco J Salguero, Alex Nunez, Nick Reed, Mark A Chambers
European badgers (Meles meles) are a wildlife reservoir for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in parts of England, Wales and Ireland, constituting a potential source of tuberculosis (TB) infection for cattle. Vaccination of badgers against TB is one of the tools available for helping reduce the prevalence of bovine TB in badgers, made possible by the licensing in 2010 of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for intramuscular administration to badgers (BadgerBCG). However, practical limitations associated with administering an injected vaccine to wild animals make an oral, bait-delivered form of the vaccine highly desirable...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
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