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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910264/vaccination-against-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-reduces-bronchus-associated-lymphoid-tissue-formation-in-cynomolgus-macaques-after-intranasal-virus-challenge-infection
#1
Misako Nakayama, Hiroichi Ozaki, Yasushi Itoh, Kosuke Soda, Hirohito Ishigaki, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Chun-Ho Park, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
H9N2 avian influenza virus causes sporadic human infection. Since humans do not possess acquired immunity specific to this virus, we examined the pathogenicity of an H9N2 virus isolated from a human and then analyzed protective effects of a vaccine in cynomolgus macaques. After intranasal challenge with A/Hong Kong/1073/1999 (H9N2) (HK1073) isolated from a human patient, viruses were isolated from nasal and tracheal swabs in unvaccinated macaques with mild fever and body weight loss. A formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine derived from our virus library was subcutaneously inoculated to macaques...
December 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902980/gene-expression-profiling-and-functional-characterization-of-macrophages-in-response-to-circulatory-microparticles-produced-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-and-chagas-disease
#2
Imran H Chowdhury, Sue-Jie Koo, Shivali Gupta, Lisa Yi Liang, Bojlul Bahar, Laura Silla, Julio Nuñez-Burgos, Natalia Barrientos, Maria Paola Zago, Nisha Jain Garg
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM). In this study, we determined if microparticles (MPs) generated during Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection carry the host's signature of the inflammatory/oxidative state and provide information regarding the progression of clinical disease. METHODS: MPs were harvested from supernatants of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro incubated with Tc (control: LPS treated), plasma of seropositive humans with a clinically asymptomatic (CA) or symptomatic (CS) disease state (vs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-laiv-across-different-vaccination-doses
#3
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierska, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than ten years. As pre-existing CD8+ T-cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different LAIV regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898899/fever-feeding-and-grooming-behavior-around-peak-clinical-signs-in-bovine-respiratory-disease
#4
R L Toaff-Rosenstein, L J Gershwin, C B Tucker
Feedlot cattle are monitored for the sickness response, both physiological and behavioral, to detect bovine respiratory disease (BRD), but this method can be inaccurate. Diagnostic accuracy may improve if the BRD sickness response is better understood. We hypothesized that steers around peak BRD would have fever, anorexia, and less grooming than controls. We also expected sickness response magnitude to be greater as clinical and pathological severity increased. Unvaccinated steers were assigned to challenge with 1 of 5 BRD viruses or bacteria (BRD challenge; = 4/pathogen; 20 total), based on susceptibility as determined by serology...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897990/how-to-meet-the-last-oie-expert-surveillance-panel-recommendations-on-equine-influenza-ei-vaccine-composition-a-review-of-the-process-required-for-the-recombinant-canarypox-based-ei-vaccine
#5
REVIEW
Romain Paillot, Nicola L Rash, Dion Garrett, Leah Prowse-Davis, Fernando Montesso, Ann Cullinane, Laurent Lemaitre, Jean-Christophe Thibault, Sonia Wittreck, Agnes Dancer
Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule...
November 25, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894861/development-of-a-competitive-double-antibody-lateral-flow-assay-for-the-detection-of-antibodies-specific-to-glycoprotein-b-of-aujeszky-s-disease-virus-in-swine-sera
#6
V V Vrublevskaya, V N Afanasyev, A A Grinevich, Yu Y Skarga, P P Gladyshev, S A Ibragimova, D V Krylsky, O S Morenkov
Three lateral flow assays (LFAs) for the detection of antibodies against glycoprotein B (gB) of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in swine sera: a competitive double antibody sandwich LFA without a preincubation step (CDAS-gB-LFA), a CDAS-gB-LFA with a preincubation step (pCDAS-gB-LFA), and a competitive direct gB-LFA have been developed and were compared with each other and with a gB-ELISA. The assays are based on monoclonal antibodies to immunodominant epitopes of ADV gB. The pCDAS-gB-LFA proved to be the most specific and sensitive assay to detect antibodies directed to ADV gB...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893898/association-between-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccination-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-morbidity-in-offspring
#7
Anders Hviid, Henrik Svanström, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Philipp Lambach
Importance: Several studies investigating potential adverse effects of the pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine have supported that influenza A(H1N1) vaccination does not increase the risk for major pregnancy and birth adverse outcomes, but little is known about possible adverse effects in offspring of A(H1N1)-vaccinated mothers beyond the perinatal period and into early childhood. Objective: To evaluate whether pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy increases the risk for early childhood morbidity in offspring...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893896/association-between-influenza-infection-and-vaccination-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Ousseny Zerbo, Yinge Qian, Cathleen Yoshida, Bruce H Fireman, Nicola P Klein, Lisa A Croen
Importance: Maternal infections and fever during pregnancy are associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association between influenza vaccination during pregnancy and ASD. Objective: To investigate the association between influenza infection and vaccination during pregnancy and ASD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 196 929 children born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010, at a gestational age of at least 24 weeks...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893866/ecology-and-demography-of-free-roaming-domestic-dogs-in-rural-villages-near-serengeti-national-park-in-tanzania
#9
Anna M Czupryna, Joel S Brown, Machunde A Bigambo, Christopher J Whelan, Supriya D Mehta, Rachel M Santymire, Felix J Lankester, Lisa J Faust
Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893793/field-trial-of-an-aerially-distributed-tuberculosis-vaccine-in-a-low-density-wildlife-population-of-brushtail-possums-trichosurus-vulpecula
#10
Graham Nugent, Ivor J Yockney, E Jackie Whitford, Martin L Cross, Frank E Aldwell, Bryce M Buddle
Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB) when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (<0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891698/vaccination-and-unexplained-sudden-death-risk-in-taiwanese-infants
#11
Wan-Ting Huang, Robert T Chen, Yu-Chen Hsu, John W Glasser, Philip H Rhodes
PURPOSE: In March 1992, eight infants who had died within 36 hours of receiving whole-cell pertussis vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis [DTwP]) prompted the Taiwan health authorities to suspend its use. We conducted an investigation of vaccination and sudden unexplained infant death (SUID) and repeated it more recently after Taiwan switched to acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis [DTaP]) in 2010. METHODS: All SUIDs aged 31-364 days during 1990-1992 and 1996-2013 were selected from the death registration databases...
November 28, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890397/a-general-measles-vaccination-campaign-in-urban-guinea-bissau-comparing-child-mortality-among-participants-and-non-participants
#12
S Byberg, S M Thysen, A Rodrigues, C Martins, C Cabral, M Careme, P Aaby, C S Benn, A B Fisker
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9-59months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissau city for children who received campaign measles vaccine with children who did not receive campaign measles vaccine. METHODS: Field workers from Bandim Health Project registered all children living in the Bandim Health Project's study area who received measles vaccination at the campaign posts...
November 24, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886031/pertussis-in-north-central-and-northwestern-regions-of-algeria
#13
Nabila Benamrouche, Hassiba Tali Maamar, Malika Lazri, Sonia Hasnaoui, Abdelkarim Radoui, Ourida Lafer, Rachida Boukari, Chawki Kaddache, Zakia Arrada, Kheira Rahal
INTRODUCTION: Pertussis outbreaks continue to occur in many countries despite high vaccination coverage. Under-diagnosed cases in adolescents and adults may result in increased transmission to infants, who are at risk of severe pertussis. Additional measures to protect both groups should be considered. METHODOLOGY: Nasopharyngeal samples and sera were collected from patients and household contacts with clinically suspected pertussis. Diagnoses were confirmed by culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871292/ability-of-elisas-to-detect-antibodies-against-porcine-respiratory-and-reproductive-syndrome-virus-in-serum-of-pigs-after-inactivated-vaccination-and-subsequent-challenge
#14
Tatjana Sattler, Jutta Pikalo, Eveline Wodak, Friedrich Schmoll
BACKGROUND: In this study, six enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), intended for routine porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) herd monitoring, are tested for their ability to detect PRRSV specific antibodies in the serum of pigs after vaccination with an inactivated PRRSV type 1 vaccine and subsequent infection with a highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV field strain. For this reason, ten piglets (group V) from a PRRSV negative herd were vaccinated twice at the age of 2 and 4 weeks with an inactivated PRRSV vaccine...
November 21, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871262/determinants-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-pregnant-women-in-valencia-spain
#15
R Vila-Candel, P Navarro-Illana, E Navarro-Illana, E Castro-Sánchez, Kiri Duke, F J Soriano-Vidal, J Tuells, J Díez-Domingo
BACKGROUND: In most countries the coverage of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women is low. We investigated the acceptance, reasons for rejection and professional involvement related to vaccine information in pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. METHODS: Observational retrospective study in 200 pregnant women, 100 vaccinated and 100 unvaccinated, were interviewed during the 2014/2015 vaccination campaign. Electronic medical records, immunization registry and telephone interviews were used to determine reasons for vaccination and immunization rejection...
November 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870812/does-breastfeeding-protect-young-infants-from-pertussis-case-control-study-and-immunologic-evaluation
#16
Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Emanuela Carloni, Alberto Villani, Fabio Midulla, Rita Carsetti, Paola Stefanelli, Giorgio Fedele, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. METHODS: Hospitalized infants < 6 months with positive RT-PCR for pertussis on nasopharyngeal aspirate were enrolled as cases; healthy controls were enrolled among patients admitted for ultrasound screening. Vaccinated infants were excluded. Sociodemographic, clinical and feeding information were collected...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869924/yellow-fever-outbreaks-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-2000-2010
#17
Leila Del Castillo Saad, Rita Barradas Barata
OBJECTIVE: to describe yellow fever occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2000-2010. METHODS: this was a descriptive study using data regarding human cases, epizootics in non-human primates and virus vector isolation in São Paulo State, between 2000 and 2010. RESULTS: three sylvatic yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the state with 32 human cases and 15 deaths; the cases occurred in unvaccinated individuals exposed to the sylvatic form of transmission; epizootics was confirmed before the virus began circulating in humans in the region of São José do Rio Preto and the virus was isolated twice in vectors...
July 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865390/alternative-bcg-delivery-strategies-improve-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-non-human-primates-protection-associated-with-mycobacterial-antigen-specific-cd4-effector-memory-t-cell-populations
#18
S Sharpe, A White, C Sarfas, L Sibley, F Gleeson, A McIntyre, R Basaraba, S Clark, G Hall, E Rayner, A Williams, P D Marsh, M Dennis
Intradermal (ID) BCG injection provides incomplete protection against TB in humans and experimental models. Alternative BCG vaccination strategies may improve protection in model species, including rhesus macaques. This study compares the immunogenicity and efficacy of BCG administered by ID and intravenous (IV) injection, or as an intratracheal mucosal boost (ID + IT), against aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman strain. Disease pathology was significantly reduced, and survival improved, by each BCG vaccination strategy, relative to unvaccinated animals...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864157/the-effect-of-feed-based-vaccination-on-tilapia-farm-endemic-for-streptococcosis
#19
M S Ismail, M R Syafiq, A Siti-Zahrah, S Fahmi, H Shahidan, Y Hanan, M N A Amal, M Zamri Saad
A tilapia farm experiencing endemic streptococcosis was selected to study the effect of vaccination with a feed-based vaccine on naturally ocurring streptococcosis. A total of 9000 red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus of 100 ± 20 g were divided into 9 cages. Fish of Group 1 in cages 1, 2 and 3 were not vaccinated. Group 2 in cages 4, 5 and 6 were vaccinated on days 0 and 14 (single booster) while Group 3 in cages 7, 8 and 9 were vaccinated on days 0, 14 and 42 (double booster)...
November 15, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861618/meningococcal-carriage-among-adolescents-after-mass-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination-campaigns-in-salvador-brazil
#20
Amélia Maria Pithon Borges Nunes, Guilherme Sousa Ribeiro, Ítalo Eustáquio Ferreira, Ana Rafaela Silva Simões Moura, Ridalva Dias Martins Felzemburgh, Ana Paula Silva de Lemos, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, José Cassio de Moraes, Leila Carvalho Campos
Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal bacterium of the human nasopharynx. In rare cases, it penetrates the mucosa, entering the blood stream and causing various forms of disease. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent invasive disease not only by direct effect in vaccinated individuals but also by herd protection, preventing acquisition of carriage, which interrupts transmission and leads to protection of unvaccinated persons. In 2010 in Salvador, Brazil, an outbreak of group C meningococcal disease led to a mass meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination drive, targeting those <5 and 10-24 years of age...
2016: PloS One
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