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Fibrosis and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719911/dissecting-survival-pathways-in-lung-cancer-fibrosis-and-emphysema-the-four-horses-of-the-apocalypse
#1
Argyris Tzouvelekis, Vasilios Tzilas, Spyridon Papiris, Demosthenes Bouros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711432/inactivated-orf-virus-shows-disease-modifying-antiviral-activity-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-genital-herpesvirus-infection
#2
Astrid Friebe, Angela Siegling, Olaf Weber
BACKGROUND: Inactivated Orf virus (iORFV) has been used as a preventative as well as a therapeutic immunomodulator in veterinary medicine in different species. iORFV elicits strong effects on cytokine secretion in mice and human immune cells leading to an auto-regulated loop of initial up-regulation of inflammatory and Th1-related cytokines followed by Th2-related cytokines that attenuate immunopathology. The therapeutic potential of iORFV has been recognized in several models for difficult-to-treat disease areas such as chronic viral diseases, liver fibrosis or various forms of cancer...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710886/the-cellular-and-molecular-mechanism-of-radiation-induced-lung-injury
#3
Yijuan Huang, Weiqiang Zhang, Fangrong Yu, Fu Gao
The lung is one of several moderately radiosensitive organs. Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), including acute radiation pneumonitis and chronic radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, occurs most often in radiotherapy of lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and other thoracic cancers. Clinical symptoms of RILI include dry cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, and even severe respiratory failure and death. The occurrence of RILI is a complex process that includes a variety of cellular and molecular interactions which ultimately leads to large fibroblast accumulation, proliferation, and differentiation, resulting in excessive extracellular matrix deposits, causing pulmonary fibrosis...
July 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709936/effects-of-klotho-on-fibrosis-and-cancer-a-renal-focus-on-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-strategies
#4
Rik Mencke, Hannes Olauson, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands
Klotho is a membrane-bound protein predominantly expressed in the kidney, where it acts as a permissive co-receptor for Fibroblast Growth Factor 23. In its shed form, Klotho exerts anti-fibrotic effects in several tissues. Klotho-deficient mice spontaneously develop fibrosis and Klotho deficiency exacerbates the disease progression in fibrotic animal models. Furthermore, Klotho overexpression or supplementation protects against fibrosis in various models of renal and cardiac fibrotic disease. These effects are mediated at least partially by the direct inhibitory effects of soluble Klotho on TGFβ1 signaling, Wnt signaling, and FGF2 signaling...
July 11, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708894/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-for-differential-assessment-of-liver-abnormalities-induced-by-opisthorchis-felineus-in-an-animal-model
#5
Alexandra G Pershina, Vladimir V Ivanov, Lina V Efimova, Oleg B Shevelev, Sergey V Vtorushin, Tatjana V Perevozchikova, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova
BACKGROUND: European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, causing opisthorchiasis disease, is widespread in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and sporadically detected in the EU countries. O. felineus infection leads to hepatobiliary pathological changes, cholangitis, fibrosis and, in severe cases, malignant transformation of bile ducts. Due to absence of specific symptoms, the infection is frequently neglected for a long period. The association of opisthorchiasis with almost incurable bile duct cancer and rising international migration of people that increases the risk of the parasitic etiology of liver fibrosis in non-endemic regions determine high demand for development of approaches to opisthorchiasis detection...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704919/the-role-of-radiation-induced-injury-on-lung-cancer
#6
Stephanie Puukila, Christopher Thome, Antone L Brooks, Gayle Woloschak, Douglas R Boreham
This manuscript evaluates the role of cell killing, tissue disorganization, and tissue damage on the induction of lung cancer following low dose rate radiation exposures from internally deposited radioactive materials. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to (90)Y, (91)Y, (144)Ce, or (90)Sr in fused clay particles. Dogs lived out their life span with complete pathology conducted at the time of death. The radiation dose per cell turnover was characterized and related to the cause of death for each animal. Large doses per cell turnover resulted in acute death from lung damage with extensive cell killing, tissue disorganization, chronic inflammatory disease, fibrosis, and pneumonitis...
July 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704364/dramatic-and-concerted-conformational-changes-enable-rhodocetin-to-block-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-integrin-selectively
#7
Johannes A Eble, Matthew McDougall, George L Orriss, Stephan Niland, Benjamin Johanningmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Markus Meier, Simone Karrasch, Maria Inacia Estevão-Costa, Augusto Martins Lima, Jörg Stetefeld
The collagen binding integrin α2β1 plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrosis, and cancer progression amongst others. It is specifically inhibited by rhodocetin (RC), a C-type lectin-related protein (CLRP) found in Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom. The structure of RC alone reveals a heterotetramer arranged as an αβ and γδ subunit in a cruciform shape. RC specifically binds to the collagen binding A-domain of the integrin α2 subunit, thereby blocking collagen-induced platelet aggregation...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698228/perturbations-to-lysyl-oxidase-expression-broadly-influence-the-transcriptome-of-lung-fibroblasts
#8
Ivana Mižíková, Francesco Palumbo, Tamás Tábi, Susanne Herold, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
Lysyl oxidases are credited with pathogenic roles in lung diseases, including cancer, fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Lysyl oxidases facilitate the covalent intra- and inter-molecular cross-linking of collagen and elastin fibers, thereby imparting tensile strength to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Alternative ECM-independent roles have recently been proposed for lysyl oxidases, including regulation of growth factor signaling, chromatin remodeling, and transcriptional regulation; all of which impact cell phenotype...
July 10, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698049/tensins-bridging-amp-activated-protein-kinase-with-integrin-activation
#9
REVIEW
Maria Georgiadou, Johanna Ivaska
Integrin activation is essential for cell adhesion and for connecting the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, inappropriate integrin activation has been linked to several diseases, including cancer. Recent insights demonstrate that the main fibrillar adhesion component tensin maintains β1-integrin active in these mature adhesions. Depletion or silencing of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor involved in maintaining the energy balance of the cell, enhances integrin activity by increasing the expression of tensin and thereby promoting cell adhesion, matrix formation, and mechanotransduction...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697989/sialoendoscopy-combined-with-an-internal-stent-and-postoperative-massage-as-a-comprehensive-treatment-of-delayed-i-131-induced-parotitis
#10
Q Meng, W Fang, X Long, M Deng, J Li, J Ke
A common complication of radioiodine (I(131)) treatment of thyroid cancer is parotitis. Here we describe our clinical experience in treating delayed I(131)-induced parotitis using sialoendoscopy together with an internal stent and postoperative massage. In this retrospective cohort study we reviewed 32 patients who were treated in that way under general anaesthesia between July 2010 and March 2015. Their age, sex, and the time to development of the parotitis were collected from the hospital's database. All patients were evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), sialography, and computed tomography preoperatively...
July 8, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697853/inhibition-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-related-3-atr-improves-therapeutic-index-in-preclinical-models-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-radiotherapy
#11
Victoria Dunne, Mihaela Ghita, Donna M Small, Caroline B M Coffey, Sinead Weldon, Clifford C Taggart, Sarah O Osman, Conor K McGarry, Kevin M Prise, Gerard G Hanna, Karl T Butterworth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of ATR inhibition using AZD6738 in combination with radiotherapy on the response of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumour models and a murine model of radiation induced fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AZD6738 was evaluated as a monotherapy and in combination with radiation in vitro and in vivo using A549 and H460 NSCLC models. Radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histological staining...
July 8, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695805/clinical-analysis-of-77-patients-with-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis-in-peking-union-medical-college-hospital
#12
Mingqiang Zhang, Jinming Gao
Objective To summarize the clinical features of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis(ABPA)to facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 77 patients who had been admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1996 to July 2015 with ABPA. Results The average age of these 77 patients(38 men and 39 women)was(41.8±18.3)years. The co-morbidities included bronchial asthma(n=74,96%)and pulmonary cystic fibrosis(n=3,4%). The main symptoms and signs of ABPA were chronic cough(100%),sputum production(97%),wheeze(86%),sputum plugs(25%),blood-stained sputum(18%),hemoptysis(9%),chest pain(9%),fever(47%),weight loss(30%),and night sweat(12%)...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695478/the-prognostic-impact-of-additional-intrathoracic-findings-in-patients-with-cancer-related-pulmonary-embolism
#13
P Jiménez-Fonseca, A Carmona-Bayonas, C Font, J Plasencia-Martínez, D Calvo-Temprano, R Otero, C Beato, M Biosca, M Sánchez, M Benegas, D Varona, L Faez, M Antonio, I de la Haba, O Madridano, M P Solis, A Ramchandani, E Castañón, P J Marchena, M Martín, F Ayala de la Peña, V Vicente
AIM: To assess the prevalence and prognostic significance of additional intrathoracic findings (AIFs) in patients with cancer and pulmonary embolism (PE). AIFs were considered alterations other than the characteristic ones intrinsic to PE or changes in cardiovascular morphology. METHODS: Subjects have been taken from a Spanish national multidisciplinary and multicenter study of PE and cancer who were treated between 2004 and 2015. The endpoint was the appearance of serious complications or death within 15 days...
July 10, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694203/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-auda-decreases-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-toxicity-in-mice-by-inhibiting-the-p38-smad3-pathways
#14
Xin-Wei Dong, Yong-Liang Jia, Ling-Tian Ge, Bo Jiang, Jun-Xia Jiang, Shen Jian, Ya-Chao Jin, Guan Yan, Yun Sun, Qiang-Min Xie
Bleomycin (BLM) has potent tumor cell-killing properties that have given it an important place in cancer chemotherapy, but pulmonary toxicity is its major adverse effect. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to have protective effects in fibrosis models, but the effects of AUDA, an sEH inhibitor of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicity and fibrosis, remain to be researched. In this study, we assessed the effects of AUDA on the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro by monitoring changes in pulmonary function, inflammatory response, fibrotic remodeling, and signaling pathways...
July 7, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693256/pirfenidone-may-revert-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Ryota Kurimoto, Takahiro Ebata, Shunichiro Iwasawa, Tsukasa Ishiwata, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, Yuichi Takiguchi
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer is associated with invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. Recent studies have revealed the increased expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in cells undergoing EMT. The underlying mechanism of EMT involves transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). Pirfenidone and the known EMT-suppressor nintedanib suppress pulmonary fibrosis partially through suppression of TGF-β. The present study aimed to determine whether pirfenidone has the potential to induce EMT-reversion, using nintedanib as a reference...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693198/pulmonary-toxicity-generated-from-radiotherapeutic-treatment-of-thoracic-malignancies
#16
Guodong Deng, Ning Liang, Jian Xie, Hui Luo, Lili Qiao, Jingxin Zhang, Dawei Wang, Jiandong Zhang
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) remains a major obstacle for thoracic radiotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer, esophageal cancer and lymphoma. It is the principal dose-limiting complication, and can markedly impair the therapeutic ratio as well as a patient's quality of life. The current review presents the relevant concepts associated with RILI, including the pathogenic mechanisms and the potential treatment strategies, so as to achieve a general understanding of this issue. RILI comprises an acute radiation pneumonitis phase and subsequent late lung fibrosis...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689299/4-o-methylhonokiol-protects-from-alcohol-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#17
Eleonora Patsenker, Andrea Chicca, Vanessa Petrucci, Sheida Moghadamrad, Andrea de Gottardi, Jochen Hampe, Jürg Gertsch, Nasser Semmo, Felix Stickel
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, liver cancer, and related mortality. The endocannabinoid system contributes to the development of chronic liver diseases, where cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been shown to have a protecting role. Thus, here, we investigated how CB2 agonism by 4'-O-methylhonokiol (MHK), a biphenyl from Magnolia grandiflora, affects chronic alcohol-induced liver fibrosis and damage in mice. A combination of alcohol (10% vol/vol) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg) was applied to C57BL/6 mice for 5 weeks...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687482/treatment-rationale-and-design-for-j-sonic-a%C3%A2-randomized-study-of-carboplatin-plus-nab-paclitaxel-with-or-without-nintedanib-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
Kohei Otsubo, Junji Kishimoto, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Yuji Minegishi, Eiki Ichihara, Akira Shiraki, Terufumi Kato, Shinji Atagi, Hidehito Horinouchi, Masahiko Ando, Yasuhiro Kondoh, Masahiko Kusumoto, Kazuya Ichikado, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Yoichi Nakanishi, Isamu Okamoto
We describe the treatment rationale and procedure for a randomized study (J-SONIC; University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry identification no., UMIN000026799) of carboplatin plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) with or without nintedanib for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The study was designed to examine the efficacy and safety of nintedanib administered with carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel versus carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel alone in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced NSCLC associated with IPF...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684636/foxc1-regulates-fgfr1-isoform-switching-to-promote-invasion-following-tgf%C3%AE-induced-emt
#19
Alexander Hopkins, Mackenzie L Coatham, Fred B Berry
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important physiological process that drives tissue formation during development, but also contributes to disease pathogenesis including fibrosis and cancer metastasis. Elevated expression of the FOXC1 transcription factor has been detected in several metastatic cancers that have undergone EMT. Therefore, mechanistic insight into the role of FOXC1 in the initiation of the EMT process was sought. It was determined that although Foxc1 transcript expression was elevated following TGF-β1 induced EMT of NMuMG cells, FOXC1 was not required for this induction...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683174/the-oncologic-burden-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-clinical-perspective
#20
Harrys A Torres, Terri Lynn Shigle, Nassim Hammoudi, James T Link, Felipe Samaniego, Ahmed Kaseb, Vincent Mallet
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with cancer. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have changed HCV treatment paradigms, but little is known about the management of HCV infection in patients with cancer. The substantial burden of HCV infection and the inconclusive evidence regarding its detection and management in patients with cancer prompted the authors to review the literature and formulate recommendations. Patients for whom HCV screening is recommended included all patients with hematologic malignancies, hematopoietic cell transplantation candidates, and patients with liver cancer...
July 6, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
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