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Fibrosis and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914244/surgical-treatment-and-histopathological-assessment-of-advanced-cervicovaginal-carcinoma-a-prospective-study-and-retrospective-analysis
#1
Michael Höckel, Benjamin Wolf, Bettina Hentschel, Lars-Christian Horn
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of advanced cervicovaginal cancer [international federation of gynecology and obstetrics (FIGO) stages II(B), III(A, B), IVA] is (chemo-)radiation excluding the possibility of systematic histopathological assessment of locoregional tumour spread. Laterally extended endopelvic resection (LEER) and therapeutic lymph node dissection (tLND) are novel surgical treatment options for advanced cervicovaginal cancer. METHODS: The therapeutic efficacy of LEER for locally advanced primary and recurrent cervicovaginal cancer was reassessed by an update of the prospective observational trial at the University of Leipzig...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913894/use-and-effectiveness-of-tocilizumab-among-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-an-observational-study-from-the-british-society-for-rheumatology-biologics-register-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Mari Kihara, Rebecca Davies, Lianne Kearsley-Fleet, Kath D Watson, Mark Lunt, Deborah P M Symmons, Kimme L Hyrich
The aims of the present study are to describe the characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients selected for tocilizumab (TCZ), compare the "real-world" effectiveness of TCZ and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) when used as a first biologic and assess the influence of past biologic exposure/concurrent methotrexate (MTX) therapy on post-TCZ treatment outcomes. The British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR-RA) is a prospective cohort study following RA patients starting biologics in the UK...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911717/extracellular-matrix-endocytosis-in-controlling-matrix-turnover-and-beyond-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Elena Rainero
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of secreted proteins that, beyond providing support for tissues and organs, is involved in the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cell proliferation, polarity, migration and oncogenic transformation. ECM homeostasis is maintained through a tightly controlled balance between synthesis, deposition and degradation. While the role of metalloproteases in ECM degradation is widely recognised, the contribution of ECM internalisation and intracellular degradation to ECM maintenance has been mostly overlooked...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910075/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-are-any-of-the-morphological-molecular-markers-useful-in-clinical-management
#4
REVIEW
Francesca Lunardi, Elisabetta Balestro, Nazarena Nannini, Stefania Edith Vuljan, Federico Rea, Fiorella Calabrese
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common form of chronic interstitial lung disease, is a severe progressive fibrotic disorder of unknown aetiology. The disease has a heterogeneous clinical course, with frequent poor prognosis, similar to malignant disease. Correctly diagnosing IPF has become particularly important in view of the availability of more precise therapeutic indications, thus avoiding steroid treatment and allowing new approaches with novel drugs. To date we have limited information about biomarkers predictive of progressive disease and associated complications...
December 2, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908935/posttranslational-regulation-of-smads
#5
REVIEW
Pinglong Xu, Xia Lin, Xin-Hua Feng
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family signaling dictates highly complex programs of gene expression responses, which are extensively regulated at multiple levels and vary depending on the physiological context. The formation, activation, and destruction of two major functional complexes in the TGF-β signaling pathway (i.e., the TGF-β receptor complexes and the Smad complexes that act as central mediators of TGF-β signaling) are direct targets for posttranslational regulation. Dysfunction of these complexes often leads or contributes to pathogenesis in cancer and fibrosis and in cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#6
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902695/text-mining-genotype-phenotype-relationships-from-biomedical-literature-for-database-curation-and-precision-medicine
#7
Ayush Singhal, Michael Simmons, Zhiyong Lu
The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898750/-curative-radiotherapy-of-early-stage-lung-cancer-using-respiratory-motion-compensation
#8
András Szilágyi, Tamás Pócza, Csaba Polgár, Tibor Major, András Bajcsay, József Lövey
In this paper we present our early experience with a method for the management of respiratory motion in radiotherapy for early-stage lung cancer. Forty-six patients were irradiated with a total dose of 60 Gy. Tumor response on control CT, survival, local and distant progression as well as early and late side effects were registered. Complete and partial remission, stable and progressive disease was 17 (37.0%), 15 (32.6%), 11 (23.9%) and 3 (6.5%). Isolated local recurrence and distant metastasis appeared in 4 (8...
November 29, 2016: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896975/computer-aided-image-segmentation-and-classification-for-viable-and-non-viable-tumor-identification-in-osteosarcoma
#9
Harish Babu Arunachalam, Rashika Mishra, Bogdan Armaselu, Ovidiu Daescu, Maria Martinez, Patrick Leavey, Dinesh Rakheja, Kevin Cederberg, Anita Sengupta, Molly Ni'suilleabhain
Osteosarcoma is one of the most common types of bone cancer in children. To gauge the extent of cancer treatment response in the patient after surgical resection, the H&E stained image slides are manually evaluated by pathologists to estimate the percentage of necrosis, a time consuming process prone to observer bias and inaccuracy. Digital image analysis is a potential method to automate this process, thus saving time and providing a more accurate evaluation. The slides are scanned in Aperio Scanscope, converted to digital Whole Slide Images (WSIs) and stored in SVS format...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895393/emerging-role-of-obeticholic-acid-in-the-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
EDITORIAL
Evangelia Makri, Evangelos Cholongitas, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and its prevalence is increasing driven by the pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and hepatocellular cancer. Diet and exercise are limited by suboptimal long-term adherence in patients with NAFLD. On the other hand, current pharmacological treatment of NAFLD has limited efficacy and unfavorable safety profile. In this context, obeticholic acid (OCA), a selective agonist of the farnesoid X receptors, might represent a useful option in these patients...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888869/latest-advances-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#11
J Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz
This article summarizes some of the recent and clinically relevant advances in chronic pancreatitis. These advances mainly concern the definition of the disease, the etiological diagnosis of idiopathic disease, the correlation between fibrosis degree and pancreatic secretion in the early stages of chronic pancreatitis, the treatment of the disease and of pain, the clinical relevance of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, and the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. A new mechanistic definition of chronic pancreatitis has been proposed...
September 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888157/curcumin-use-in-pulmonary-diseases-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Diana Lelli, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Thomas P Johnston, Claudio Pedone
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). It has been used for centuries in Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) for the treatment of several diseases. Over the last several decades, the therapeutic properties of curcumin have slowly been elucidated. It has been shown that curcumin has pleiotropic effects, regulating transcription factors (e.g., NF-kB), cytokines (e.g., IL6, TNF-alpha), adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1), and enzymes (e.g., MMPs) that play a major role in inflammation and cancerogenesis...
November 22, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
November 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886799/igg4-related-disease-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Pilar Brito-Zerón, Xavier Bosch, Manuel Ramos-Casals, John H Stone
IgG4-related disease is a rare immune-mediated systemic disease with the capability of involving essentially any organ. Although the presenting clinical features vary substantially according to the speciality to which patients present first, perhaps the most common clinical presentation is that of single or multiple organ enlargement, arousing suspicion of cancer. The disease is frequently diagnosed unexpectedly in pathological specimens or on imaging studies. The diagnostic approach is complex and includes not only IgG4-related tests (serum levels, circulating plasmablasts, and specific immunohistochemical studies), but also clinical, laboratory, and imaging tests as well as the typical histopathological features (lymphocytic infiltration, storiform fibrosis, eosinophilic infiltration, and obliterative phlebitis)...
April 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883184/epigenetics-in-reactive-and-reparative-cardiac-fibrogenesis-the-promise-of-epigenetic-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Asish K Ghosh, Rahul Rai, Panagiotis Flevaris, Douglas E Vaughan
Epigenetic changes play a pivotal role in the development of a wide spectrum of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and intellectual disabilities. Cardiac fibrogenesis is a common pathophysiological process seen during chronic and stress-induced accelerated cardiac aging. While adequate production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is necessary for post-injury wound healing, excessive synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix protein in the stressed or injured hearts causes decreased or loss of lusitropy that leads to cardiac failure...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883059/hepatic-satb1-induces-paracrine-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-upregulated-by-hbx
#16
Jin Gong, Wei Tu, Jian Han, Jiayi He, Jingmei Liu, Ping Han, Yunwu Wang, Mengke Li, Mei Liu, Jiazhi Liao, Dean Tian
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver diseases, but its involvement in hepatic fibrogenesis remains unclear. Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) has been implicated in reprogramming chromatin organization and transcription profiles in many cancers and non-cancer-related conditions. We found that hepatic SATB1 expression was significantly up-regulated in fibrotic tissues from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients and HBV transgenic (HBV-Tg) mouse model...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880745/announcement-national-family-history-day-november-24-2016
#17
(no author information available yet)
In 2004, the U.S. Surgeon General declared that Thanksgiving would be National Family History Day, a day designed to encourage American families to learn about and create a written record of their family health history. Family history can identify those persons with a higher-than-average risk for many common diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Having at least one first-degree relative with a disease can increase a person's risk twofold or more (1). Family history is also a determinant of less common diseases like sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis (1)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#18
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878387/genetic-susceptibility-to-cutaneous-radiation-injury
#19
REVIEW
Amy Huang, Sharon A Glick
The use of ionizing radiation is critical to cancer treatment and fluoroscopic procedures. However, despite efforts to minimize total radiation dose, many patients experience toxic cutaneous side-effects of ionizing radiation, ranging from mild erythema to subcutaneous fibrosis, telangiectasia formation, and ulceration. Extent of injury is highly variable among patients. Studying the genetic determinants of radiation injury can help develop protocols to reduce radiation toxicity, as well as drive research into effective modulators of the genes and gene products associated with radiation injury...
November 22, 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876602/genistein-attenuates-d-galn-induced-liver-fibrosis-chronic-liver-damage-in-rats-by-blocking-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathways
#20
Ajaz Ahmad Ganai, Mohammad Husain
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Genistein is a major isoflavonoid abundantly found in soy. Earlier genistein has been reported to possess protective effect against a multitude of disorders including cancer. Previously we demonstrated the protective effects of Genistein in d-Galactosamine (D-GalN) induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in rats. In present study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Genistein in rat model of chronic liver damage and liver fibrosis. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 12 weeks...
November 19, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
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