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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778842/curcumin-attenuates-sepsis-induced-acute-organ-dysfunction-by-preventing-inflammation-and-enhancing-the-suppressive-function-of-tregs
#1
Longwang Chen, Yang Lu, Linjun Zhao, Lili Hu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhuoling Zhang, Mengfang Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Guangju Zhao, Zhongqiu Lu
Sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators. It results in a dysregulated immune response and can lead to organ damage and death. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and immunoregulation functions in various disorders such as sepsis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, lung fibrosis, gallstone formation, and diabetes. This paper investigates the effects of curcumin on immune status and inflammatory response in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778400/stromal-heterogeneity-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-chronic-pancreatitis
#2
Lena Haeberle, Katja Steiger, Anna Melissa Schlitter, Sami Alexander Safi, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Mert Erkan, Irene Esposito
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: An abundant stromal reaction is a hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). The cells mainly responsible for the stromal reaction are activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Despite their crucial role, PSCs are not well characterized. PSCs share characteristics with the better-known hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The aim of this study was a detailed analysis of PSCs in PDAC and CP. METHODS: Whole-slide specimens of CP (n = 12) and PDAC (n = 10) were studied by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry...
May 12, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777455/combined-preoperative-albi-and-fib-4-is-associated-with-recurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-curative-hepatectomy
#3
Rui Liao, De-Wei Li, Cheng-You Du, Ming Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic inflammatory response is a risk factor for hepatocarcinogenesis and recurrence. This study aimed to develop a nomogram incorporating the combined albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) scores and the peritumoral inflammation score (PIS) to predict postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The prognostic roles of preoperative ALBI and FIB-4 scores for HCC recurrence were investigated, and a nomogram was developed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777149/stretching-reduces-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-breast-cancer-model
#4
L Berrueta, J Bergholz, D Munoz, I Muskaj, G J Badger, A Shukla, H J Kim, J J Zhao, H M Langevin
There is growing interest in developing non-pharmacological treatments that could boost natural defenses against cancer and contribute to primary and secondary cancer prevention. Recent studies have shown that gentle daily stretching for 10 minutes can reduce local connective tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Because mechanical factors within the stroma can influence the tumor microenvironment, we hypothesized that stretching would reduce the growth of tumors implanted within locally stretched tissues and tested this hypothesis in a mouse orthotopic breast cancer model...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775456/maternal-obesogenic-diet-induces-endometrial-hyperplasia-an-early-hallmark-of-endometrial-cancer-in-a-diethylstilbestrol-mouse-model
#5
Theresa O Owuor, Michaela Reid, Lauren Reschke, Ian Hagemann, Suellen Greco, Zeel Modi, Kelle H Moley
Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775417/targeting-histone-methyltransferase-enhancer-of-zeste-homolog-2-inhibits-renal-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-attenuates-renal-fibrosis
#6
Xiaoxu Zhou, Chongxiang Xiong, Evelyn Tolbert, Ting C Zhao, George Bayliss, Shougang Zhuang
Enhancer of zeste homolog-2 (EZH2) is a methyltransferase that induces histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and functions as an oncogenic factor in many cancer types. Its role in renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unknown. In this study, we found that EZH2 and H3K27me3 were highly expressed in mouse kidney with unilateral ureteral obstruction and cultured mouse kidney proximal tubular (TKPT) cells undergoing EMT. Inhibition of EZH2 with 3-deazaneplanocin A (3-DZNeP) attenuated renal fibrosis, which was associated with preserving E-cadherin expression and inhibiting Vimentin up-regulation in the obstructed kidney...
May 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775411/humanin-analogue-hng-enhances-the-protective-effect-of-dexrazoxane-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#7
YanHe Lue, Chen Gao, Ronald S Swerdloff, James Hoang, Rozeta Avetisyan, Yue Jia, Meng Rao, Shuxun Ren, Vince Atienza, Junyi Yu, Yie Zhang, Mengping Chen, Yang Song, Yibin Wang, Christina Wang
The chemotherapeutic effect of Doxorubicin (Dox) is limited by cumulative dose-dependent cardiotoxicity in cancer survivors. Dexrazoxane (DRZ) is approved to prevent Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Humanin and its synthetic analog HNG have cytoprotective effect on the heart. To investigate the cardioprotective efficacy of HNG alone or in combination with DRZ against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, eighty adult male mice were randomly divided into 8 groups to receive the following treatments via intraperitoneal injection: saline daily; HNG (5mg/kg) daily; DRZ (60mg/kg) weekly; Dox (3mg/kg) weekly; DRZ+HNG, Dox+HNG; Dox+DRZ and Dox+HNG+DRZ...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774974/stiffness-reconstruction-methods-for-mr-elastography
#8
Daniel Fovargue, David Nordsletten, Ralph Sinkus
Assessment of tissue stiffness is desirable for clinicians and researchers, as it is well established that pathophysiological mechanisms often alter the structural properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) provides an avenue for measuring tissue stiffness and has a long history of clinical application, including staging liver fibrosis and stratifying breast cancer malignancy. A vital component of MRE consists of the reconstruction algorithms used to derive stiffness from wave-motion images by solving inverse problems...
May 18, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774141/exosome-mediated-peritoneal-dissemination-in-gastric-cancer-and-its-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Kai-Bo Chen, Jian Chen, Xiao-Li Jin, Yi Huang, Qiu-Ming Su, Li Chen
The prognosis of patients with peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer is poor, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Exosomes, as macromolecular phospholipid bilayer vesicles comprising of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, serve as mediators of cell-cell communication. Gastric cancer tumor-derived exosomes may be involved in the pathological process of peritoneal dissemination by mediating crosstalk between cancer cells and mesothelial cells, to result in the induction of enhanced tumor growth, migratory, adhesive and invasive abilities, peritoneal fibrosis and apoptosis, mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and chemoresistance...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773891/assessing-the-feasibility-of-neutralizing-osteopontin-with-various-therapeutic-antibody-modalities
#10
Vahid Farrokhi, Jeffrey R Chabot, Hendrik Neubert, Zhiyong Yang
Osteopontin is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that is highly implicated in many physiological and pathological processes such as biomineralization, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, fibrosis, cell survival, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Antibodies against osteopontin have been actively pursued as potential therapeutics for various diseases by pharmaceutical companies and academic laboratories. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of osteopontin inhibition in a variety of preclinical models of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but clinical utility has not yet been demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772420/the-search-for-biomarkers-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-the-impact-on-patient-outcome
#11
REVIEW
Alyson P Black, Anand S Mehta
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common cancer, but the 3rd leading cause of cancer death globally with approximately 700,000 fatalities annually. The severity of this cancer arises from its difficulty to detect and treat. The major etiologies of HCC are liver fibrosis or cirrhosis from chronic viral infections, as well as metabolic conditions. Since most cases arise from prior pathologies, biomarker surveillance in high-risk individuals is an essential approach for early detection and improved patient outcome...
May 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770205/beginning-at-the-ends-telomeres-and-human-disease
#12
REVIEW
Sharon A Savage
Studies of rare and common illnesses have led to remarkable progress in the understanding of the role of telomeres (nucleoprotein complexes at chromosome ends essential for chromosomal integrity) in human disease. Telomere biology disorders encompass a growing spectrum of conditions caused by rare pathogenic germline variants in genes encoding essential aspects of telomere function. Dyskeratosis congenita, a disorder at the severe end of this spectrum, typically presents in childhood with the classic triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia, accompanied by a very high risk of bone marrow failure, cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, and other medical problems...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768560/negative-serology-of-fasciola-hepatica-infection-in-patients-with-liver-cancer-in-peru-a-preliminary-report
#13
Claudia Machicado, Stéphane Bertani, Patricia Herrera-Velit, Jose Espinoza, Eloy Ruiz, Luis Marcos
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases remains largely unknown. Although Fasciola hepatica has been associated with liver fibrosis in Latin America, it has not yet been associated with HCC. This study aimed to determine the existence of specific IgG antibodies against F. hepatica in the serum samples of HCC patients. METHODS: In total, 13 serum samples from 13 HCC patients were screened using Fas2-ELISA. RESULTS: Fas2-ELISA demonstrated negative results in all HCC patients included in this study...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768059/pentabromopseudilin-a-myosin-v-inhibitor-suppresses-tgf-%C3%AE-activity-by-recruiting-the-type-ii-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-to-lysosomal-degradation
#14
Wang Shih-Wei, Chung Chih-Ling, Yu-Chen Kao, René Martin, Hans-Joachim Knölker, Meng-Shin Shiao, Chun-Lin Chen
Pentabromopseudilin (PBrP) is a marine antibiotic isolated from the marine bacteria Pseudomonas bromoutilis and Alteromonas luteoviolaceus. PBrP exhibits antimicrobial, anti-tumour, and phytotoxic activities. In mammalian cells, PBrP is known to act as a reversible and allosteric inhibitor of myosin Va (MyoVa). In this study, we report that PBrP is a potent inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity. PBrP inhibits TGF-β-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) protein production and blocks TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in epithelial cells...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767452/adenoma-of-colorectal-laterally-spreading-tumor-non-granular-type-with-biological-phenotypic-features-similar-to-cancer
#15
Kengo Nagai, Yoshito Hayashi, Keiichiro Honma, Akihiko Sakatani, Shunsuke Yoshii, Tetsuji Fujinaga, Akira Maekawa, Yoshiki Tsujii, Satoshi Hiyama, Shinichiro Shinzaki, Kenji Watabe, Hideki Iijima, Masahiko Tsujii, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Eiichi Morii, Tetsuo Takehara
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LST) are morphologically subdivided into granular (LST-G) and non-granular (LST-NG) categories. We aimed to elucidate the differences in oncogenic characteristics between the two types. METHODS: LST resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection and surgery from March 2009 to May 2017 were examined for p53-positivity, Ki-67 labeling index (LI), microvessel density, degree of fibrosis, intensities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT), and expression of acid mucins...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765958/current-perspectives-on-opisthorchiasis-control-and-cholangiocarcinoma-detection-in-southeast-asia
#16
REVIEW
Narong Khuntikeo, Attapol Titapun, Watcharin Loilome, Puangrat Yongvanit, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Nittaya Chamadol, Thidarat Boonmars, Teerachai Nethanomsak, Ross H Andrews, Trevor N Petney, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Similar to bile duct cancer or cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the western world, opisthorchiasis-associated CCA in Southeast Asia is an aggressive cancer with high mortality rates. It is known to cause a significant health burden in the opisthorchiasis region in Thailand and possibly throughout mainland Southeast. To reduce this health burden, a comprehensive prevention and control program for opisthorchiasis, as well as CCA, is required. In this review, our aim is to provide a brief update of the current situation regarding the natural history of opisthorchiasis and health burden of CCA in Southeast Asia...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763900/c-prosp-b-a-possible-biomarker-for-pulmonary-diseases
#17
Nicolas Kahn, Anne-Kathrin Rossler, Katrin Hornemann, Thomas Muley, Ekkehard Grünig, Werner Schmidt, Felix J F Herth, Michael Kreuter
BACKGROUND: Detection of surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) in the serum of patients with pulmonary diseases is thought to reflect an injury of the alveolar epithelial barrier and as such serve as a biomarker for these diseases. However, the data for SP-B are limited. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this feasibility study was to assess whether immature SP-B pre-proteins might have value as a possible biomarker for pulmonary diseases. METHODS: In serum samples from patients with different chronic lung diseases (interstitial lung diseases [ILDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, inflammation, patients on ventilator support; total n = 283), C-proSP-B was measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay based on mouse monoclonal anti-C-proSP-B antibodies...
May 15, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761157/a-next-generation-sequencing-primer-how-does-it-work-and-what-can-it-do
#18
REVIEW
Yuriy O Alekseyev, Roghayeh Fazeli, Shi Yang, Raveen Basran, Thomas Maher, Nancy S Miller, Daniel Remick
Next-generation sequencing refers to a high-throughput technology that determines the nucleic acid sequences and identifies variants in a sample. The technology has been introduced into clinical laboratory testing and produces test results for precision medicine. Since next-generation sequencing is relatively new, graduate students, medical students, pathology residents, and other physicians may benefit from a primer to provide a foundation about basic next-generation sequencing methods and applications, as well as specific examples where it has had diagnostic and prognostic utility...
January 2018: Academic pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758334/genetic-inactivation-of-nrf2-prevents-clonal-expansion-of-initiated-cells-in-a-nutritional-model-of-rat-hepatocarcinogenesis
#19
Claudia Orrù, Marta Szydlowska, Keiko Taguchi, Patrizia Zavattari, Andrea Perra, Masayuki Yamamoto, Amedeo Columbano
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysregulation of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway has been observed in experimental and human tumors, suggesting possible roles of the pathway in cancer development. Here we examined whether Nrf2 activation occurs at early steps of rat hepatocarcinogenesis, to assess critical contributions of Nrf2 to the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We used wild type (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2KO) rats treated with a single injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) followed by choline-devoid methionine-deficient (CMD) diet...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757721/spectrum-of-extratesticular-and-testicular-pathologic-conditions-at-scrotal-mr-imaging
#20
Pardeep K Mittal, Ahmed S Abdalla, Argha Chatterjee, Deborah A Baumgarten, Peter A Harri, Jay Patel, Courtney C Moreno, Helena Gabriel, Frank H Miller
Diagnostic workup of scrotal lesions should begin with a complete clinical history and physical examination, including analysis of risk factors such as family history of testicular cancer, personal history of tumor in the contralateral testis, and cryptorchidism, followed by imaging. Scrotal ultrasonography (US) with a combination of gray-scale and color Doppler techniques has been the first-line imaging modality for evaluation of testicular and extratesticular lesions because of its low cost, wide availability, and high diagnostic accuracy...
May 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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