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Inflammation and cancer

Yue Guo, Renyi Wu, John M Gaspar, Davit Sargsyan, Zheng-Yuan Su, Chengyue Zhang, Linbo Gao, David Cheng, Wenji Li, Chao Wang, Ran Yin, Mingzhu Fang, Michael P Verzi, Ronald P Hart, Ah-Ng Kong
Inflammation is highly associated with colon carcinogenesis. Epigenetic mechanisms could play an important role in the initiation and progression of colon cancer. Curcumin, a dietary phytochemical, shows promising effects in suppressing colitis-associated colon cancer in AOM-DSS mice. However, the potential epigenetic mechanisms of curcumin in colon cancer remain unknown. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of curcumin in suppressing colon cancer in an 18-week AOM-DSS colon cancer mouse model was confirmed...
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
H Zhao, J Wang, D Fang, O Lee, R T Chatterton, V Stearns, S A Khan, S E Bulun
Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal women. Many factors may be responsible for this difference. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the genes related to the AMPK pathway, inflammation, and estrogen actions are affected by adiposity in breast tissue with the objective of identifying differences that may explain the different breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Random fine needle aspirates (rFNAs) of breast tissue were collected from 57 premenopausal and 55 postmenopausal women and were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese...
March 15, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Karen E Assmann, Moufidath Adjibade, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Michael D Wirth, Mathilde Touvier, Tasnime Akbaraly, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Chantal Julia, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Background: While low-grade chronic inflammation has been suggested as a major modulator of healthy aging (HA), no study has yet investigated the link between the inflammatory potential of the diet and multidimensional concepts of HA. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet at midlife, as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and HA assessed 13 y later. Methods: We analyzed data from 2796 participants in the French Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Wuhao Huang, Shengguang Wang, Hua Zhang, Bin Zhang, Changli Wang
Objective: Cancer-associated inflammation and coagulation cascades play vital roles in cancer progression and survival. In this study, we investigated the significance of the combination of preoperative fibrinogen and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in predicting the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 589 patients with NSCLC who underwent surgery. The univariate and multivariate Cox survival analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic indicators, including the combination of fibrinogen and NLR (F-NLR)...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Marco A Moro-García, Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Rebeca Alonso-Arias
T lymphocytes, from their first encounter with their specific antigen as naïve cell until the last stages of their differentiation, in a replicative state of senescence, go through a series of phases. In several of these stages, T lymphocytes are subjected to exponential growth in successive encounters with the same antigen. This entire process occurs throughout the life of a human individual and, earlier, in patients with chronic infections/pathologies through inflammatory mediators, first acutely and later in a chronic form...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Stephen Safe, James L Abbruzzese, Maen Abdelrahim, Erik Hedrick
Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors (TFs) such as Sp1 are critical for early development but their expression decreases with age and there is evidence that transformation of normal cells to cancer cells is associated with upregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 which are highly expressed in cancer cells and tumors. Sp1 is a negative prognostic factor for pancreatic, colon, glioma, gastric, breast, prostate, and lung cancer patients. Functional studies also demonstrate that Sp TFs regulate genes responsible for cancer cell growth, survival, migration/invasion, inflammation and drug resistance, and Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are also non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and important drug targets...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Sen Xu, Zong-Yuan Yang, Ping Jin, Xin Yang, Xiaoting Li, Xiao Wei, Ya Wang, Sixiang Long, Taoran Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaoyang Sun, Ding Ma, Qinglei Gao
Ovarian cancer (OC) is a devastating disease due to its high incidence of relapse and chemoresistance. The tumor microenvironment, especially the tumor stroma compartment, was proven to contribute tremendously to the unsatisfactory chemotherapeutic efficacy in OC. Cytotoxic agents not only effect tumor cells, but also modulate the phenotype and characteristics of the vast stromal cell population, which can in turn alter the tumor cell response to chemointervention. In this study, we focused on the tumor stroma response to cytotoxic agents and the subsequent effect on the OC tumor cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Fawaz Awad, Eman Assrawi, Camille Louvrier, Claire Jumeau, Irina Giurgea, Serge Amselem, Sonia-Athina Karabina
Photoaging and epithelial skin tumorigenesis are complex processes triggered mainly by UV radiation from chronic sun exposure. This leads to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which initiate an inflammatory response that alters cell structure and function. Changes in cell homeostasis and ROS production activate intracellular multiprotein platforms called inflammasomes. Inflammasomes nucleate around cytoplasmic receptors mainly of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat) family and regulate caspase-1-dependant secretion of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokines, and an inflammatory form of death named pyroptosis...
March 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are present in most individuals with cancer where they inhibit adaptive and innate antitumor immunity and are an obstacle to cancer immunotherapies. Chronic inflammation is characteristic of adipose tissue and is a risk factor for the onset and progression of cancer in obese individuals. Because MDSC accumulate in response to inflammation, it has been hypothesized that one of the mechanisms by which obesity promotes malignancy is through the induction of MDSC. This article reviews the data supporting this hypothesis, the role of leptin and fatty acid metabolism in the induction of MDSC, and the surprising finding that although MDSC promote tumor progression, they are protective against some of the metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Armando Andres Roca Suarez, Nicolaas Van Renne, Thomas F Baumert, Joachim Lupberger
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key regulator of numerous physiological functions, including the immune response. As pathogens elicit an acute phase response with concerted activation of STAT3, they are confronted with two evolutionary options: either curtail it or employ it. This has important consequences for the host, since abnormal STAT3 function is associated with cancer development and other diseases. This review provides a comprehensive outline of how human viruses cope with STAT3-mediated inflammation and how this affects the host...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Leslee Sprague, Joel M Lee, Brian J Hutzen, Pin-Yi Wang, Chun-Yu Chen, Joe Conner, Lynne Braidwood, Kevin A Cassady, Timothy P Cripe
High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a multifunctional protein that plays various roles in the processes of inflammation, cancer, and other diseases. Many reports document abundant HMGB1 release following infection with oncolytic viruses (OVs). Further, other groups including previous reports from our laboratory highlight the synergistic effects of OVs with chemotherapy drugs. Here, we show that virus-free supernatants have varying cytotoxic potential, and HMGB1 is actively secreted by two established fibroblast cell lines (NIH 3T3 and 3T6-Swiss albino) following HSV1716 infection in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Matthew G K Benesch, Iain T K MacIntyre, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
A quarter-century after the discovery of autotaxin in cell culture, the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate (LPA)-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis is now a promising clinical target for treating chronic inflammatory conditions, mitigating fibrosis progression, and improving the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Nearly half of the literature on this axis has been published during the last five years. In cancer biology, LPA signaling is increasingly being recognized as a central mediator of the progression of chronic inflammation in the establishment of a tumor microenvironment which promotes cancer growth, immune evasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance...
March 15, 2018: Cancers
Xuejiao Song, Tiantao Gao, Qian Lei, Lidan Zhang, Yuqin Yao, Jingyuan Xiong
Malignant melanoma is a devastating skin cancer due to its severe drug resistance and prompt metastasis. Piperlongumine is an anti-inflammation and tumor-suppressing natural product with defined structure. While numerous studies revealed exceptional inhibitory effects of piperlongumine on several carcinomas, few investigations were performed on melanoma. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-tumor effects of piperlongumine on human melanoma cells in vitro, and explored the mechanisms of action...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Weifeng Li, Ruoqi Zhao, Xiumei Wang, Fang Liu, Jinmeng Zhao, Qing Yao, Wenbing Zhi, Zehong He, Xiaofeng Niu
Nobiletin (NOB), a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-insulin resistance activities. Although the anti-inflammatory activity of NOB already reported, its involvement in lung protection has not been reported. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory response of NOB in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated A549 cells and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The animals were pre-treated with NOB (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or DEX (5 mg/kg) at 12 and 1 h before intranasal instillation of LPS...
March 14, 2018: Inflammation
Alireza Farsad-Naeimi, Mohammad Alizadeh, Ali Esfahani, Esmaeil Darvish Aminabad
A growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation is associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis and chemotherapeutic resistance in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Natural flavonoids are promising agents for inflammation-related tumor progression in patients with CRC. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of flavonoid fisetin supplementation on the inflammatory status and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels in these patients. In this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, 37 CRC patients undergoing chemotherapy were assigned to receive either 100 mg fisetin (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19) for seven consecutive weeks...
March 15, 2018: Food & Function
Chia-Yen Dai, Yi-Shan Tsai, Wen-Wen Chou, Tawei Liu, Chung-Feng Huang, Shu-Chi Wang, Pei-Chien Tsai, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
Background/Aims: MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) has been found to regulate inflammation and acts as an oncogene in many cancers. The mechanisms of miR-125b expression during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be clarified. The present study aims to identify the factors that might regulate miR-125b expression in HCV infection. Results: High expression of miR-125b was found to correlate with HCV infection in replicon cells and in sera from HCV-infected patients, whereas the miR-125b inhibitor reduced HCV gene expression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Chengzheng Han, Guozheng Xing, Mengying Zhang, Min Zhong, Zhen Han, Chiyi He, Xiaoping Liu
Wogonoside, the main effective constituent of traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria , belongs to the glucuronide family, with various functions, including detoxification, anti-inflammation and nourishing gallbladder, lowering blood pressure, diuresis and anti-allergic reactions. However, the effects of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells in vitro and its anticancer mechanisms. The results demonstrated that wogonoside significantly inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis and mitochondrial-mediated autophagy of colon cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
B Borghese, P Santulli, L Marcellin, C Chapron
Endometriosis and adenomyosis are histologically defined. The frequency of endometriosis cannot be precisely estimated in the general population. Endometriosis is considered a disease when it causes pain and/or infertility. Endometriosis is a heterogeneous disease with three well-recognized subtypes that are often associated with each other: superficial endometriosis (SUP), ovarian endometrioma (OMA), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). DIE is frequently multifocal and mainly affects the following structures: the uterosacral ligaments, the posterior vaginal cul-de-sac, the bladder, the ureters, and the digestive tract (rectum, recto-sigmoid junction, appendix)...
March 11, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
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