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Inflammation and cancer

Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Seiichi Yamamoto, Tadashi Watabe, Hayato Ikeda, Yasukazu Kanai, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Motonao Nakao, Katsuhiko Kato, Jun Hatazawa
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) has high sensitivity for imaging radioactive tracer distributions in subjects. However, it is not possible to image free radical distribution in a subject by PET. Since free radicals are quite reactive, they are related to many diseases, including but not limited to cancer, inflammation, strokes, and heart disease. The Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI) is so far the only method that images free radical distribution in vivo...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Pedro Berraondo, Luna Minute, Daniel Ajona, Leticia Corrales, Ignacio Melero, Ruben Pio
Chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment and evasion of the antitumor effector immune response are two of the emerging hallmarks required for oncogenesis and cancer progression. The innate immune system not only plays a critical role in perpetuating these tumor-promoting hallmarks but also in developing antitumor adaptive immune responses. Thus, understanding the dual role of the innate system in cancer immunology is required for the design of combined immunotherapy strategies able to tackle established tumors...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Roberto Serpe, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Clelia Madeddu, Mario Scartozzi
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is considered a multifactorial syndrome that leads a general decline of the cancer patient conditions, prognosis and survival, and characterized by progressive loss of body mass and functional impairment, due to marked energy metabolism imbalance and immunological disorders. It is the cause of death in almost one out of five advanced cancer patients. CACS is also accompanied with loss of quality of life, reduced response and tolerance to anticancer therapies and affected outcome...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
Zhonghui Guan, Judith Hellman, Mark Schumacher
Tissue injury, whether by trauma, surgical intervention, metabolic dysfunction, ischemia, or infection, evokes a complex cellular response (inflammation) that is associated with painful hyperalgesic states. Although in the acute stages it is necessary for protective reflexes and wound healing, inflammation may persist well beyond the need for tissue repair or survival. Prolonged inflammation may well represent the greatest challenge mammalian organisms face, as it can lead to chronic painful conditions, organ dysfunction, morbidity, and death...
2016: F1000Research
Ho Jae Lee, Jong Min Park, Ki Baik Hahm
Background/Aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a cytokine implicated in the susceptibility, development, and progression of gastrointestinal cancer and certain other neoplasms. In the later stages of cancer, TGF-β not only acts as a bystander of host-immune response, but also contributes to cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. In the current study, we generated gastric mucosal cells that stably express Smad7, and explored the Helicobacter pylori-associated biological changes between mock-transfected and Smad7-transfected RGM1 cells...
October 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Hyerim Ha, Ah-Rong Nam, Ju-Hee Bang, Ji-Eun Park, Tae-Yong Kim, Kyung-Hun Lee, Sae-Won Han, Seock-Ah Im, Tae-You Kim, Yung-Jue Bang, Do-Youn Oh
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in tumor tissue is under investigation as a candidate biomarker in immuno-oncology dug development. The soluble form of PD-L1 (sPDL1) is suggested to have immunosuppressive activity. In this study, we measured the serum level of sPDL1 and evaluated its prognostic implication in biliary tract cancer (BTC). Blood was collected from 158 advanced BTC patients (68 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 56 gallbladder cancer, 22 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 12 ampulla of vater cancer) before initiation of palliative chemotherapy...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Neera Raghav, Suman Jangra, Ajay Kumar, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya
Cysteine Cathepsins well known to be involved in cancer, inflammation and regulation of degenerative processes like apoptosis have become specific targets in drug designing. The potential of quinazolines and their derivatives in medicinal chemistry led us to synthesise a novel series of seven compounds of quinazolines to evaluate their effect on cathepsins and cellular aspects of HepG2 cells. In the present work we report the solvent free microwave assisted synthesis of (E)-8-benzylidene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2,4-diarylquinazolines as inhibitors of mammalian hepatic cysteine proteases viz...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Pritom Shah, Anne Cheasty, Caroline Foxton, Tony Raynham, Muddasar Farooq, Irene Farre Gutierrez, Aurore Lejeune, Michelle Pritchard, Andrew Turnbull, Leon Pang, Paul Owen, Susan Boyd, Alexandra Stowell, Allan Jordan, Niall M Hamilton, James R Hitchin, Martin Stockley, Ellen MacDonald, Mar Jimenez Quesada, Elisabeth Trivier, Jana Skeete, Huib Ovaa, Wouter H Moolenaar, Hamish Ryder
The autotoxin-lysophosphatidic acid (ATX-LPA) axis has been implicated in several disease conditions including inflammation, fibrosis and cancer. This makes ATX an attractive drug target and its inhibition may lead to useful therapeutic agents. Through a high throughput screen (HTS) we identified a series of small molecule inhibitors of ATX which have subsequently been optimized for potency, selectivity and developability properties. This has delivered drug-like compounds such as 9v (CRT0273750) which modulate LPA levels in plasma and are suitable for in vivo studies...
October 14, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Mehmet Rafet Yigitbasi, Gulcan Guntas, Tuba Atak, Cigdem Sonmez, Haydar Yalman, Hafize Uzun
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign inflammatory breast disease that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma and bacterial mastitis. The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of levels of the inflammation markers, interleukin-33 (IL-33), soluble ST2 receptor of IL-33 (sST2), procalcitonin (PCT), and CRP on differential diagnosis of IGM and breast cancer (BC). METHODS: 25 patients with IGM and 32 patients with primary BC who applied to General Surgery Clinic, and 30 healthy volunteer women with similar demographic condition were enrolled in the study...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Wojciech Marlicz, Katarzyna Sielatycka, Karol Serwin, Ewa Kubis, Marta Tkacz, Rafał Głuszko, Andrzej Białek, Teresa Starzyńska, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Bone marrow (BM) residing stem cells are mobilized from their BM niches into peripheral blood (PB) in several pathological situations including tissue organ injury and systemic inflammation. We recently reported that the number of BM-derived stem cells (SCs) increases in patients with pancreatic and stomach cancer. Accordingly, we observed higher numbers of circulating very small embryonic/epiblast‑like stem cells (VSELs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that were associated with the activation of pro-mobilizing complement cascade and an elevated level of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in PB plasma...
October 18, 2016: Oncology Reports
Minju Im, Aeyung Kim, Jin Yeul Ma
Gardeniae Fructus (GF, Zhi Zi in China), a fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, has been used in traditional medicine to reduce inflammation and headache and to treat hepatic disorders, hypertension, and icterus. In recent studies, extract of raw or stir-baked GF was shown to have pharmacological activities for viral infection, thrombosis, hyperlipidemia, convulsion, inflammation, oxidative stress, and others. In addition, baked GF extract suppressed the proteolytic activities and altered the cellular morphology of tumor cells...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Ana Babic, Shelley S Tworoger, Libin Zhang, Kana Wu, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Shuji Ogino, Andrew T Chan, Jeffrey Meyerhardt, Edward Giovannucci, Charles Fuchs, Eunyoung Cho, Dominique S Michaud, Meir J Stampfer, Yau-Hua Yu, David Kim, Xuehong Zhang
Periodontal diseases including tooth loss might increase systemic inflammation, lead to immune dysregulation, and alter gut microbiota, thereby possibly influencing colorectal carcinogenesis. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between periodontal diseases and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We collected information on the periodontal disease (defined as history of periodontal bone loss) and number of natural teeth in the Nurses' Health Study. A total of 77,443 women were followed since 1992...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hee Yeon Won, Eun Sook Hwang
Regulatory T (Treg) cells with high expression of both CD25 and Foxp3 are developed in the thymus and also peripheral tissues. Treg cells suppress the activation and functions of effector T cells raised against specific antigens and are crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis. Treg cell development is associated with the induction of and epigenetic alterations of forkhead transcription factor Foxp3. Foxp3 expression is increased by the activation of several transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and Smad3 in response to various signals such as TGFβ, retinoic acid, and rapamycin...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Paola De Cicco, Elisabetta Panza, Giuseppe Ercolano, Chiara Armogida, Giuseppe Sessa, Giuseppe Pirozzi, Giuseppe Cirino, John L Wallace, Angela Ianaro
Inflammation plays a key role in tumor promotion and development. Indeed, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is strongly associated with different types of cancer. An emerging class of compounds with significant anti-inflammatory properties is the hydrogen sulfide-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (H2S-NSAIDs). They consist of a traditional NSAID to which an H2S-releasing moiety is covalently attached. We have recently demonstrated that H2S donors inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. In the current study, we evaluated the potential beneficial effects of a new H2S-releasing derivative of naproxen, ATB-346 [2-(6- methoxynapthalen-2-yl)-propionic acid 4-thiocarbamoyl phenyl ester] which inhibits COX activity but also releases H2S...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jong-Young Lee, Seungho Ryu, EunSun Cheong, Ki-Chul Sung
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and risk of mortality in a large middle-aged cohort stratified by inflammatory status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 336,560 individuals (mean age, 39.7 years; 58% male) who underwent comprehensive health screenings were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. They were grouped according to self-reported PA level using a questionnaire: no regular PA with a sedentary lifestyle, regular but insufficient PA (below the guidelines), sufficient PA (concordant with the guidelines), and health-enhancing PA...
October 21, 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Debra Lynch Kelly, Kristin Dickinson, Chao-Pin Hsiao, Nada Lukkahatai, Velda Gonzalez-Marrero, Margaret McCabe, Leorey N Saligan
OBJECTIVES: Identification of biologic pathways of symptom clusters is necessary to develop precision therapies for distressing symptoms. This review examined extant literature evaluating relationships between biomarkers and symptom clusters in cancer survivors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched using terms "biological markers" or "biomarkers" and "symptom cluster" or "symptom complex" or "multiple symptoms." CONCLUSION: Biomarkers related to inflammation (eg, cytokines) were the most studied and showed the most significant relationships with clusters of symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Sven Jarius, Marius Ringelstein, Jürgen Haas, Irina I Serysheva, Lars Komorowski, Kai Fechner, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Philipp Albrecht, Harald Hefter, Andreas Moser, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Hans-Peter Hartung, Brigitte Wildemann, Orhan Aktas
BACKGROUND: Recently, we described a novel autoantibody, anti-Sj/ITPR1-IgG, that targets the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (ITPR1) in patients with cerebellar ataxia. However, ITPR1 is expressed not only by Purkinje cells but also in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, in the substantia gelatinosa and in the motor, sensory (including the dorsal root ganglia) and autonomic peripheral nervous system, suggesting that the clinical spectrum associated with autoimmunity to ITPR1 may be broader than initially thought...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yu Zhang, Yifei Lu, Feng Wang, Sai An, Yujie Zhang, Tao Sun, Jianhua Zhu, Chen Jiang
Inflammation has been reported as one significant hallmark of breast cancer in relation to tumor development, metastasis, and invasion. The bradykinin receptor 1 (B1R) is highly expressed on inflammatory breast tumor cells thus providing a promising targeting site for tumor recognition and sufficient receptor mediated endocytosis. In this study, the authors evaluate the targeting efficiency of l-form and d-form [des-Arg(10) ]kallidin both in vitro and in vivo. To further improve the drug delivery efficiency, the authors establish a dandelion like nanoparticle by combining the polymeric drug conjugates and aptamer complex together...
October 24, 2016: Small
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