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Keratinocyte activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910163/serum-amyloid-a-an-acute-phase-protein-stimulates-proliferative-and-proinflammatory-responses-of-keratinocytes
#1
Ning Yu, Shujie Zhang, Jiajing Lu, Ying Li, Xuemei Yi, Li Tang, Lina Su, Yangfeng Ding
OBJECTIVES: Serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase protein, is highly expressed in psoriatic lesions but its function is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore its role in activation of keratinocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to examine SAA expression in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice. In vivo function of SAA was examined by treating psoriasis-like mice with SAA neutralising antibody...
December 2, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908934/gata6-promotes-hair-follicle-progenitor-cell-renewal-by-genome-maintenance-during-proliferation
#2
Alex B Wang, Ying V Zhang, Tudorita Tumbar
Cell proliferation is essential to rapid tissue growth and repair, but can result in replication-associated genome damage. Here, we implicate the transcription factor Gata6 in adult mouse hair follicle regeneration where it controls the renewal of rapidly proliferating epithelial (matrix) progenitors and hence the extent of production of terminally differentiated lineages. We find that Gata6 protects against DNA damage associated with proliferation, thus preventing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that in vivo Gata6 stimulates EDA-receptor signaling adaptor Edaradd level and NF-κB pathway activation, known to be important for DNA damage repair and stress response in general and for hair follicle growth in particular...
December 1, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904671/melatonin-promotes-diabetic-wound-healing-in-vitro-by-regulating-keratinocyte-activity
#3
Ruipeng Song, Lijun Ren, Haoli Ma, Ruijing Hu, Honghong Gao, Li Wang, Xuehui Chen, Zhigang Zhao, Jialin Liu
Diabetic patients are at high risk of developing delayed cutaneous wound healing. Proper keratinocyte proliferation and migration are crucial steps during re-epithelialization. Melatonin (Mel) accelerates wound repair in full-thickness incisional wounds; however, its role in diabetic wound healing is unknown. This study explored the role of Mel in diabetic wound healing in vitro by using high glucose (HG)-cultured keratinocytes. Mel reduced the HG-induced mRNA expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, in keratinocytes...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903963/cdh1-regulates-e2f1-degradation-in-response-to-differentiation-signals-in-keratinocytes
#4
Randeep K Singh, Lina Dagnino
The E2F1 transcription factor plays key roles in skin homeostasis. In the epidermis, E2F1 expression is essential for normal proliferation of undifferentiated keratinocytes, regeneration after injury and DNA repair following UV radiation-induced photodamage. Abnormal E2F1 expression promotes nonmelanoma skin carcinoma. In addition, E2F1 must be downregulated for proper keratinocyte differentiation, but the relevant mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show that differentiation signals induce a series of post-translational modifications in E2F1 that are jointly required for its downregulation...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903619/interleukin-10-mediated-regenerative-postnatal-tissue-repair-is-dependent-on-regulation-of-hyaluronan-metabolism-via-fibroblast-specific-stat3-signaling
#5
Swathi Balaji, Xinyi Wang, Alice King, Louis D Le, Sukanta S Bhattacharya, Chad M Moles, Manish J Butte, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez, Kenneth W Liechty, Thomas N Wight, Timothy M Crombleholme, Paul L Bollyky, Sundeep G Keswani
The cytokine IL-10 has potent antifibrotic effects in models of adult fibrosis, but the mechanisms of action are unclear. Here, we report a novel finding that IL-10 triggers a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent signaling pathway that regulates hyaluronan (HA) metabolism and drives adult fibroblasts to synthesize an HA-rich pericellular matrix, which mimics the fetal regenerative wound healing phenotype with reduced fibrosis. By using cre-lox-mediated novel, inducible, fibroblast-, keratinocyte-, and wound-specific STAT3 knockdown postnatal mice-plus syngeneic fibroblast cell-transplant models-we demonstrate that the regenerative effects of IL-10 in postnatal wounds are dependent on HA synthesis and fibroblast-specific STAT3-dependent signaling...
November 30, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902761/tlr-2-recognizes-propionibacterium-acnes-camp-factor-1-from-highly-inflammatory-strains
#6
Coralie Lheure, Philippe Alain Grange, Guillaume Ollagnier, Philippe Morand, Nathalie Désiré, Sophie Sayon, Stéphane Corvec, Jöel Raingeaud, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Vincent Calvez, Amir Khammari, Frédéric Batteux, Brigitte Dréno, Nicolas Dupin
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900049/toll-like-receptors-and-cutaneous-melanoma
#7
Ilaria Coati, Serena Miotto, Irene Zanetti, Mauro Alaibac
Innate immune cells recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that PRRs also recognize endogenous molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from damaged cells. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors. To date, 10 TLRs have been identified in humans and each receptor responds to a different ligand...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899258/characterization-of-bioactive-constituents-from-the-gum-resin-of-gardenia-lucida-and-its-pharmacological-potential
#8
Priyanka Maurya, Shilpi Singh, Madan Mohan Gupta, Suaib Luqman
In the present study we mined the information on Gardenia lucida (Dikamali) and identified seven polymethoxyflavones from its gum resin. We also investigated its antiproliferative and antioxidant potential. Xanthomicrol (8) found as potent DPPH scavenger (85.86±1.3%) along with strong ferric plummeting ability (53.60±2.0 FSE) and reducing potential (1.07±0.01) as compared to ascorbic acid. Gardenin B (5) strongly inhibit biochemical production of nitric oxide (IC50 10.59±0.4μg/mL) followed by 5-Desmethylnobiletin (7) and Gardenin E (10, IC5011...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898044/dna-damage-inducible-transcript-4-is-an-innate-surveillant-of-hair-follicular-stress-in-vitamin-d-receptor-knockout-mice-and-a-regulator-of-wound-re-epithelialization
#9
Hengguang Zhao, Sandra Rieger, Koichiro Abe, Martin Hewison, Thomas S Lisse
Mice and human patients with impaired vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling have normal developmental hair growth but display aberrant post-morphogenic hair cycle progression associated with alopecia. In addition, VDR(-/-) mice exhibit impaired cutaneous wound healing. We undertook experiments to determine whether the stress-inducible regulator of energy homeostasis, DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (Ddit4), is involved in these processes. By analyzing hair cycle activation in vivo, we show that VDR(-/-) mice at day 14 exhibit increased Ddit4 expression within follicular stress compartments...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892604/interleukin-il-6-modulates-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-receptor-i-and-ii-tgf-%C3%AE-ri-and-ii-function-in-epidermal-keratinocytes
#10
Lerin R Luckett-Chastain, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Bethany M Kawar, Michael A Ihnat, Randle M Gallucci
It been shown that IL-6 modulates TGF-β1 expression in fibroblasts, however; what role IL-6 plays concerning TGF-βR expression and function in skin is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which IL-6 might modulates TGF-β receptors in skin. Skin from WT, IL-6 overexpressing mice, and IL-6 treated keratinocyte cultures were analyzed for TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII expression via histology, PCR, and flow cytometry. Receptor function was assessed by cell migration, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assays, and Smad7 expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892491/selected-biomarkers-revealed-potential-skin-toxicity-caused-by-certain-copper-compounds
#11
Hairui Li, Pei Zhen Toh, Jia Yao Tan, Melvin T Zin, Chi-Ying Lee, Bo Li, Melvina Leolukman, Hongqian Bao, Lifeng Kang
Copper is an essential mineral and plays important roles in skin growth and activity. Copper delivery through skin can provide beneficial effects but its potential to induce skin irritation reactions is often overlooked. Data on dermal toxicity caused by copper compounds is scant. Some recognized in vitro skin toxicity methods are unsuitable for all metal compounds. Here, we employ a keratinocyte-based model and evaluated the skin irritation potential of copper compounds at cellular, genomic and proteomic levels...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891342/immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-role-of-serotonin-in-pathogenesis-of-psoriasis
#12
Sheren Fouad Younes, Ola Ahmed Bakry
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a common skin disorder characterized by erythaematosquamous papules and plaques. It is known to be associated with stressful and depressive disorders. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disorders. AIM: To evaluate the role of serotonin in pathogenesis of psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using standard immunohistochemical techniques, 24 biopsies from patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were examined together with 12 biopsies from age and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891094/anti-acne-activity-of-italian-medicinal-plants-used-for-skin-infection
#13
Kate Nelson, James T Lyles, Tracy Li, Alessandro Saitta, Eugenia Addie-Noye, Paula Tyler, Cassandra L Quave
Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, which impacts >85% of teenagers. Novel therapies are in high demand and an ethnopharmacological approach to discovering new plant sources of anti-acne therapeutics could contribute to filling this void in effective therapies. The aims of our study were two-fold: (1) To determine if species identified in ethnopharmacological field studies as having traditional uses for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) exhibit significantly more activity against P...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889062/monoallelic-mutations-in-the-translation-initiation-codon-of-klhl24-cause-skin-fragility
#14
Yinghong He, Kristin Maier, Juna Leppert, Ingrid Hausser, Agnes Schwieger-Briel, Lisa Weibel, Martin Theiler, Dimitra Kiritsi, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Katariina Hannula-Jouppi, Hannele Heikkilä, Kaisa Tasanen, Daniele Castiglia, Giovanna Zambruno, Cristina Has
The genetic basis of epidermolysis bullosa, a group of genetic disorders characterized by the mechanically induced formation of skin blisters, is largely known, but a number of cases still remain genetically unsolved. Here, we used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to identify monoallelic mutations, c.1A>G and c.2T>C, in the translation initiation codon of the gene encoding kelch-like protein 24 (KLHL24) in 14 individuals with a distinct skin-fragility phenotype and skin cleavage within basal keratinocytes...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884600/steaps-comprise-a-novel-inflammatory-nexus-in-pustular-skin-disorders
#15
Yun Liang, Xianying Xing, Maria A Beamer, William R Swindell, Mrinal K Sarkar, Liza Wolterink Roberts, John J Voorhees, J Michelle Kahlenberg, Paul W Harms, Andrew Johnston, Johann E Gudjonsson
BACKGROUND: Pustular skin disorders are a category of difficult-to-treat and potentially life threatening conditions that involve the appearance of neutrophil rich pustules. The molecular basis of most pustular skin conditions has remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the molecular basis of three pustular skin disorders, generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). METHODS: Microarray analyses were performed to profile genome-wide gene expression of skin biopsies obtained from GPP, PPP, AGEP patients and normal controls...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883993/stimulation-of-the-nonneuronal-cholinergic-system-by-highly-diluted-acetylcholine-in-keratinocytes
#16
Francesca Uberti, Claudio Bardelli, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Andrea Cochis, Claudio Molinari
The physiological effects of acetylcholine on keratinocytes depend on the presence of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The role of nonneuronal acetylcholine in keratinocytes could have important clinical implications for patients with various skin disorders such as nonhealing wounds. In order to evaluate the efficacy of highly diluted acetylcholine solutions obtained by sequential kinetic activation, we aimed to investigate the effects of these solutions on normal human keratinocytes. Two different concentrations (10 fg/mL and 1 pg/mL) and formulations (kinetically activated and nonkinetically activated) of acetylcholine were used to verify keratinocyte viability, proliferation, and migration and the intracellular pathways involved using MTT, crystal violet, wound healing, and Western blot compared to 147 ng/mL acetylcholine...
November 25, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880999/current-knowledge-on-the-active-form-of-vitamin-d-synthesized-in-the-skin-and-its-effects-on-malignant-melanoma
#17
B Bolerazska, M Rabajdova, I Spakova, M Marekova
The link between sunlight and skin cancer is a frequently discussed topic. However, ultraviolet radiation also induces the production of Vitamin D in the body. Keratinocytes and their ability to synthesize the active form of Vitamin D, which is consumed at the place of its origin in the skin, have a unique place in this discussion. We observe a remarkable sunshine-related paradox when we monitor the relationship between the dose of solar radiation and one type of skin cancer - malignant melanoma. Recent knowledge of the non-calcemic effects of Vitamin D, which include growth regulation, DNA repair, differentiation, apoptosis, membrane transport, metabolism, cell adhesion and oxidative stress, could help to further clarify this relationship...
November 24, 2016: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880883/anti-proliferative-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-3%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-16%C3%AE-trihydroxylup-20-29-ene-on-cutaneous-inflammation
#18
Cintia Delai da Silva Horinouchi, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno Mendes, Stefanie Nolte, Priscilla Salles de Brito, Bruna da Silva Soley, Giovani Marino Favero, Valdir Alves Facundo, Adair Roberto Soares Santos, Daniela de Almeida Cabrini, Michel Fleith Otuki
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: 3β,6β,16β-Trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (TTHL) is a triterpene isolated from the flowers of Combretum leprosum, a plant used in folk medicine in the north of Brazil for the treatment of skin disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, TTHL was evaluated as a potential topical anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative agent through in vivo and in vitro models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anti-inflammmatory and anti-proliferative effects of TTHL were assessed using Swiss mice in acute and chronic models of skin inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA) application...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880796/foxn1-cre-expression-in-the-male-germline
#19
Jianjun Shi, Irina Getun, Bivian Torres, Howard T Petrie
Foxn1 (forkhead box N1), also known as the nude gene or winged-helix nude (Whn), is a forkhead transcription factor thought to be restricted to keratinocytes in the skin and thymus. Consistent with this tissue distribution, spontaneous or targeted mutation of Foxn1 results in the absence of both hair and a thymus. Genetic manipulation of the Foxn1 locus thus represents a powerful tool for tissue specific gene control in the skin and thymus, and tools such as Cre recombinase under control of the Foxn1 locus are widely used for this purpose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879331/brd4-activates-early-viral-transcription-upon-human-papillomavirus-18-infection-of-primary-keratinocytes
#20
Caleb C McKinney, Min Jung Kim, Dan Chen, Alison A McBride
: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) replicate in the cutaneous and mucosal epithelia, and the infectious cycle is synchronous with the differentiation program of the host keratinocytes. The virus initially infects dividing cells in the lower layers of the epithelium, where it establishes a persistent infection. The viral genome is maintained as a low-copy-number, extrachromosomal element in these proliferating cells but switches to the late stage of the life cycle in differentiated cells...
November 22, 2016: MBio
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