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Keratinocyte activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054798/the-antimicrobial-peptide-nisin-z-induces-selective-toxicity-and-apoptotic-cell-death-in-cultured-melanoma-cells
#1
Angélique Lewies, Johannes Frederik Wentzel, Hayley van Dyk, Lissinda Hester Du Plessis
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is now considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. Most malignant cells present with altered energy metabolism which is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This is also evident for melanoma, the leading cause of skin cancer related deaths. Altered mechanisms affecting mitochondrial bioenergetics pose attractive targets for novel anti-cancer therapies...
October 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054701/intra-and-inter-laboratory-reproducibility-and-predictivity-of-the-hacasens-assay-a-skin-sensitization-test-using-human-keratinocytes-hacat
#2
Hyewon Chung, Hailian Quan, Daun Jung, Gautam Ravi, Ahrang Cho, Mijeong Kang, Eunju Kim, Jeonghwan Che, Eung-Seok Lee, Taecheon Jeong, Yong Heo, Seung Hyeok Seok
Due to considerable constraints in using animals for risk assessment, much effort has been directed at developing non-animal test methods. Developing assays for skin sensitization, the leading cause of contact dermatitis, is particularly important, but there are currently no in vitro skin sensitization tests that completely replace animal tests. HaCaSens, a simple skin sensitization test using non-transformed HaCaT cells, predicts keratinocyte activation by skin sensitizers with 75% sensitivity, 83% specificity and 77% accuracy in a previous study using 22 coded substances...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054700/rebamipide-suppresses-5-fluorouracil-induced-cell-death-via-the-activation-of-akt-mtor-pathway-and-regulates-the-expression-of-bcl-2-family-proteins
#3
Masanobu Tsubaki, Tomoya Takeda, Ryo-Ta Asano, Tomoyuki Matsuda, Shin-Ichiro Fujimoto, Tatsuki Itoh, Motohiro Imano, Takao Satou, Shozo Nishida
Oral mucositis is a common adverse effect of chemotherapy that limits the required dose of chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous attempts to mitigate chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis have failed to identify an appropriate treatment. Recently, it has been indicated that rebamipide prevents chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients. However, the details of the underlying mechanism involved in the cytoprotective effect of rebamipide remain obscure. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism behind rebamipide cytoprotective effect in the oral mucosa using primary normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK cells)...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054601/disruption-of-trpv3-impairs-heat-evoked-vasodilation-and-thermoregulation-a-critical-role-of-cgrp
#4
Berengere Fromy, Audrey Josset-Lamaugarny, Géraldine Aimond, Aurélie Pagnon-Minot, Irène Marics, Glenn J Tattersall, Aziz Moqrich, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel
Sensing environmental temperature is a key factor allowing individuals to maintain thermal homeostasis via thermoregulatory mechanisms, including changes to skin blood flow. Among transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPV3 is a heat-activated cation channel highly expressed in keratinocytes. However, the role of TRPV3 in triggering heat-evoked cutaneous vasodilation is unknown. Using a murine in vivo model of local acute environmental heat exposure in the skin, we show that TRPV3 is involved in the local thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow by initiating the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to local heating of the skin...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048658/functional-diversity-of-mir-146a-5p-and-traf6-in-normal-and-oral-cancer-cells
#5
Seung-Ki Min, Sung Youn Jung, Hyun Ki Kang, Sin-A Park, Jong Ho Lee, Myung-Jin Kim, Byung-Moo Min
Numerous studies implicate miR-146a as pleiotropic regulator of carcinogenesis; however, its roles in carcinogenesis are not fully understood. A clue from expression analyses of miR-146a-5p in all 13 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines examined and in OSCC tissues, whole blood and whole saliva of OSCC patients in vivo revealed that miR‑146a-5p expression was highly upregulated. Particularly, we widened the view of its upregulation in saliva, implicating that high miR-146a-5p expression is not only correlated closely to the development of human oral cancer, but also to a possible candidate as a diagnostic marker of OSCC...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047245/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-inhibition-attenuates-the-adverse-effects-of-glucocorticoids-on-dermal-papilla-cells
#6
Sang Eun Lee, Eun Young Lee, Sang Jin Kang, Seung Hun Lee
PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids, stress-related hormones, inhibit hair growth. Intracellular glucocorticoid availability is regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). 11β-HSD1 was recently detected in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. However, the expression of 11β-HSD1 in human hair follicles remains unknown. We aimed to examine 11β-HSD1 expression in human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and to investigate whether modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity can regulate the negative effects of glucocorticoids on DPCs...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046052/protective-effect-of-different-antioxidant-agents-in-uvb-irradiated-keratinocytes
#7
Sara Salucci, Sabrina Burattini, Francesca Buontempo, Alberto Maria Martelli, Elisabetta Falcieri, Michela Battistelli
Skin cells can respond to UVB-induced damage either by tolerating it, or restoring it through antioxidant activation and DNA repair mechanisms or, ultimately, undergoing programmed cell death, when damage is massive. Nutritional factors, in particular, food antioxidants, have attracted much interest because of their potential use in new preventive, protective, and therapeutic strategies for chronic degenerative diseases, including skin inflammation and cancer. Some polyphenols, present in virgin olive oil, well tolerated by organism after oral administration, show a variety of pharmacological and clinical benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective activities...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045420/inhibition-of-apoptosis-signal-regulating-kinase-1-alters-the-wound-epidermis-and-enhances-auricular-cartilage-regeneration
#8
Qian-Shi Zhang, Deepa S Kurpad, My G Mahoney, Marla J Steinbeck, Theresa A Freeman
Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO) or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1), also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045012/photodynamic-therapy-inhibits-melanogenesis-through-paracrine-effects-by-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#9
Sue Kyung Kim, Seung-Jae Oh, Se-Yeon Park, Woo-Jung Kim, You-Sun Kim, You Chan Kim
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment option for skin cancer and premalignant skin diseases and exhibits rejuvenation effects, including reducing fine wrinkles and whitening, on aged skin. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the whitening effects of PDT on melanocytes in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of melanocytes to PDT in vitro reduced their melanin content and tyrosinase activity without, however, affecting cell survival. Interestingly, melanogenesis was also inhibited by exposing melanocytes to conditioned media of PDT-treated keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts...
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044987/sticky-fingers-at-work-palmitoylation-dependent-mc1r-activation
#10
Jose Carlos Garcia-Borron, Celia Jimenez-Cervantes
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) positively coupled to the cAMP pathway. MC1R is expressed in melanocytes, where it is critically involved in the cutaneous responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The current paradigm posits that UVR-induced DNA damage in skin keratinocytes activates expression of the POMC gene encoding for the precursor of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). The resulting paracrine release of αMSH activates MC1R in melanocytes and switches the production of melanin pigments from basal pheomelanogenesis to synthesis of eumelanins...
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042175/calcitriol-promotes-proangiogenic-molecules-in-keratinocytes-in-a-diabetic-foot-ulcer-model
#11
Valentin Trujillo, Paulina Marín-Luevano, Irma González-Curiel, Adrián Rodríguez-Carlos, Maira Ramírez-Reyes, Esther Layseca-Espinosa, José A Enciso-Moreno, Lorenza Díaz, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Foot ulceration is one of the most common and complex sequelae of diabetes mellitus, generally posing a therapeutic challenge due to poor healing responses and high rates of complications, including peripheral vascular disease, ischemia and infections. Calcitriol, the most active vitamin D metabolite, induces antimicrobial peptides production in keratinocytes from diabetic foot ulcers (DFU); however, little is known about its effects on angiogenic factors in this pathology. Herein we aimed at studying whether calcitriol induces angiogenic molecules in keratinocytes under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and if these molecules are able to improve cell migration in vitro...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042026/identification-signaling-and-functions-of-ltb4-receptors
#12
REVIEW
Kazuko Saeki, Takehiko Yokomizo
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a lipid mediator produced from arachidonic acid, is a chemoattractant for inflammatory leukocytes. We identified two receptors for LTB4, the high-affinity receptor BLT1 and the low-affinity receptor BLT2. BLT1 is expressed in various subsets of leukocytes, and analyses of BLT1-deficient mice revealed that the LTB4/BLT1 axis enhances leukocyte recruitment to infected sites, and is involved in the elimination of pathogens. Hyperactivation of the LTB4/BLT1 axis induces acute and chronic inflammation, resulting in various inflammatory diseases...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040328/integrin-beta-1-inhibition-alleviates-the-chronic-hyperproliferative-dermatitis-phenotype-of-sharpin-deficient-mice
#13
Emilia Peuhu, Siiri I Salomaa, Nicola De Franceschi, Christopher S Potter, John P Sundberg, Jeroen Pouwels
SHARPIN (Shank-Associated RH Domain-Interacting Protein) is a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which enhances TNF-induced NF-κB activity. SHARPIN-deficient (Sharpincpdm/cpdm) mice display multi-organ inflammation and chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm) due to TNF-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. In cells, SHARPIN also inhibits integrins independently of LUBAC, but it has remained enigmatic whether elevated integrin activity levels in the dermis of Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice is due to increased integrin activity or is secondary to inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039484/mir%C3%A2-203-contributes-to-il%C3%A2-17%C3%A2-induced-vegf-secretion-by-targeting-socs3-in-keratinocytes
#14
Yuanyuan Xu, Yongzhi Ji, Xiaoou Lan, Xinghua Gao, Hong-Duo Chen, Long Geng
Interleukin (IL)-17 signaling serves an important role in the development and pathogenesis of psoriasis; a chronic skin disease characterized by increased dermal vascularity and the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. microRNA (miR)‑203 is preferentially expressed in the skin and is an important regulator of keratinocyte differentiation. miR‑203 has been implicated in a number of skin diseases, including psoriasis. However, the role of miR‑203 in IL‑17‑induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion has yet to be elucidated...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039482/protective-effects-of-compounds-from-garcinia-mangostana-l-mangosteen-against-uvb-damage-in-hacat-cells-and-hairless-mice
#15
A-Rang Im, Young-Mi Kim, Young-Won Chin, Sungwook Chae
Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes alterations in the skin, such as epidermal thickening, wrinkle formation and inflammation. Therefore, preventing UVB-induced skin damage can promote general health among the human population. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen) is a fruit that has become a popular botanical dietary supplement because of its perceived role in promoting overall health. The present study investigated the photoprotective effects of α-, β-, γ-mangostins and gartanin against UVB radiation using the HaCaT immortalized human keratinocyte cell line as an in vitro model and hairless mice as an in vivo model...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038621/tweak-fn14-activation-participates-in-skin-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Qilu Liu, Shengxiang Xiao, Yumin Xia
Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) participates in multiple biological activities via binding to its sole receptor-fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14). The TWEAK/Fn14 signaling pathway is activated in skin inflammation and modulates the inflammatory responses of keratinocytes by activating nuclear factor-κB signals and enhancing the production of several cytokines, including interleukins, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037911/assessing-daylight-low-light-photodynamic-therapy-efficacy-using-biomarkers-of-photophysical-biochemical-and-biological-damage-metrics-in-situ
#17
Ana Luiza Ribeiro de Souza, Ethan LaRochelle, Kayla Marra, Jason Gunn, Scott C Davis, Kimberley S Samkoe, M Shane Chapman, Edward V Maytin, Tayyaba Hasan, Brian W Pogue
BACKGROUND: Sunlight can activate photodynamic therapy (PDT), and this is a proven strategy to reduce pain caused by the conventional PDT treatment, but assessment of this and other alternative low dose rate light sources, and their efficacy, has not been studied in an objective, controlled pre-clinical setting. This study used three objective assays to assess the efficacy of different PDT treatment regimens, using PpIX fluorescence as a photophysical measure, STAT3 cross-linking as a photochemical measure, and keratinocyte damage as a photobiological measure...
October 13, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031034/-potential-of-using-vitamin-d-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-of-malignant-melanoma
#18
B Bolerázska, E Ďurovcová, M Mareková
The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide continues to grow despite the enormous advances in topical and systemic therapy. This increase is recorded regularly even in countries where, as a result of public health campaigns, dermatological examination and subsequent treatment have become more frequent. However, there have been reports of a stable or even decreasing mortality rate that seem to contradict the objective increase in its incidence. The well-known risk factors for malignant melanoma include sunburns and occasional sunbathing, whereas regular sunbathing is associated with a lower incidence...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029473/nbpf7-promotes-the-proliferation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-knockdown-hacat-cells-via-functional-interaction-with-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#19
Hua-Yu Zhu, Wen-Dong Bai, Chao Li, Jun Li, Da-Hai Hu
Loss of key components that form cell-cell adherens junctions, such as α-catenin, triggers severe epidermal hyperproliferation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We report here that neuroblastoma breakpoint family (NBPF) genes are upregulated and that NBPF7 specifically promotes cellular proliferation of α-catenin-silenced HaCaT cells through functional linkage with the NF-κB pathway. Genome-wide profiling of HaCaT cells shows that NBPF genes are upregulated following α-catenin knockdown...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026975/effect-of-isoliquiritigenin-for-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions-in-mice
#20
Haiyang Yu, Haiyan Li, Yongxi Li, Min Li, Guanzhi Chen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized with high heterogeneity. Recent studies have suggested that it is driven by both terminal keratinocyte differentiation defects and type 2 immune responses. The mainstay steroid topical therapy has severe side effect and new treatment is in demand. Isoliquiritigenin (ISLG) is a small phenolic bioactive molecule from licorice that has shown multiple pharmacological effects against cancer, inflammatory disorder, and cardiovascular diseases...
October 12, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
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