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Tumour virus

Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Jake K Nikota, Qian N Hu, Andrew Nguyen, Yonghong Wan, Brian D Lichty
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer is a significant global health burden and despite the presence of viral transforming antigens within neoplastic cells, therapeutic vaccinations are ineffective for advanced disease. HPV positive TC1 cells are susceptible to viral oncolysis by MG1-E6E7, a custom designed oncolytic Maraba virus. Epitope mapping of mice vaccinated with MG1-E6E7 enabled the rational design of synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines against HPV16 and HPV18 antigens. SLPs were able to induce specific CD8+ immune responses and the magnitude of these responses significantly increased when boosted by MG1-E6E7...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Scott Lindsay, Mahdis Aghazadeh, Cheryl Sangster, Julia A Beatty
The pathogenicity of Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a common infection of domestic cats, is unknown. To explore an association between FcaGHV1 detection and feline lymphoma, a retrospective, cross-sectional, disease-association study was conducted. The infection status of all cats for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus was determined. Neither a molecular diagnosis of FcaGHV1 nor whole-blood FcaGHV1 load was related to outcome in 122 lymphoma cases compared with 71 controls matched for age and sex...
March 14, 2018: Viruses
Husnain Ahmed, Jody Mays, Matti Kiupel, John R Dunn
A variety of techniques have been developed as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of tumours produced by Marek's disease virus (MDV) from those induced by avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). However, most current techniques are unreliable when used in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues, which many times is the only sample type available for definitive diagnosis. A collection of tumours was generated by the inoculation of different strains of MDV, REV or ALV singularly or in combination...
March 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mingxin Zhang, Qianqian Wu, Yao Chen, Mubing Duan, Ge Tian, Xianbo Deng, Yankuo Sun, Tong Zhou, Guihong Zhang, Weisan Chen, Jianxin Chen
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widely prevalent and endemic swine pathogen that causes significant economic losses for the global pig industry annually. Currently, the most prevalent strategy for PRRSV control remains the prevention of virus transmission, with highly effective therapeutic agents and vaccines still lacking. Proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2) belongs to the family of tea polyphenols, which have been reported to exhibit a range of biological activities including anti-oxidative, cardio-protective, anti-tumoural, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as in vivo...
2018: PloS One
T Gambichler, I Rüddel, S Hessam, F G Bechara, E Stockfleth, L Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Koebnerized non-melanoma skin cancer following skin trauma represents a rare and obscure event. OBJECTIVES: To study molecularpathological parameters in koebnerized squamous cell carcinomas (K-SCCs) occurring after complete tumour removal. METHODS: We assessed two patients with multiple sclerosis who were on treatment with dimethylfumarate (DMF) preceded by long-term azathioprine therapy. Both patients rapidly developed several K-SCCs following histopathologically proven complete excision of cutaneous SCCs...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Gabrielė Stakaitytė, Nnenna Nwogu, Jonathan D Lippiat, G Eric Blair, Krzysztof Poterlowicz, James R Boyne, Andrew Macdonald, Jamel Mankouri, Adrian Whitehouse
Ion channels regulate many aspects of cell physiology, including cell proliferation, motility, and migration, and aberrant expression and activity of ion channels is associated with various stages of tumor development, with K+ and Cl- channels now being considered the most active during tumorigenesis. Accordingly, emerging in vitro and preclinical studies have revealed that pharmacological manipulation of ion channel activity offers protection against several cancers. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a major cause of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), primarily due to the expression of two early regulatory proteins termed small and large tumour antigens (ST and LT, respectively)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
L Ottria, V Candotto, F Cura, L Baggi, C Arcuri, M Nardone, R M Gaudio, R Gatto, F Spadari, F Carinci
In addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the two main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), recent studies have revealed infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) as an additional risk factor for OSCC development. In the field of head and neck malignancies, the prevalence of HPV infections in oropharyngeal cancer (OC) ranges in different studies up to 84%. While HPV infection is discussed as an independent risk factor in this region, its distinguished role in carcinogenesis of tumours localized to the oral cavity remains uncertain...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
J W Baddley, F Cantini, D Goletti, J J Gómez-Reino, E Mylonakis, R San-Juan, M Fernández-Ruiz, J Torre-Cisneros
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
M L Yap, G Allo, J Cuartero, M Pintilie, S Kamel-Reid, J Murphy, H Mackay, B Clarke, A Fyles, M Milosevic
AIMS: Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as an aetiological agent in a subset of patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). The prognostic role of HPV status in VSCC patients treated with radiotherapy has not yet been determined. We investigated the associations between HPV, p16 and clinical outcome in these women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing potentially curative radiation treatment for VSCC at a single institution from 2000 to 2009 were retrospectively identified...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Nassim Sid, Nour El Houda Belalmi, Louiza Benhamza, Soraya Ouhida, Mohammed Ezine Zebiri, Ahmet Aydoğan, Caroline Leroux
We report clinical and pathological features of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) in one sheep in Algeria. A one-year-old Ouled Djellal sheep from a large herd (~1240 animals), located in Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria, was clinically diagnosed by the presence of persistent seromucous nasal discharge, head shaking, muzzle licking, dyspnoea, exophthalmia and frontal protrusion. The sheep was euthanized, and the necropsy was performed. Gross examination showed soft touch, pinkish-white tumour masses in the nasal cavities with distortion of the turbinates and of the medium septum...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Patrick Lee, Shashi Gujar
The clinical effectiveness of immunotherapies for prostate cancer remains subpar compared with that for other cancers. The goal of most immunotherapies is the activation of immune effectors, such as T cells and natural killer cells, as the presence of these activated mediators positively correlates with patient outcomes. Clinical evidence shows that prostate cancer is immunogenic, accessible to the immune system, and can be targeted by antitumour immune responses. However, owing to the detrimental effects of prostate-cancer-associated immunosuppression, even the newest immunotherapeutic approaches fail to initiate the clinically desired antitumour immune reaction...
February 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Fernando A Moraga-Llop
Human papilloma virus (HPV) was first identified in dermatology, and it was subsequently demonstrated that is was required for the development of uterine cervical cancer and other tumours, after a persistent infection by any of its oncogenic genotypes. Ten years ago, the most common infections and cancers associated with HPV could be prevented by immunisation with 2vaccines, one bivalent, and another tetravalent, and having just marketed a nonavalent one. During the period 2007-2008, the HPV vaccine was included in the Autonomous Communities vaccination calendar, and it is the second vaccine, after that of Hepatitis B, that prevents cancer...
February 7, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Xin-Ran Tang, Ying-Qin Li, Shao-Bo Liang, Wei Jiang, Fang Liu, Wen-Xiu Ge, Ling-Long Tang, Yan-Ping Mao, Qing-Mei He, Xiao-Jing Yang, Yuan Zhang, Xin Wen, Jian Zhang, Ya-Qin Wang, Pan-Pan Zhang, Ying Sun, Jing-Ping Yun, Jing Zeng, Li Li, Li-Zhi Liu, Na Liu, Jun Ma
BACKGROUND: Gene expression patterns can be used as prognostic biomarkers in various types of cancers. We aimed to identify a gene expression pattern for individual distant metastatic risk assessment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort analysis, we included 937 patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from three Chinese hospitals: the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China), the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University (Guilin, China), and the First People's Hospital of Foshan (Foshan, China)...
February 7, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Mitchell G Rohatensky, Devon M Livingstone, Paul Mintchev, Heather K Barnes, Steven C Nakoneshny, Douglas J Demetrick, Joseph C Dort, Guido van Marle
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing in incidence despite a decline in traditional risk factors. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), specifically subtypes 16, 18, 31 and 35, has been implicated as the high-risk etiologic agent. HPV positive cancers have a significantly better prognosis than HPV negative cancers of comparable stage, and may benefit from different treatment regimens. Currently, HPV related carcinogenesis is established indirectly through Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for p16, a tumour suppressor gene, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that directly tests for HPV DNA in biopsied tissue...
February 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
O M Gannon, A Antonsson, I C Bennett, N A Saunders
Sporadic human breast cancer is the most common cancer to afflict women. Since the discovery, decades ago, of the oncogenic mouse mammary tumour virus, there has been significant interest in the potential aetiologic role of infectious agents in sporadic human breast cancer. To address this, many studies have examined the presence of viruses (e.g. papillomaviruses, herpes viruses and retroviruses), endogenous retroviruses and more recently, microbes, as a means of implicating them in the aetiology of human breast cancer...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
Pu Wang, Jianhua Li, Pengtao Gong, Weirong Wang, Yongxing Ai, Xichen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chicken coccidiosis, a disease caused by seven species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Coccidia), inflicts severe economic losses on the poultry industry. Eimeria tenella is the one of the most virulent species pathogenic to chickens. Many parasitic protozoans are parasitised by double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, and the influence of protozoan viruses on parasitic protozoans has been extensively reported. E. tenella RNA virus 1 (Etv) was identified in E. tenella, and the complete genome sequence of Etv was analysed...
January 31, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Michèle Brocard, Sarika Khasnis, C David Wood, Claire Shannon-Lowe, Michelle J West
Response gene to complement-32 (RGC-32) activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1, regulates the cell cycle and is deregulated in many human tumours. We previously showed that RGC-32 expression is upregulated by the cancer-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in latently infected B cells through the relief of translational repression. We now show that EBV infection of naïve primary B cells also induces RGC-32 protein translation. In EBV-immortalised cell lines, we found that RGC-32 depletion resulted in cell death, indicating a key role in B cell survival...
January 27, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Audrey Hubert, Nabila Seddiki
The field of immunotherapeutics is living an exceptional time as new antibodies that take brakes off T-cells and unleash them on tumours are being approved by the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For the design and development of an HIV-1 therapeutic-vaccine, one would need preferably to shift the balance T-effectors/T-regulatory cells (Teff/Tregs) towards effectors to improve vaccine-specific immune-responses. Given the success with the new immune-checkpoint-blockers (ICB), it is an appropriate time for HIV-1 field to seize this opportunity and develop new therapeutic vaccine-strategies that take into consideration ICB and other immunomodulators such as cytokines...
January 30, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ayako Sakakibara, Kei Kohno, Ahmed E Eladl, Teerada Klaisuwan, Eri Ishikawa, Yuka Suzuki, Satoko Shimada, Masato Nakaguro, Yoshie Shimoyama, Taishi Takahara, Seiichi Kato, Naoko Asano, Shigeo Nakamura, Akira Satou
AIMS: The programmed death 1 (PD1)/PD1 ligand (PD-L1) axis plays an important role in tumour cells escape from immune control. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry is a useful predictor of immunotherapy response, but is still not widely used in the diagnostic setting. Here we describe results using PD-L1 immunohistochemistry during routine diagnostics in lymphoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-one lymphoproliferative disease cases sharing tumour and nonmalignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells with and without Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association were investigated by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 (clone SP142)...
January 30, 2018: Histopathology
Eonju Oh, JinWoo Hong, Oh-Joon Kwon, Chae-Ok Yun
Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive and malignant type of cancer that is apoptosis resistant and difficult to cure by conventional cancer therapies. In this regard, an oncolytic adenovirus that selectively targets the tumour tissue and induces tumour cell lysis is a promising treatment option. We designed and constructed a hypoxia-responsive and cancer-specific modified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (H5CmTERT) promoter to drive replication of an oncolytic adenovirus (H5CmTERT-Ad). To enhance the anti-tumour efficacy of H5CmTERT-Ad against malignant glioblastoma, we also generated an H5CmTERT-Ad expressing secretable trimeric tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (H5CmTERT-Ad/TRAIL)...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
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