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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149205/kir-content-genotypes-associate-with-carriage-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-e-antigen-and-hbv-viral-load-in-gambians
#1
Louis-Marie Yindom, Maimuna Mendy, Christopher Bodimeade, Caroline Chambion, Peter Aka, Hilton C Whittle, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146945/maraba-virus-vectored-cancer-vaccines-represent-a-safe-and-novel-therapeutic-option-for-cats
#2
Jeff Hummel, Dorothee Bienzle, Annette Morrison, Michelle Cieplak, Kyle Stephenson, Josepha DeLay, J Paul Woods, Brian D Lichty, Byram W Bridle
Direct killing of malignant cells combined with induction of tumour-specific immune responses makes oncolytic vaccines attractive for cancer therapy. We previously developed a heterologous cancer immunization strategy that utilized a replication-defective adenovirus-vectored primary vaccine encoding a tumour antigen followed by boosting with a replication-competent Maraba virus expressing the same antigen. To assess the safety of oncolytic Maraba virus-based booster vaccines and inform the design of clinical trials, we conducted translational studies in cats, which have immune systems that are similar to people and spontaneously develop cancers of comparable types and etiologies...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145505/spontaneous-development-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-human-lymphomas-in-a-prostate-cancer-xenograft-program
#3
Alberto J Taurozzi, Ramprakash Beekharry, Michelle Wantoch, Marie-Christine Labarthe, Hannah F Walker, Robert I Seed, Matthew Simms, Greta Rodrigues, James Bradford, Geertje van der Horst, Gabri van der Pluijm, Anne T Collins
Prostate cancer research is hampered by the lack of in vivo preclinical models that accurately reflect patient tumour biology and the clinical heterogeneity of human prostate cancer. To overcome these limitations we propagated and characterised a new collection of patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts. Tumour fragments from 147 unsupervised, surgical prostate samples were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient Rag2-/-γC-/- mice within 24 hours of surgery. Histologic and molecular characterisation of xenografts was compared with patient characteristics, including androgen-deprivation therapy, and exome sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143726/recent-advances-in-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-based-oncolytic-virotherapy-a-5-year-update
#4
Sébastien A Felt, Valery Z Grdzelishvili
Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy is an anti-cancer approach that uses viruses that preferentially infect, replicate in and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a rhabdovirus) is an OV that is currently being tested in the USA in several phase I clinical trials against different malignancies. Several factors make VSV a promising OV: lack of pre-existing human immunity against VSV, a small and easy to manipulate genome, cytoplasmic replication without risk of host cell transformation, independence of cell cycle and rapid growth to high titres in a broad range of cell lines facilitating large-scale virus production...
November 16, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142476/clinical-and-pathological-characterization-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-gastric-carcinomas-in-portugal
#5
Joana Ribeiro, Andreia Oliveira, Mariana Malta, Claudia Oliveira, Fernanda Silva, Ana Galaghar, Luís Pedro Afonso, Maria Cassiano Neves, Rui Medeiros, Pedro Pimentel-Nunes, Hugo Sousa
AIM: To determine the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas in the North Region of Portugal and to study its clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS: We have performed a retrospective study including a total of 179 consecutive patients with gastric cancer (GC) submitted to gastrectomy during 2011 at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto. Clinical and pathological data was collected from individual clinical records and inserted on a database with unique codification...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124000/human-papillomavirus-associated-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-controversies-and-new-concepts
#6
REVIEW
Nuzhat Husain, Azfar Neyaz
High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a causative agent for an increasing subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16 accounts for 90% of cases. The chance for malignant transformation due to infection with high-risk HPV is proportional to the expression of the viral oncogene products E6 and E7, which inactivate p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor functions. P16 is a surrogate marker of HPV associated HNSCC and 2+/3+ expression in more than 75% cells is diagnostic. Molecular demonstration of integrated virus by in situ hybridization is specific but has low sensitivity...
September 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122359/prognostic-impact-of-rita-expression-in-patients-with-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-treated-with-chemoradiotherapy
#7
Franz Rödel, Kerstin Steinhäuser, Nina-Naomi Kreis, Alexandra Friemel, Daniel Martin, Ulrike Wieland, Margret Rave-Fränk, Panagiotis Balermpas, Emmanouil Fokas, Frank Louwen, Claus Rödel, Juping Yuan
BACKGROUND: RBP-J interacting and tubulin-associated protein (RITA) has been identified as a negative regulator of the Notch signalling pathway and its deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of several tumour entities. RITA's impact on the response of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to anticancer treatment, however, remains elusive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our retrospective study immunohistochemical evaluation of RITA was performed on 140 pre-treatment specimens and was correlated with clinical and histopathologic characteristics and clinical endpoints cumulative incidence of local control (LC), distant recurrence (DC), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)...
November 6, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118993/cellular-characteristics-of-keratin-19-positive-canine-hepatocellular-tumours-explain-its-aggressive-behaviour
#8
Renee G van Sprundel, Ted Sgam van den Ingh, Baukje A Schotanus, Monique E van Wolferen, Louis C Penning, Jan Rothuizen, Bart Spee
The expression of the hepatic progenitor cell marker keratin 19 (K19) in canine hepatocellular carcinomas is linked with a poor prognosis. To better understand this aggressive behaviour, K19-positive hepatocellular carcinomas (n=5) and K19-negative hepatocellular adenomas (n=6) were immunohistochemically stained for proteins involved in malignant tumour development. The K19-positive carcinomas showed marked positivity for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha polypeptide (PDGFRα), laminin, integrin beta-1/CD29, B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus Integration site 1, glypican-3 (GPC-3) and prominin-1/CD133, in contrast with K19-negative hepatocellular adenomas...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114389/adoptive-cell-therapy-with-cd4-t-helper-1-cells-and-cd8-cytotoxic-t-cells-enhances-complete-rejection-of-an-established-tumour-leading-to-generation-of-endogenous-memory-responses-to-non-targeted-tumour-epitopes
#9
Kunyu Li, Braeden Donaldson, Vivienne Young, Vernon Ward, Christopher Jackson, Margaret Baird, Sarah Young
The results of adoptive T-cell therapies (ACTs) are very encouraging and show clinical evidence that ACT can provide a cure for patients with metastatic disease. However, various response rates and long-term cancer remission have been observed in different ACT trials. The types of T cells, prior treatment with chemotherapy and co-administration of other immune-target therapies have been found to influence the efficacy of ACT. In this study, we investigate the ability of ACT using CD4(+) T helper 1 (Th1) cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to reject the growth of established B16-ovalbumin (OVA) melanoma...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109715/specific-detection-of-serum-antibodies-against-bkpyv-a-small-dna-tumour-virus-in-patients-affected-by-choroidal-nevi
#10
Silvia Pietrobon, Ilaria Bononi, Francesca Lotito, Paolo Perri, Sara Violanti, Elisa Mazzoni, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Ocular or choroidal nevus (CN) is a rare benign neoplastic lesion of the eye. The cause of CN onset/progression, which arises from the transformation of ocular melanocytes, is not known. A fraction of CN patients may develop uveal melanoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between CN and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), a small DNA tumor virus. Serum IgG antibodies which react with BKPyV antigens were analyzed. An indirect E.L.I.S.A. using synthetic peptides that mimic BKPyV antigens was employed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104494/pathogenic-role-of-exosomes-in-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-associated-cancers
#11
REVIEW
Sin-Yeang Teow, Kitson Liew, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Suat-Cheng Peh
Exosomes are 40- to 100-nm membrane-bound small vesicles that carry a great variety of cellular cargoes including proteins, DNA, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). These nanovesicles are detected in various biological fluids such as serum, urine, saliva, and seminal fluids. Exosomes serve as key mediators in intercellular communication by facilitating the transfer and exchange of cellular components from cells to cells. They contain various pathogenic factors whereby their adverse effects have been implicated in multiple viral infections and cancers...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102721/cellular-immunotherapy-for-haematological-malignancies-beyond-bone-marrow-transplant
#12
REVIEW
Melita Cirillo, Peter Tan, Marian Sturm, Catherine Cole
Immunotherapy has changed treatment practices for many haematological malignancies. Despite the current era of targeted therapy, chemotherapy remains the backbone of treatment for many haematological malignancies, especially in acute leukaemia, where relapse remains the major cause of mortality. Application of novel immunotherapies in haematology attempts to harness the killing power of the immune system against leukaemia and lymphoma. Cellular immunotherapy is evolving rapidly for high risk haematological disorders...
November 1, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102521/effect-of-direct-acting-antivirals-on-future-occurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-compensated-cirrhotic-patients
#13
Alessandro Cucchetti, Gennaro D'Amico, Franco Trevisani, Maria Cristina Morelli, Alessandro Vitale, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Matteo Cescon
BACKGROUND: The achievement of high rates of sustained virological response (SVR) with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients will reduce decompensating terminal events. AIMS: To investigate whether hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence could change due to the DAA-induced increase in life-expectancy. METHODS: A Markov model was built on clinical data of 494 cirrhotic patients and available literature to estimate probabilities of "death before HCC" and of "HCC occurrence" without and with DAA...
October 18, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100330/protective-cellular-immunity-generated-by-cross-presenting-recombinant-overlapping-peptide-proteins
#14
Lili Cai, Jianbo Zhang, Renying Zhu, Weixing Shi, Xiaobing Xia, Mark Edwards, William Finch, Anthony Coombs, Ju Gao, Kangwen Chen, Sophie Owen, Shisong Jiang, Wenshu Lu
Priming of naive CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells by dendritic cells (DCs) requires effective antigen presentation on both MHC class I and II molecules. We have developed a novel technology to use recombinant overlapping peptides (ROP) that stimulate both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell immune responses. The single chain protein of a ROP is made up of overlapping peptides linked by the target sequence (LRMK) for cathepsin S, a protease found in the endosomes of DCs. We designed synthetic genes encoding ROPs derived from ovalbumin (OVA), tuberculosis protein (CFP10-ESAT6), human papilloma virus (HPV) protein (E7) and survivin, a protein commonly over-expressed in tumour cells...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093097/analysis-of-epstein-barr-virus-genomes-and-expression-profiles-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#15
Ivan Borozan, Marc Zapatka, Lori Frappier, Vincent Ferretti
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of a variety of lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and ∼9% of gastric (GC) carcinomas. An important question is whether particular EBV variants are more oncogenic than others but conclusions are currently hampered by the lack of sequenced EBV genomes. Here we contribute to this question by mining whole genome sequences of 201 GCs to identify13 EBV-positive GCs, and assembling 13 new EBV genome sequences; almost doubling the number of available GC-derived EBV genome sequences and providing the first non-Asian EBV genome sequences from GC...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093086/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-small-t-antigen-drives-cell-motility-via-rho-gtpase-induced-filopodia-formation
#16
Gabrielė Stakaitytė, Nnenna Nwogu, Samuel J Dobson, Laura M Knight, Christopher W Wasson, Francisco J Salguero, David J Blackbourn, G Eric Blair, Jamel Mankouri, Andrew Macdonald, Adrian Whitehouse
Cell motility and migration is a complex, multi-step, and multi-component process, intrinsic to progression and metastasis. Motility is dependent on the activity of integrin receptors and Rho-family GTPases resulting in the remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of various motile actin-based protrusions. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer with a high likelihood of recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with the majority of MCC cases, and MCPyV-induced tumourigenesis largely depends on the expression of the small tumour antigen (ST)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089055/assessing-risk-of-liver-enzyme-elevation-in-patients-with-immune-mediated-diseases-and-different-hepatitis-b-virus-serostatus-receiving-anti-tnf-agents-a-nested-case-control-study
#17
Ying-Ming Chiu, Mei-Shu Lai, K Arnold Chan
BACKGROUND: Liver enzyme elevation is an important and common adverse effect among patients with immune-mediated diseases who receive tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNF), and has various causes. Hence, we evaluated the relative risks of developing liver enzyme elevation in anti-TNF users with differing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status. METHODS: At a hospital in central Taiwan, 407 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis received anti-TNF therapy between 1 January 2004 and 30 June 2012...
November 1, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078819/cytokines-associated-with-burkitt-s-lymphoma-in-western-kenya
#18
Isaac Ndede, Simeon K Mining, Kirtika Patel, Fredrick M Wanjala, David Chumba, Constance Tenge
OBJECTIVE: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a common aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in East and Central Africa among children. Persistent infections with Epstein Barr virus or Plasmodium falciparum are associated with immune hyperstimulation. It is hypothesised that inadvertent cytokine responses to infections indirectly or directly influence B cell neoplastic transformation through c-myelocytomatosis (c-myc) gene translocation. We sought to describe cytokines in children and adolescents with BL...
October 27, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076241/oncolytic-reovirus-therapy-pilot-study-in-dogs-with-spontaneously-occurring-tumours
#19
C C Hwang, M Igase, M Sakurai, T Haraguchi, K Tani, K Itamoto, T Shimokawa, M Nakaichi, Y Nemoto, S Noguchi, M Coffey, M Okuda, T Mizuno
Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel treatment involving replication-competent virus in the elimination of cancer. We have previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in various canine cancer cell lines. This study aims to establish the safety profile of reovirus in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumours and to determine a recommended dosing regimen. Nineteen dogs with various tumours, mostly of advanced stages, were treated with reovirus, ranging from 1.0 × 10(8) to 5.0 × 10(9) TCID50 given as intratumour injection (IT) or intravenous infusion (IV) daily for up to 5 consecutive days in 1 or multiple treatment cycles...
October 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075317/multiple-oncogenic-viruses-are-present-in-human-breast-tissues-before-development-of-virus-associated-breast-cancer
#20
James S Lawson, Wendy K Glenn
BACKGROUND: Multiple oncogenic viruses including, mouse mammary tumor virus, bovine leukemia virus, human papilloma virus, and Epstein Barr virus, have been identified as separate infectious pathogens in human breast cancer. Here we demonstrate that these four viruses may be present in normal and benign breast tissues 1 to 11 years before the development of same virus breast cancer in the same patients. METHODS: We combined the data we developed during investigations of the individual four oncogenic viruses and breast cancer...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
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