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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926591/no-evidence-for-the-presence-of-epstein-barr-virus-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-mobile-tongue
#1
Torben Wilms, Gulfaraz Khan, Philip J Coates, Nicola Sgaramella, Robin Fåhraeus, Asma Hassani, Pretty S Philip, Lena Norberg Spaak, Luigi Califano, Giuseppe Colella, Katarina Olofsson, Christos Loizou, Renato Franco, Karin Nylander
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) comprises a large group of cancers in the oral cavity and nasopharyngeal area that typically arise in older males in association with alcohol/tobacco usage. Within the oral cavity, the mobile tongue is the most common site for tumour development. The incidence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is increasing in younger people, which has been suggested to associate with a viral aetiology. Two common human oncogenic viruses, human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are known causes of certain types of SCCHN, namely the oropharynx and nasopharynx, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924735/the-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-gpr30-may-serve-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-early-stage-cervical-cancer
#2
Klaus Friese, Bernd Kost, Aurelia Vattai, Frederik Marmé, Christina Kuhn, Sven Mahner, Christian Dannecker, Udo Jeschke, Sabine Heublein
BACKGROUND: Estrogen signalling is transmitted via various receptors and multiple intracellular signalling pathways. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-mediated transcription of target genes has been demonstrated to be closely linked to human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced carcinogenesis in case of cervical cancer. So far, the role of non-genomic estrogen signals in cervical cancer, e.g. transmitted by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) remains to be rather elusive. Today's knowledge on the role of GPER in cervical cancer is sparse and-to the best of our knowledge-GPER has not been investigated in context with clinicopathological parameters or prognosis of cervical cancer...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918424/systemic-inflammatory-response-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
David J Pinato, Marco Merli, Alessia Dalla Pria, Shiraz Jamshaid, Kizzy Parker, Nicole Pagani, Hamid Hasson, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Emanuela Messina, Rohini Sharma, Mark Nelson, Mark Bower
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly prevalent in people living with HIV. Systemic inflammation is a prognostic factor requiring validation in HIV-associated HCC. AIMS: Using a multi-centre database of consecutive HCC cases, we investigated the prognostic role of a panel of inflammatory markers, including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients with HIV-associated HCC secondary to hepatitis C (69%) or B virus infection (32%) were identified...
September 16, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918403/successful-twice-interrupted-therapy-of-hcv-infection-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-before-and-after-liver-transplantation
#4
Anna Szymanek-Pasternak, Karolina Rostkowska, Krzysztof Simon
We are presenting the case study of the patient diagnosed at the age of 37 with liver cirrhosis due to genotype 1b hepatitis C virus infection. At the age of 46, he was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma with subsequent resection of the tumour in May 2015. In December 2015, the treatment was started with ombitasvir, paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D) with ribavirin (RBV) 1000 mg per day. After 24 days of this treatment, the patient received a deceased donor liver transplantation, followed by 18-day interruption of 3D therapy...
September 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910751/chromatin-reorganisation-in-epstein-barr-virus-infected-cells-and-its-role-in-cancer-development
#5
REVIEW
Michelle J West
The oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth transforms B cells and drives lymphoma and carcinoma development. The virus encodes four key transcription factors (EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3B and EBNA3C) that hijack host cell factors to bind gene control elements and reprogramme infected B cells. These viral factors predominantly target long-range enhancers to alter the expression of host cell genes that control B cell growth and survival and facilitate virus persistence. Enhancer and super-enhancer binding by these EBNAs results in large-scale reorganisation of three-dimensional enhancer-promoter architecture to drive the overexpression of oncogenes, the silencing of tumour suppressors and the modulation of transcription, cell-cycle progression, migration and adhesion...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904201/heterogeneity-of-the-epstein-barr-virus-major-internal-repeat-reveals-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-ebv-and-a-functional-defect-in-the-prototype-ebv-strain-b95-8
#6
Mohammed Ba Abdullah, Richard Palermo, Anne Palser, Nicholas E Grayson, Paul Kellam, Samantha Correia, Agnieszka Szymula, Rob White
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of humans that can cause several types of lymphoma and carcinoma. Like other herpesviruses, EBV has diversified both through co-evolution with its host, and genetic exchange between virus strains. Sequence analysis of the EBV genome is unusually challenging, because of the large number and length of repeat regions within the virus. Here we describe the sequence assembly and analysis of the large internal repeat of EBV (IR1 or BamW repeats) from over 70 strains...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893944/making-a-virtue-of-necessity-the-pleiotropic-role-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
George Kassiotis, Jonathan P Stoye
Like all other mammals, humans harbour an astonishing number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), as well as other retroelements, embedded in their genome. These remnants of ancestral germline infection with distinct exogenous retroviruses display various degrees of open reading frame integrity and replication capability. Modern day exogenous retroviruses, as well as the infectious predecessors of ERVs, are demonstrably oncogenic. Further, replication-competent ERVs continue to cause cancers in many other species of mammal...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893936/take-your-pikk-tumour-viruses-and-dna-damage-response-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Neha J Pancholi, Alexander M Price, Matthew D Weitzman
Viruses regulate cellular processes to facilitate viral replication. Manipulation of nuclear proteins and pathways by nuclear replicating viruses often causes cellular genome instability that contributes to transformation. The cellular DNA damage response (DDR) safeguards the host to maintain genome integrity, but DNA tumour viruses can manipulate the DDR to promote viral propagation. In this review, we describe the interactions of DNA tumour viruses with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like protein kinase (PIKK) pathways, which are central regulatory arms of the DDR...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893935/tumour-virus-vaccines-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-papillomavirus
#9
REVIEW
Margaret Stanley
Two of the most important human oncogenic viruses are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). HBV infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982; vaccination of neonates and infants is highly effective, resulting already in decreased rates of new infections, chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma. Nonetheless, HBV remains a global public health problem with high rates of vertical transmission from mother to child in some regions. Prophylactic HPV vaccines composed of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 capsid protein have been licensed since 2006/2007...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893934/tumour-viruses-and-innate-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Sharon E Hopcraft, Blossom Damania
Host cells sense viral infection through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and stimulate an innate immune response. PRRs are localized to several different cellular compartments and are stimulated by viral proteins and nucleic acids. PRR activation initiates signal transduction events that ultimately result in an inflammatory response. Human tumour viruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and Merkel cell polyomavirus, are detected by several different PRRs...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893933/tumour-virus-epidemiology
#11
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, Gloria D Jahnke, Charles S Rabkin
A viral etiology of cancer was first demonstrated in 1911 by Peyton Rous who injected cell-free filtrate from a chicken sarcoma into healthy chickens and found it induced a tumour. Since the discovery over 50 years ago of the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of Burkitt lymphoma, seven other human viruses or groups of viruses-hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, some human papillomaviruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus-have been linked to human cancer...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893932/tumour-virology-in-the-era-of-high-throughput-genomics
#12
REVIEW
Ka-Wei Tang, Erik Larsson
With the advent of massively parallel sequencing, oncogenic viruses in tumours can now be detected in an unbiased and comprehensive manner. Additionally, new viruses or strains can be discovered based on sequence similarity with known viruses. Using this approach, the causative agent for Merkel cell carcinoma was identified. Subsequent studies using data from large collections of tumours have confirmed models built during decades of hypothesis-driven and low-throughput research, and a more detailed and comprehensive description of virus-tumour associations have emerged...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893931/human-oncogenic-viruses-nature-and-discovery
#13
Yuan Chang, Patrick S Moore, Robin A Weiss
Seven kinds of virus collectively comprise an important cause of cancer, particularly in less developed countries and for people with damaged immune systems. Discovered over the past 54 years, most of these viruses are common infections of humankind for which malignancy is a rare consequence. Various cofactors affect the complex interaction between virus and host and the likelihood of cancer emerging. Although individual human tumour viruses exert their malignant effects in different ways, there are common features that illuminate mechanisms of oncogenesis more generally, whether or not there is a viral aetiology...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893862/molecular-profile-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-analysing-tumour-suppressor-gene-promoter-hypermethylation-by-multiplex-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification
#14
Marc Ooft, Jolique van Ipenburg, Rob van Loo, Rick de Jong, Cathy Moelans, Weibel Braunius, Remco de Bree, Paul van Diest, Senada Koljenović, Rob Baatenburg de Jong, Jose Hardillo, Stefan Willems
AIMS: To assess differences in methylation profiles, and thus pathogenesis, between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and negative nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs). Also, promoter hypermethylation is a common phenomenon in early carcinogenesis to inactivate tumour suppressor genes. Since epigenetic changes are reversible, the therapeutic application of methylation inhibitors could provide treatment options. METHODS: We evaluated promoter hypermethylation profiles of 22 common tumour suppressor genes in 108 NPCs using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886932/human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-giant-conjunctival-kaposi-s-sarcoma-complete-remission-with-antiretroviral-therapy-and-systemic-chemotherapy
#15
Y W Eduardo-Sánchez, D Fernández-Agrafojo
CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old male patient with a large unilateral haemorrhagic conjunctival tumour lesion and another contralateral haemorrhagic conjunctival flat lesion associated with violaceous cutaneous macules on the extremities and angiomatous lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract as initial clinical manifestation of HIV-related immunodeficiency. Cutaneous, gastric mucosal and conjunctival biopsy was consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma with complete remission after highly active antiretroviral therapy and systemic chemotherapy...
September 5, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886065/hepatitis-c-virus-mediated-chronic-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-in-the-humanised-immune-system-and-liver-mouse-model
#16
Zhiqiang Zheng, Ching Wooen Sze, Choong Tat Keng, Muthafar Al-Haddawi, Min Liu, Sue Yee Tan, Hwee Ling Kwek, Zhisheng Her, Xue Ying Chan, Bhaskar Barnwal, Eva Loh, Kenneth Tou En Chang, Thiam Chye Tan, Yee-Joo Tan, Qingfeng Chen
Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by infection of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Many individuals infected by the virus are unable to resolve the viral infection and develop chronic hepatitis, which can lead to formation of liver cirrhosis and cancer. To understand better how initial HCV infections progress to chronic liver diseases, we characterised the long term pathogenic effects of HCV infections with the use of a humanised mouse model (HIL mice) we have previously established. Although HCV RNA could be detected in infected mice up to 9 weeks post infection, HCV infected mice developed increased incidences of liver fibrosis, granulomatous inflammation and tumour formation in the form of hepatocellular adenomas or hepatocellular carcinomas by 28 weeks post infection compared to uninfected mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882621/antibodies-targeting-btla-or-tim-3-enhance-hiv-1-specific-t-cell-responses-in-combination-with-pd-1-blockade
#17
Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Carmen Stecher, Markus Zettl, Sandra Rosskopf, Armin Rieger, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Peter Steinberger
Persistent stimulation with antigens derived from viruses that establish chronic infections or tumour antigens results in the exhaustion of T cells. Coinhibitory receptors like PD-1 and CTLA-4 function as immune checkpoints on exhausted T cells. Blocking these molecules with antibodies improve immunity to cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting other coinhibitory receptors might have a similar role in improving T cell function and thus also utility in cancer therapy. Using HIV-specific T cells as a model for exhaustion we have evaluated the capacity of antibodies targeting TIM-3, BTLA, CD160, LAG-3 and CTLA-4 alone or in combination with a PD-1 antibody to enhance proliferation and cytokine production in response to Gag and Nef peptides...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877959/prognostic-role-of-tumour-associated-macrophages-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-ebv-positive-and-ebv-negative-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#18
Marc L Ooft, Jolique A van Ipenburg, Maxime E Sanders, Mariette Kranendonk, Ingrid Hofland, Remco de Bree, Senada Koljenović, Stefan M Willems
AIMS: Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) form a special niche supporting tumour progression, and both correlate with worse survival in head and neck cancers. However, the prognostic role of TAM and Tregs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still unknown. Therefore, we determined differences in TAMs and Tregs in different NPC subtypes, and their prognostic significance. METHODS: Tissue of 91 NPCs was assessed for TAMs and Tregs by determination of CD68, CD163, CD206 and FOXP3 expression in the tumour microenvironment...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876552/breast-cancer-and-hiv-a-south-african-perspective-and-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#19
P Reddy, S Ebrahim, B Singh, S Ramklass, I Buccimazza
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of breast cancer and concurrent HIV in South Africa is common. The limited current evidence on this subject suggests that the patients thus afflicted appear to be younger, have a more advanced stage of breast cancer, have a higher treatment related complications and poorer outcomes. This paper reviews the literature related to HIV and breast cancer, with a view to improving the standard and quality of care of HIV positive breast cancer patients. METHOD: Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Google scholar and Science Direct electronic databases were searched from 2001 and 2015...
March 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874261/malignancies-and-infection-due-to-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-are-these-emerging-diseases
#20
M E Valencia Ortega
Since the start of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, tumour disease among patients has been significant. The collection of malignancies can be divided primarily into 2 groups: those associated with HIV (all of which are related to viral diseases) and those not associated with HIV (only some of which are associated with viral diseases). The origin of these malignancies is multifactorial, and the main causes that have led to an increase in tumour disease are immunosuppression, coinfection with oncogenic viruses and life prolongation secondary to the use of antiretroviral therapy...
September 2, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
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