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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202331/genetics-of-gynaecological-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Panayiotis Constantinou, Marc Tischkowitz
Gynaecological cancers accounted for 16.3% of all cancers and 13.9% of all cancer deaths in women globally in 2012. Cancer of the cervix is the most common gynaecological cancer, followed by cancers of the uterus and the ovary. Although cervical cancer is almost exclusively triggered by human papilloma virus infection, approximately 5% of all uterine cancers and 20% of all ovarian cancers are caused by germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes. A number of genetic syndromes are associated with rarer gynaecological tumours...
January 24, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194059/nk-t-cell-lymphoma-a-tertiary-centre-experience
#2
Neeraj Arora, Arpan Mehta, Sriram Ravichandran, Indu Arun, Rimpa Basu Achari, Anupam Chakrapani, Saurabh Jayant Bhave, Mammen Chandy, Reena Nair
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type, is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is commonly seen in East Asian countries and is associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. This is a retrospective study where we describe nine cases of ENKTL; nasal type diagnosed and treated at our center over a period of 2 years. These cases were analyzed retrospectively for clinical presentation (age, sex, site of involvement), immunophenotype, treatment, response and toxicity profile. Sino-nasal symptoms (blocked nose, headache, epistaxis, regurgitation) were the most common presenting complaints (n = 8)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194010/intratumoral-modulation-of-the-inducible-co-stimulator-icos-by-recombinant-oncolytic-virus-promotes-systemic-anti-tumour-immunity
#3
Dmitriy Zamarin, Rikke B Holmgaard, Jacob Ricca, Tamar Plitt, Peter Palese, Padmanee Sharma, Taha Merghoub, Jedd D Wolchok, James P Allison
Emerging data suggest that locoregional cancer therapeutic approaches with oncolytic viruses can lead to systemic anti-tumour immunity, although the appropriate targets for intratumoral immunomodulation using this strategy are not known. Here we find that intratumoral therapy with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), in addition to the activation of innate immunity, upregulates the expression of T-cell co-stimulatory receptors, with the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) being most notable. To explore ICOS as a direct target in the tumour, we engineered a recombinant NDV-expressing ICOS ligand (NDV-ICOSL)...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186092/epstein-barr-virus-particles-induce-centrosome-amplification-and-chromosomal-instability
#4
Anatoliy Shumilov, Ming-Han Tsai, Yvonne T Schlosser, Anne-Sophie Kratz, Katharina Bernhardt, Susanne Fink, Tuba Mizani, Xiaochen Lin, Anna Jauch, Josef Mautner, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Regina Feederle, Ingrid Hoffmann, Henri-Jacques Delecluse
Infections with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are associated with cancer development, and EBV lytic replication (the process that generates virus progeny) is a strong risk factor for some cancer types. Here we report that EBV infection of B-lymphocytes (in vitro and in a mouse model) leads to an increased rate of centrosome amplification, associated with chromosomal instability. This effect can be reproduced with virus-like particles devoid of EBV DNA, but not with defective virus-like particles that cannot infect host cells...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176648/oncolytic-viruses-the-best-is-yet-to-come
#5
Chantal G Lemay, Brian A Keller, Robert E Edge, Masato Abei, John C Bell
Oncolytic viruses are a promising anti-cancer platform, achieving significant pre-clinical and clinical milestones in recent years. A full arsenal of selective, safe, and effective viruses has been developed with some emerging pre-clinical research focusing on optimizing these therapies in the face of remaining challenges, both in the bloodstream and in the tumour microenvironment. Herein we discuss the recent progress in pre-clinical virotherapy research to address these challenges, with special focus on innovative strategies that seek to complement the current strengths of virotherapy, ensuring an optimal multi-faceted attack on cancer...
February 6, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171876/clinical-value-of-the-epstein-barr-virus-and-p16-status-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-a-single-centre-study-in-japan
#6
Yuki Saito, Tetsuo Ushiku, Go Omura, Kazuo Yasuhara, Masafumi Yoshida, Wataru Takahashi, Mizuo Ando, Masashi Fukayama, Tatsuya Yamasoba
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and p16 expression was unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: We retrospectively studied our pathology database for 13 years to determine the prevalence of EBV and p16 expression and their association with prognosis in cases of NPC. We performed immunohistochemistry for the p16 protein and in situ hybridization (ISH) for EBV-encoded small RNAs and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA...
February 8, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158223/fibroblast-activation-protein-is-dispensable-in-the-anti-influenza-immune-response-in-mice
#7
Sioh-Yang Tan, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Natasa Polak, Mark D Gorrell, Wolfgang Weninger
Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) is a unique dual peptidase of the S9B serine protease family, being capable of both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. FAP is expressed at low level in healthy adult organs including the pancreas, cervix, uterus, submaxillary gland and the skin, and highly upregulated in embryogenesis, chronic inflammation and tissue remodelling. It is also expressed by cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of epithelial tumours. FAP has enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions in the growth, immunosuppression, invasion and cell signalling of tumour cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155290/the-diagnosis-of-bilateral-primary-renal-paragangliomas-in-a-cat
#8
Ryan B Friedlein, Alain J Carter, Robert D Last, Sarah Clift
A 9-year-old sterilised female domestic short-hair cat was referred with a history of vomiting and anorexia of 3 months' duration. Biochemistry, full-blood counts, thoracic radiographs, feline pancreatic-specific lipase, abdominal ultrasonography and feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus (FIV/FeLV) SNAP tests had been performed. Mild hypochloraemia and moderate hypokalaemia were evident on initial presentation. Abdominal ultrasonography initially revealed unilateral renal nodules on the left side...
January 24, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152548/high-folic-acid-diet-enhances-tumour-growth-in-pymt-induced-breast-cancer
#9
Mariann Fagernæs Hansen, Sarah Østrup Jensen, Ernst-Martin Füchtbauer, Pia M Martensen
BACKGROUND: The B-vitamin folate is among the most studied bioactive food compound, and a dietary intake meeting the daily requirements has been found to reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases as well as preventing neural tube defects during fetal development. Several countries have therefore introduced dietary fortification with folic acid. However, clinical and animal studies suggest that folic acid has a dual role in cancer development. METHODS: During the period of initial tumour progression, MMTV-PyMT (MMTV-polyoma virus middle T) transgenic mice were fed with normal diet and high folic acid diet...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143425/higher-igfbp-1-to-igf-1-serum-ratio-predicts-unfavourable-survival-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#10
Xinwei Feng, Jianhua Lin, Shan Xing, Wanli Liu, Ge Zhang
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. However, little is known about the expression of the IGF system components and their clinicopathological significance and prognostic value in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: IGF system components (IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1SR, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-6) were quantified from the plasma of NPC patients and healthy individuals using the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array...
January 31, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140371/computational-protein-design-a-review
#11
Ivan Coluzza
Proteins are one of the most versatile modular assembling systems in nature. Experimentally, more than 110,000 protein structures have been identified and more are deposited every day in the Protein Data Bank. Such an enormous structural variety is to a first approximation controlled by the sequence of amino acids along the peptide chain of each protein. Understanding how the structural and functional properties of the target can be encoded in this sequence is the main objective of protein design. Unfortunately, rational protein design remains one of the major challenges across the disciplines of biology, physics and chemistry...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134256/the-tumour-suppressor-apc-promotes-hiv-1-assembly-via-interaction-with-gag-precursor-protein
#12
Kei Miyakawa, Mayuko Nishi, Satoko Matsunaga, Akiko Okayama, Masaki Anraku, Ayumi Kudoh, Hisashi Hirano, Hirokazu Kimura, Yuko Morikawa, Naoki Yamamoto, Akira Ono, Akihide Ryo
Diverse cellular proteins and RNAs are tightly regulated in their subcellular localization to exert their local function. Here we report that the tumour suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) directs the localization and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Gag polyprotein at distinct membrane components to enable the efficient production and spread of infectious viral particles. A proteomic analysis and subsequent biomolecular interaction assay reveals that the carboxyl terminus of APC interacts with the matrix region of Gag...
January 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131394/novel-adenovirus-encoded-virus-like-particles-displaying-the-placental-malaria-associated-var2csa-antigen
#13
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Mafalda Resende, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Peter J Holst
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA...
January 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122404/clinico-pathological-correlation-of-hepatic-angiomyolipoma-a-series-of-23-resection-cases
#14
Dong Hwan Jung, Shin Hwang, Seung Mo Hong, Ki Hun Kim, Chul Soo Ahn, Deok Bog Moon, Abdulwahab A Alshahrani, Sung Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND: Angiomyolipomas are rare neoplasms of mesenchymal origin and are derived from perivascular epithelioid cells. They usually develop in the kidney and rarely in the liver. Due to their rarity, most hepatic angiomyolipomas have been misinterpreted as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other hypervascular liver tumours on imaging studies. We aimed to assess the clinico-pathological correlation of hepatic angiomyolipoma. METHODS: We identified 23 patients with hepatic angiomyolipoma through an institutional database search...
January 25, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120384/clinicopathological-analysis-of-12-patients-with-epstein-barr-virus-positive-primary-intestinal-t-nk-cell-lymphoma-ebv-itnkl
#15
Lei-Ming Hu, Katsuyoshi Takata, Tomoko Miyata-Takata, Naoko Asano, Emiko Takahashi, Katsuya Furukawa, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Akira Satou, Kei Kohno, Hiroshi Kosugi, Tomohiro Kinoshita, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hidemi Goto, Shigeo Nakamura, Seiichi Kato
AIMS: Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV(+) ) intestinal T/NK-cell lymphoma (ITNKL) is an uncommon tumour with an extremely aggressive clinical behavior. However, the clinicopathological characteristics of this tumour, including T-cell receptor (TCR) phenotype and the patient's background, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed clinicopathological profile of EBV(+) ITNKL. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 12 patients with EBV(+) ITNKL without nasal involvement in the study...
January 25, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099441/puma-and-nf-kb-are-cell-signaling-predictors-of-reovirus-oncolysis-of-breast-cancer
#16
Chandini Thirukkumaran, Zhong-Qiao Shi, Ponnampalam Thirukkumaran, Joanne Luider, Karen Kopciuk, Jason Spurrell, Kate Elzinga, Don Morris
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098136/exome-and-genome-sequencing-of-nasopharynx-cancer-identifies-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activating-mutations
#17
Yvonne Y Li, Grace T Y Chung, Vivian W Y Lui, Ka-Fai To, Brigette B Y Ma, Chit Chow, John K S Woo, Kevin Y Yip, Jeongsun Seo, Edwin P Hui, Michael K F Mak, Maria Rusan, Nicole G Chau, Yvonne Y Y Or, Marcus H N Law, Peggy P Y Law, Zoey W Y Liu, Hoi-Lam Ngan, Pok-Man Hau, Krista R Verhoeft, Peony H Y Poon, Seong-Keun Yoo, Jong-Yeon Shin, Sau-Dan Lee, Samantha W M Lun, Lin Jia, Anthony W H Chan, Jason Y K Chan, Paul B S Lai, Choi-Yi Fung, Suet-Ting Hung, Lin Wang, Ann Margaret V Chang, Simion I Chiosea, Matthew L Hedberg, Sai-Wah Tsao, Andrew C van Hasselt, Anthony T C Chan, Jennifer R Grandis, Peter S Hammerman, Kwok-Wai Lo
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an aggressive head and neck cancer characterized by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and dense lymphocyte infiltration. The scarcity of NPC genomic data hinders the understanding of NPC biology, disease progression and rational therapy design. Here we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 111 micro-dissected EBV-positive NPCs, with 15 cases subjected to further whole-genome sequencing (WGS), to determine its mutational landscape. We identified enrichment for genomic aberrations of multiple negative regulators of the NF-κB pathway, including CYLD, TRAF3, NFKBIA and NLRC5, in a total of 41% of cases...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090316/the-role-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-in-hepatitis-b-infection-jekyll-and-hyde
#18
REVIEW
Zina Valaydon, Marc Pellegrini, Alexander Thompson, Paul Desmond, Peter Revill, Gregor Ebert
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major health problem worldwide and is associated with significant long-term morbidity and mortality. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that is capable of integrating in the host nucleus permanently resulting in lifelong infection. To date, there is no definitive cure for HBV, as our current treatments cannot eradicate the viral reservoir that has integrated in the liver. Elucidating the immunopathogenesis is key to finding a therapeutic target for HBV as the virus is not in itself cytopathic but the immune response to the virus causes the majority of the cellular injury...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078736/investigation-of-underlying-comorbidities-as-risk-factors-for-symptomatic-human-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#19
S Zhang, C Chen, J Peng, X Li, D Zhang, J Yan, Y Zhang, C Lu, J Xun, W Li, Y Ling, Y Huang, L Chen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs in few infected subjects, and the risk factors are not completely known. AIMS: To explore the risk factors for adverse clinical outcomes in acute HEV infections. METHODS: A large retrospective study was conducted. The baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and laboratory data of 512 acute HEV infection cases were analysed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: All patients exhibited autochthonous sporadic HEV infections, and most were elderly...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077274/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-human-liver
#20
REVIEW
Sander Kersten, Rinke Stienstra
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver...
January 7, 2017: Biochimie
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