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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334415/early-burst-in-body-size-evolution-is-uncoupled-from-species-diversification-in-diving-beetles-dytiscidae
#1
Aurélie Désamoré, Benjamin Laenen, Kelly B Miller, Johannes Bergsten
Changes in morphology are often thought to be linked to changes in species diversification, which is expected to leave a signal of Early Burst (EB) in phenotypic traits. However, such signal is rarely recovered in empirical phylogenies, even for groups with well-known adaptive radiation. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic approach in Dytiscidae, which harbors ~4,300 species with as much as 50-fold variation in body size among them, we ask whether pattern of species diversification correlates with morphological evolution...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330281/hepatic-portal-venous-gas-after-diving
#2
Atsushi Jinno, Takanobu Hirosawa, Taro Shimizu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327649/the-effect-of-auditory-stimulus-training-on-swimming-start-reaction-time
#3
Christopher Papic, Peter Sinclair, Che Fornusek, Ross Sanders
Task-specific auditory training can improve sensorimotor processing times of the auditory reaction time (RT). The majority of competitive swimmers do not conduct habitual start training with the electronic horn used to commence a race. We examined the effect of four week dive training interventions on RT and block time (BT) of 10 male adolescent swimmers (age 14.0 ± 1.4 years): dive training with auditory components (speaker and electronic horn) (n = 5) and dive training without auditory components (n = 5)...
January 12, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324887/the-tracked-roaming-transect-and-distance-sampling-methods-increase-the-efficiency-of-underwater-visual-censuses
#4
Alejo J Irigoyen, Irene Rojo, Antonio Calò, Gastón Trobbiani, Noela Sánchez-Carnero, José A García-Charton
Underwater visual census (UVC) is the most common approach for estimating diversity, abundance and size of reef fishes in shallow and clear waters. Abundance estimation through UVC is particularly problematic in species occurring at low densities and/or highly aggregated because of their high variability at both spatial and temporal scales. The statistical power of experiments involving UVC techniques may be increased by augmenting the number of replicates or the area surveyed. In this work we present and test the efficiency of an UVC method based on diver towed GPS, the Tracked Roaming Transect (TRT), designed to maximize transect length (and thus the surveyed area) with respect to diving time invested in monitoring, as compared to Conventional Strip Transects (CST)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323131/optimal-swimming-strategies%C3%A2-and-behavioral-plasticity-of-oceanic-whitetip-sharks
#5
Yannis P Papastamatiou, Gil Iosilevskii, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Edd J Brooks, Lucy A Howey, Demian D Chapman, Yuuki Y Watanabe
Animal behavior should optimize the difference between the energy they gain from prey and the energy they spend searching for prey. This is all the more critical for predators occupying the pelagic environment, as prey is sparse and patchily distributed. We theoretically derive two canonical swimming strategies for pelagic predators, that maximize their energy surplus while foraging. They predict that while searching, a pelagic predator should maintain small dive angles, swim at speeds near those that minimize the cost of transport, and maintain constant speed throughout the dive...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321847/search-and-foraging-behaviors-from-movement-data-a-comparison-of-methods
#6
Ashley Bennison, Stuart Bearhop, Thomas W Bodey, Stephen C Votier, W James Grecian, Ewan D Wakefield, Keith C Hamer, Mark Jessopp
Search behavior is often used as a proxy for foraging effort within studies of animal movement, despite it being only one part of the foraging process, which also includes prey capture. While methods for validating prey capture exist, many studies rely solely on behavioral annotation of animal movement data to identify search and infer prey capture attempts. However, the degree to which search correlates with prey capture is largely untested. This study applied seven behavioral annotation methods to identify search behavior from GPS tracks of northern gannets (Morus bassanus), and compared outputs to the occurrence of dives recorded by simultaneously deployed time-depth recorders...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321267/extreme-call-amplitude-from-near-field-acoustic-wave-coupling-in-the-stridulating-water-insect-micronecta-scholtzi-micronectinae
#7
Andrew Reid, David J W Hardie, David Mackie, Joseph C Jackson, James F C Windmill
Underwater acoustic transducers, particularly at low frequencies, are beset by problems of scale and inefficiency due to the large wavelengths of sound in water. In insect mating calls, a high call volume is usually desirable, increasing the range of signal transmission and providing a form of advertisement of the signaller's quality to a potential mate; however, the strength of the call is constrained by body size and by the need to avoid predators who may be listening in. Male crickets and water boatmen avoid some of the limitations of body size by exploiting resonant structures, which produce sharply tuned species-specific songs, but call frequency and volume remain linked to body size...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317482/night-diving-by-some-emperor-penguins-during-the-winter-breeding-period-at-cape-washington
#8
Gerald L Kooyman, Robert P van Dam, Luis A Hückstädt
All through the bird literature and feature films, there is much ado about dedicated emperor penguin males fasting for 115 days while they do all the incubation of the single egg. Sometimes, they may not fast for so long. Based on a winter visit to Cape Washington, we obtained evidence that some birds may feed before the egg is laid, and if they do, and some are males, then their fast is much less than 115 days. The consequence of a shorter fast for the male is a better chance of completing the 65 day incubation fast and success in fledging the chick...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311724/erratum-dive-to-the-underwater-world-a-water-immersion-technique-for-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-of-gastric-neoplasms
#9
Tomofumi Akasaka, Yusuke Tonai, Kenta Hamada, Yoji Takeuchi, Noriya Uedo, Ryu Ishihara, Hiroyasu Iishi
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2016.595.
January 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307021/cerebellar-infarction-after-posterior-direct-reduction-and-fixation-to-treat-an-unstable-jefferson-fracture-a-case-report
#10
Seung Hwan Baek, Seung Ho Yoo, Kyoung Rai Cho, Jun Jae Shin
A 42-year-old man had an unstable Jefferson type IV atlas fracture with unilateral vertebral artery occlusion after a diving accident. We performed C1-ring reconstruction with a crosslink rod and C2 fixation to directly reduce the fracture fissure. Within 6 h, cerebellar hemisphere infarction developed. After decompressive craniectomy, duroplasty, and release of the vertebral artery occlusion caused by the transfixing rod, a postoperative computed tomography angiogram showed that blood flow in the right vertebral artery improved...
January 6, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306625/epidemiology-of-morbidity-and-mortality-in-us-and-canadian-recreational-scuba-diving
#11
P Buzzacott, D Schiller, J Crain, P J Denoble
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates morbidity and mortality suffered by divers in the USA and Canada. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively recruited probability-weighted sample for estimating the national burden of injury and a weighted retrospective survey for estimating exposure. METHODS: The National Electronic Surveillance System and Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were searched for scuba diving injuries. The Divers Alert Network diving fatality database was searched for deaths, and Sports and Fitness Industry Association estimates for diving were obtained from annual surveys...
January 4, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299780/the-key-roles-of-negative-pressure-breathing-and-exercise-in-the-development-of-interstitial-pulmonary-edema-in-professional-male-scuba-divers
#12
Olivier Castagna, Jacques Regnard, Emmanuel Gempp, Pierre Louge, François Xavier Brocq, Bruno Schmid, Anne-Virginie Desruelle, Valentin Crunel, Adrien Maurin, Romain Chopard, David Hunter MacIver
BACKGROUND: Immersion pulmonary edema is potentially a catastrophic condition; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms are ill-defined. This study assessed the individual and combined effects of exertion and negative pressure breathing on the cardiovascular system during the development of pulmonary edema in SCUBA divers. METHODS: Sixteen male professional SCUBA divers performed four SCUBA dives in a freshwater pool at 1 m depth while breathing air at either a positive or negative pressure both at rest or with exercise...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299505/utility-of-adjunctive-procedures-with-balloon-dilation-of-the-eustachian-tube
#13
Yehia Ashry, Kosuke Kawai, Dennis Poe
Objective: To assess the role and effect of concomitant adjunctive procedures when combined with balloon dilation of the Eustachian tube (BDET), including a new technique for treating obstructive disease within the bony Eustachian tube (ET). Study Design: Retrospective case series. Setting: Tertiary medical center. Subjects: Adults with persistent (≥2 years): 1) OME or non-fixed TM retraction AND type B or C tympanogram OR 2) Consistent symptoms of barochallenge with flights or diving, all despite medical treatment for ≥6 weeks...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294554/-a-case-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-caused-by-improper-use-of-oxygen-in-diving-operation
#14
Z P Dong, M G Shi, Z M Fan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291060/environmental-influences-and-ontogenetic-differences-in-vertical-habitat-use-of-black-marlin-istiompax-indica-in-the-southwestern-pacific
#15
Samuel M Williams, Bonnie J Holmes, Sean R Tracey, Julian G Pepperell, Michael L Domeier, Michael B Bennett
The black marlin (Istiompax indica) is a highly migratory billfish that occupies waters throughout the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific. To characterize the vertical habitat use of I. indica, we examined the temperature-depth profiles collected using 102 pop-up satellite archival tags deployed off the east coast of Australia. Modelling of environmental variables revealed location, sea-surface height deviation, mixed layer depth and dissolved oxygen to all be significant predictors of vertical habitat use...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281198/alternobaric-vertigo-and-facial-baroparesis-caused-by-scuba-diving-and-relieved-by-chewing-pineapple-a-case-report
#16
Adam Bender-Heine, Zachary W Dillard, Matthew J Zdilla
Equalization of middle ear pressure is an important consideration for scuba divers. When middle ear pressure is asymmetric, a diver may experience alternobaric vertigo. Moreover, individuals with an underlying temporal bone dehiscence are predisposed to facial baroparesis. An understanding on behalf of fellow divers and emergency responders to recognize and differentiate facial baroparesis from decompression illness is critical. Misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment or unwarranted stoppage of diving...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281197/smoking-cessation-program-among-naval-diver-trainees-in-the-republic-of-singapore-navy
#17
Jake Jk Goh
BACKGROUND: Since 2016, the Naval Diving Unit (NDU) of the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) has instituted a smoking cessation trial program for their trainees, instituting a blanket ban on smoking during training hours in order to promote smoking cessation and create a smoke-free culture among its servicemen. For the rest of RSN personnel, they would attend a more costly, established Health Promotion Board (HPB) smoking cessation program, which employs social support strategies, while they undergo basic training in the Navy Military Experts Institute (NMI)...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281196/effects-of-prolonged-and-repeated-immersions-on-heart-rate-variability-and-complexity-in-military-divers
#18
Nathaniel T Berry, Laurie Wideman, Christopher K Rhea, Jeffrey D Labban, Ki H Chon, Barbara E Shykoff, Jay Harran, John P Florian
BACKGROUND: The influence of prolonged and repeated water immersions on heart rate variability (HRV) and complexity was examined in 10 U.S. Navy divers who completed six-hour resting dives on five consecutive days. Pre-dive and during-dive measures were recorded daily. METHODS: Dependent variables of interest were average heart rate (HR), time-domain measures of HRV [root mean square of successive differences of the normal RR (NN) interval (RMSSD), standard deviation of the NN interval (SDNN)], frequency-domain measures of HRV [low-frequency power spectral density (psd) (LFpsd), low-frequency normalized (LFnu), high-frequency psd (HFpsd), high-frequency normalized (HFnu), low-frequency/ high-frequency ratio (LF/HF)], and non-linear dynamics of HRV [approximate entropy (ApEn)]...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281195/physiological-responses-to-prolonged-saturation-diving-a-field-based-pilot-study
#19
Sanjoy Deb, Katherine Burgess, Paul Swinton, Eimear Dolan
This study aimed to assess the effect of extreme environmental exposure during an operational saturation dive on airway inflammation (exhaled nitric oxide (FeNo)), components of fitness (flexibility and aerobic capacity) and blood hematological variables. Six saturation divers, who undertook a 26±0.5 day operational saturation dive were recruited to take part in this study. Participants completed a field-based repeated measure test battery on three occasions (pre-dive, post-dive and 24 hours after saturation dive)...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281194/the-dewey-monitor-pulse-oximetry-can-independently-detect-hypoxia-in-a-rebreather-diver
#20
Rachel M Lance, Michael J Natoli, Sophia A S Dunworth, John J Freiberger, Richard E Moon
Rebreather diving has one of the highest fatality rates per man hour of any diving activity in the world. The leading cause of death is hypoxia, typically from equipment or procedural failures. Hypoxia causes very few symptoms prior to causing loss of consciousness. Additionally, since the electronics responsible for controlling oxygen levels in rebreathers often control their alarm systems, frequently divers do not receive any external warnings. This study investigated the use of a forehead pulse oximeter as an independent warning device in the event of rebreather failure...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
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