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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789488/superhydrophobic-natural-and-artificial-surfaces-a-structural-approach
#1
REVIEW
Roxana-Elena Avrămescu, Mihaela Violeta Ghica, Cristina Dinu-Pîrvu, Răzvan Prisada, Lăcrămioara Popa
Since ancient times humans observed animal and plants features and tried to adapt them according to their own needs. Biomimetics represents the foundation of many inventions from various fields: From transportation devices (helicopter, airplane, submarine) and flying techniques, to sports' wear industry (swimming suits, scuba diving gear, Velcro closure system), bullet proof vests made from Kevlar etc. It is true that nature provides numerous noteworthy models (shark skin, spider web, lotus leaves), referring both to the plant and animal kingdom...
May 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781310/when-the-research-is-not-reproducible-the-importance-of-author-initiated-and-institution-driven-responses-and-investigations
#2
Bor Luen Tang
Important and potentially useful findings in the sciences are under more intense public scrutiny now more than ever. Other researchers in the field dive into replicating and expanding the findings while the media swamps the community and the public with peripheral reporting and analyses. How should authors and the hosting/funding institutions respond when other workers in the field could not reproduce or replicate their published results? To illustrate the importance of author-initiated and institution-driven investigations in response to outcries of research irreproducibility, I draw on comparisons between three recent and well-publicized cases in the life sciences: betatrophin, STAP cells, and NgAgo...
May 20, 2018: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780593/interacting-with-wildlife-tourism-increases-activity-of-white-sharks
#3
Charlie Huveneers, Yuuki Y Watanabe, Nicholas L Payne, Jayson M Semmens
Anthropogenic activities are dramatically changing marine ecosystems. Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and has the potential to modify the natural environment and behaviour of the species it targets. Here, we used a novel method to assess the effects of wildlife tourism on the activity of white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ). High frequency three-axis acceleration loggers were deployed on ten white sharks for a total of ~9 days. A combination of multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that the increased number of strong accelerations and vertical movements when sharks are interacting with cage-diving operators result in an overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) ~61% higher compared with other times when sharks are present in the area where cage-diving occurs...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773686/drivers-of-the-dive-response-in-pinnipeds-apnea-submergence-or-temperature
#4
Jeppe Kaczmarek, Colleen Reichmuth, Birgitte I McDonald, Jakob H Kristensen, Josefin Larson, Fredrik Johansson, Jenna L Sullivan, Peter T Madsen
Long and deep dives in marine mammals are enabled by high mass-specific oxygen stores and the dive response (DR), which reduces oxygen consumption in concert with increased peripheral vasoconstriction and a lowered heart rate during dives. Diving heart rates of pinnipeds are highly variable and modulated by many factors, such as breath holding (apnea), pressure, swimming activity, temperature, and even cognitive control. However, the individual effects of these factors on diving heart rate are poorly understood due to the difficulty of parsing their relative contributions in diving pinnipeds...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768543/preventing-diseases-in-round-the-world-travelers-a-contemporary-challenge-for-travel-medicine-advice
#5
Karis Maria de Pinho Rodrigues, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Providing advice for travelers embarking on long-term trips poses a challenge in travel medicine. A long duration of risk exposure is associated with underuse of protective measures and poor adherence to chemoprophylaxis, increasing the chances of acquiring infections. Recently, in our clinic, we observed an increase in the number of travelers undertaking round-the-world trips. These individuals are typically aged around 32 years and quit their jobs to embark on one-to-two-year journeys. Their destinations include countries in two or more continents, invariably Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and mostly involve land travel and visiting rural areas...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765974/diving-under-nail-plate
#6
Carlota Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo, Virginia Velasco Tamaríz, Marta Prieto Barrios, José Luis Rodríguez-Peralto, Beatriz García Bracamonte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765640/vascularization-of-the-trachea-in-the-bottlenose-dolphin-comparison-with-bovine-and-evidence-for-evolutionary-adaptations-to-diving
#7
Cristina Ballarin, Paola Bagnoli, Antonella Peruffo, Bruno Cozzi
The rigid structure of the mammalian trachea is functional to maintain constant patency and airflow during breathing, but no gas exchange takes place through its walls. The structure of the organ in dolphins shows increased rigidity of the tracheal cartilaginous rings and the presence of vascular lacunae in the submucosa. However, no actual comparison was ever made between the size and capacity of the vascular lacunae of the dolphin trachea and the potentially homologous structures of terrestrial mammals. In the present study, the extension of the lacunae has been compared between the bottlenose dolphin and the bovine, a closely related terrestrial Cetartiodactyla...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763367/hsp70-protects-rats-and-hippocampal-neurons-from-central-nervous-system-oxygen-toxicity-by-suppression-of-no-production-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#8
Hongjie Yi, Guoyang Huang, Kun Zhang, Shulin Liu, Weigang Xu
During diving, central nervous system oxygen toxicity may cause drowning or barotrauma, which has dramatically limited the working benefits of hyperbaric oxygen in underwater operations and clinical applications. The aim of this study is to understand the effects and the underlying mechanism of heat shock protein 70 on central nervous system oxygen toxicity and its mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. Rats were given geranylgeranylacetone (800 mg/kg) orally to induce hippocampal expression of heat shock protein 70 and then treated with hyperbaric oxygen...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759708/intra-atrial-right-coronary-artery-and-its-ablation-implications
#9
Balaji Krishnan, Caroline Cross, Richard Dykoski, David G Benditt, Mackenzie Mbai, Edward McFalls, Jian-Ming Li, Stefan Bertog, Venkatakrishna N Tholakanahalli
OBJECTIVES: The study examined the frequency in which a right coronary artery (RCA) anomaly resulting in intra-atrialization of the vessel might increase risk of RCA damage during routine radiofrequency ablation in the right atrium even with low power or temperature. BACKGROUND: Right coronary artery (RCA) injury with endocardial RF ablation of the right atrium is a rare complication. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised an analysis of coronary artery anatomies in 331 patients who underwent autopsies at our institution from 2005 to 2014...
September 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748216/intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-serum-of-two-species-of-deep-diving-seal
#10
Aranya Bagchi, Annabelle J Batten, Milton Levin, Kaitlin N Allen, Michael L Fitzgerald, Luis A Hückstädt, Daniel P Costa, Emmanuel S Buys, Allyson G Hindle
Weddell and elephant seals are deep diving mammals, which rely on lung collapse to limit nitrogen absorption and prevent decompression injury. Repeated collapse and re-expansion exposes the lungs to multiple stressors, including ischemia/reperfusion, alveolar shear stress, and inflammation. There is no evidence, however, that diving damages pulmonary function in these species. To investigate potential protective strategies in deep-diving seals, we examined the inflammatory response of seal whole blood exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748215/high-resting-metabolic-rates-with-low-thermal-dependence-induce-active-dives-in-overwintering-pacific-juvenile-loggerhead-turtles
#11
Chihiro Kinoshita, Takuya Fukuoka, Yasuaki Niizuma, Tomoko Narazaki, Katsufumi Sato
The metabolic rate and activity of sea turtles generally decreases with decreasing seasonal ambient temperature. Juvenile loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea made prolonged inactive dives (>400 min), indicating a state of dormancy during the cold winter period. However, seasonal differences in dive duration were not detected in juvenile loggerheads in the western North Pacific, even though the ambient water temperature changed by more than 10°C. Thus, metabolic states might differ among populations, explaining differences in the diving behaviour of juveniles during winter...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743492/mesoscale-eddies-influence-the-movements-of-mature-female-white-sharks-in-the-gulf-stream-and-sargasso-sea
#12
Peter Gaube, Camrin D Braun, Gareth L Lawson, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Alice Della Penna, Gregory B Skomal, Chris Fischer, Simon R Thorrold
Satellite-tracking of mature white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) has revealed open-ocean movements spanning months and covering tens of thousands of kilometers. But how are the energetic demands of these active apex predators met as they leave coastal areas with relatively high prey abundance to swim across the open ocean through waters often characterized as biological deserts? Here we investigate mesoscale oceanographic variability encountered by two white sharks as they moved through the Gulf Stream region and Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742528/prophylactic-mesh-for-the-prevention-of-parastomal-hernias-need-for-a-deep-dive
#13
Christoffer Odensten, Karin Strigård, Jörgen Rutegård, Michael Dahlberg, Ulrika Ståhle, Ulf Gunnarson, Pia Näsvall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738942/functional-variability-in-the-flight-phase-of-one-metre-springboard-forward-dives
#14
Mohsen Sayyah, Michael J Hiley, Mark A King, Maurice R Yeadon
In springboard diving, low variability in takeoff conditions and in the somersault orientation angle at water entry is to be expected since consistency and accuracy are necessary for a good dive. A diver's adjustment of body configuration during flight may be a deliberate compensation for variations in takeoff conditions, leading to increased joint angle variability and decreased entry angle variability. The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which a diver pre-plans the aerial phase and then makes adjustments in flight to control the entry angle in one metre springboard forward dives...
May 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737979/time-series-dataset-of-fish-assemblages-near-thermal-discharges-at-nuclear-power-plants-in-northern-taiwan
#15
Hungyen Chen, Ching-Yi Chen, Kwang-Tsao Shao
Long-term time series datasets with consistent sampling methods are rather rare, especially the ones of non-target coastal fishes. Here we described a long-term time series dataset of fish collected by trammel net fish sampling and observed by an underwater diving visual census near the thermal discharges at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Both experimental and control stations of these two investigations were monitored four times per year in the surrounding seas at both plants from 2000 to 2017...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736336/from-chilean-patagonia-to-galapagos-ecuador-novel-insights-on-blue-whale-migratory-pathways-along-the-eastern-south-pacific
#16
Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Luis Bedriñana-Romano, Francisco A Viddi, Jorge E Ruiz, Juan Pablo Torres-Florez, Alexandre N Zerbini
Background: The most traditional scheme for migration among baleen whales comprises yearly migrations between productive waters at high latitude summer feeding grounds and warmer waters at lower latitudes where whales calve and mate, but rarely feed. Evidence indicates, however, that large departures from this scheme exist among populations and individuals. Furthermore, for some populations there is virtually no information on migratory pathways and destinations. Such is the case of Chilean blue whales throughout the Eastern South Pacific; hence, the goal of this study was to assess its migratory behavior...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734572/can-my-patient-dive-after-a-first-episode-of-primary-spontaneous-pneumothorax-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
M Alvarez Villela, S Dunworth, N P Harlan, R E Moon
Introduction: Patients with prior primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) frequently seek clearance to dive. Despite wide consensus in precluding compressed-air diving in this population, there is a paucity of data to support this decision. We reviewed the literature reporting the risk of PSP recurrence. Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science using predefined terms. Studies published in English reporting the recurrence rate after a first PSP were included...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734571/spirometry-and-oxidative-stress-after-rebreather-diving-in-warm-water
#18
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Silvia Quartesan, Enrico Camporesi, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Sarah Moretti, Costantino Balestra, Alessandro Rubini
Introduction: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and use of enriched air can result in oxidative injury affecting the brain, lungs and eyes. HBO₂ exposure during diving can lead to a decrease in respiratory parameters. However, the possible effects of acute exposure to oxygen-enriched diving on subsequent spirometric performance and oxidative state in humans have not been recently described recently. We aim to investigate possible effects of acute (i) hyperbaric and (ii) hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure using scuba or closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) on subsequent spirometry and to assess the role of oxidative state after hyperoxic diving...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734570/a-historical-review-of-the-u-s-navy-s-busiest-recompression-chamber-in-the-pacific-theater-with-a-current-perspective-on-caring-for-civilian-divers-within-its-area-of-responsibility-short-communication
#19
Christopher Rendina
On the island Nation of Guam, the United States Department of Defense has stationed military personnel from every service branch. Guam is utilized as a strategic waypoint for the U.S. military in the Pacific theater. As the largest service branch in the region, the Navy has placed a few Diving Medical Officers in Guam to collectively manage and treat patients with recompression therapy. Guam is also a popular tourist destination, with multiple recreational diving companies certifying individuals who are looking to take advantage of the beautiful warm water and exotic marine life...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734569/heart-rate-variability-changes-as-an-indicator-of-decompression-related-physiological-stress
#20
Sérgio Rhein Schirato, Ingrid El-Dash, Vivian El-Dash, José Eduardo Natali, Paulo Nogueira Starzynski, José Guilherme Chaui-Berlinck
Many aspects of the physiological stress related to the exposure to the hyperbaric environment have been studied, but no research has been made to evaluate the impacts of scuba diving on heart rate variability (HRV). We investigated the effects of a simulated dive to 557 KPa (45 meters of salt water) for a 30-minute bottom time on the frequency and time domains estimators of HRV. Electrocardiogram records were obtained with superficial electrodes for 30 minutes before the simulated dive and, subsequently, for one hour after the dive...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
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