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Yu-Chen Pu, Tian-Ling Ma, You-Ming Hou, Ming Sun
BACKGROUND: The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is an invasive wood-boring insect that damages palms and sugarcane. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is an entomopathogenic bacterium which has been modified into various strains, and widely used in pest management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of RPW to the HA strain of Bt. RESULTS: Five concentrations of Bt bioassays were used on RPW eggs, 2(nd) and 4(th) instars. Average egg hatching rates exceeded 85% using Bt suspensions or distilled water...
November 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Vasily V Grebennikov, Katsura Morimoto
The herein reported beetles (Figs 1, 2) were repeatedly sampled by the first author since 2008 by sifting leaf litter in two forested localities in Southwest China: Cang Shan Mountain Range in Yunnan and Mount Emei in Sichuan (Fig. 3). The specimens' characteristic appearance and edaphic way of life were consistent with those of various members of the subfamily Cossoninae (Morimoto 1973, 1993, 1995), although a more precise taxonomic assignment remained elusive. In 2015 the second author saw images of these beetles and suggested their affinities to the genus Cotasterosoma Konishi, 1962...
October 28, 2016: Zootaxa
Xiaodong Sun, Wei Yan, Jing Zhang, Xiaoqing Niu, Fuheng Li, Weiquan Qin, Guangchang Ma
This study determined the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae strain SD-3 against invasive red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (coleoptera:curculionidae) larvae in Hainan Province, China. Inoculation of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL caused 100 % mortality of R. ferrugineus, indicating that the conidia of strain SD-3 were highly virulent. The process of invasion mechanism was showed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and frozen section as follows. Once R. ferrugineus was infected by strain SD-3, M...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yunqing Cheng, Ting Liu, Yixin Zhao, Wanting Geng, Longtao Chen, Jianfeng Liu
The nut weevil (Curculio nucum) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum, the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Andrew P Lerch, Jesse A Pfammatter, Barbara J Bentz, Kenneth F Raffa
Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time...
2016: PloS One
Jenny Y Y Lau, Chun-Chiu Pang, Lawrence Ramsden, Richard M K Saunders
The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23-25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel Carrillo, Luisa F Cruz, Paul E Kendra, Teresa I Narvaez, Wayne S Montgomery, Armando Monterroso, Charlotte De Grave, Miriam F Cooperband
Members of a complex of cryptic species, that correspond morphologically to the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were recently found attacking avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in Israel and California. In early 2016, an outbreak of another member of this species complex was detected infesting approximately 1500 avocado trees in an avocado orchard at Homestead, Florida. An area-wide survey was conducted in commercial avocado groves of Miami-Dade County, Florida to determine the distribution and abundance of E...
October 14, 2016: Insects
Manuel A Barrios-Izás, Robert S Anderson, Juan J Morrone
We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P...
September 14, 2016: Zootaxa
Mirella Clausi, Diego Leone, Monica Oreste, Eustachio Tarasco
Many insects are reported to damage cultivated chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.; Fagaceae) in Italy, but the most important pests of chestnut fruits are weevils (Curculio elephas Gyll. and Curculio glandium Marsh.; Curculionidae) and tortricid moths (Pammene and Cydia; Tortricidae) (Pollini, 1998, Speranza, 1999). The larvae of the tortricid pests develop internally, tunnelling in the fruits and eating the endocarp (Rotundo et al. 1991), which significantly reduces nut quality and commercial value. The most damaging tortricid moths in the Italian chestnut industry are Pammene fasciana (Linnaeus) (the early chestnut moth), Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (the intermediate chestnut moth), and Cydia splendana (Hübner) (the late chestnut moth) (Pedrazzoli et al...
September 16, 2016: Zootaxa
Vasily V Grebennikov
A male specimen of the monotypic weevil genus, Prothrombosternus Voss, 1965, so far known on the basis of only five syntypes from Mt. Meru and Mt. Hanang, Tanzania, is reported from the Rubeho Mountains, Tanzania. The lectotype of Prothrombosternus tarsalis Voss, 1965 is designated using a male from Mt. Meru. The Rubeho specimen shares the same external and genital morphological characters with the lectotype (both extensively illustrated) and, therefore, both are considered conspecific. The DNA barcode of the Rubeho specimen is publicly available at dx...
September 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Mark R McNeill, Chikako van Koten, Vanessa M Cave, David Chapman, Hamish Hodgson
To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Harrison M Brookes, Darrell W Ross, Tara M Strand, Harold W Thistle, Iral R Ragenovich, Laura L Lowrey
Current recommendations for applying the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) to protect live trees from Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, infestation are to space individual passive releasers (MCH bubble capsules) on a 12- by 12-m grid throughout areas to be protected. Previous field studies and a theoretical study using a puff dispersion model to predict pheromone concentrations have shown that releasers emitting higher rates of MCH spaced farther apart may be as effective as the established standard treatment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dale W Spurgeon
The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) has been eradicated from much of the United States, but remains an important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in other parts of the Americas. Where the weevil occurs, the pheromone trap is a key tool for population monitoring or detection. Traditional monitoring programs have placed traps in or near the outermost cotton rows where damage by farm equipment can cause loss of trapping data. Recently, some programs have adopted a trap placement adjacent to but outside monitored fields...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dario Pistone, Sigrid Mugu, Bjarte Henry Jordal
Deep level insect relationships are generally difficult to resolve, especially within taxa of the most diverse and species rich holometabolous orders. In beetles, the major diversity occurs in the Phytophaga, including charismatic groups such as leaf beetles, longhorn beetles and weevils. Bark and ambrosia beetles are wood boring weevils that contribute 12 percent of the diversity encountered in Curculionidae, one of the largest families of beetles with more than 50000 described species. Phylogenetic resolution in groups of Cretaceous age has proven particularly difficult and requires large quantity of data...
2016: PloS One
Andres Susaeta, José R Soto, Damian C Adams, Jiri Hulcr
Invasive wood borers vectoring pathogenic fungi have nearly exterminated several North American tree species, and it is unclear whether landscape dominant trees, such as pines, will face similar threats in the future. This paper explores the economic impacts of a hypothetical arrival of a destructive ambrosia beetle "X" (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that infests loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests in the Southeastern United States. We develop an economic framework for pre-invasion assessment that incorporates fluctuating economic and environmental conditions for a representative loblolly pine stand and biological assumptions from the ongoing laurel wilt epidemic...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Muhammad Yasin, Paul F Rugman-Jones, Waqas Wakil, Richard Stouthamer
The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is a voracious pest of palm species. In recent decades its range has expanded greatly, particularly impacting the date palm industry in the Middle East. This has led to conjecture regarding the origins of invasive RPW populations. For example, in parts of the Middle East, RPW is commonly referred to as the "Pakistani weevil" in the belief that it originated there. We sought evidence to support or refute this belief. First reports of RPW in Pakistan were from the Punjab region in 1918, but it is unknown whether it is native or invasive there...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
K P Bleiker, B H Van Hezewijk
The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Zhen-Kai Liu, Jun-Bao Wen
Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Abid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Hassan Al-Ayedh, Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr
Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 10⁷ conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zubair Ahmed, Massimo Meregalli, Nadia Fatima
The superfamily Curculionoidea contains over 60,000 described species worldwide (Oberprieler et al. 2007). Knowledge of their distribution is still incomplete, with particular regard for several poorly or not yet completely investigated countries. Moreover, a large number of unidentified specimens of various geographical origin are conserved in museums throughout the world, and further unpublished data for many species can be recovered from the study of public and private collections.
2016: Zootaxa
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