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Christos G Athanassiou, Nickolas G Kavallieratos, James F Campbell
In trapping programs prior capture of individuals of the same or different species may influence subsequent attractiveness of the trap. To evaluate this process with stored-product insects, the effect of the presence of dead or alive adults in traps on the behavioral responses of six stored-product insect species, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, T. castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), S. granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) and O...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Guanyang Zhang, Usmaan Basharat, Nicholas Matzke, Nico M Franz
Statistical historical biogeographic methods rely on models that represent various biogeographic processes. Until recently model selection in this domain was not widely used, and the impact of differential model selection on inferring biogeographic scenarios was not well understood. Focusing on Neotropical weevils in the Exophthalmus genus complex (EGC) (Insecta: Curculionidae: Entiminae), we compare three commonly used biogeographic models - DIVA (Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis), DEC (Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis) and BayArea (Bayesian Analysis of Biogeography), and examine the impact of modeling founder-event jump dispersal on historical biogeographic reconstructions...
January 2, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Michael J Skvarla, Ashley P G Dowling
Beetles (Coleoptera) are a charismatic group of insects targeted by collectors and often used in biodiversity surveys. As part of a larger project, we surveyed a small (4 hectare) plot in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas using 70 traps of 12 trap types and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter and identified all Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea (Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brachyceridae, Brentidae, and Curculionidae excluding Scolytinae) to species. This resulted in the collection of 7,973 specimens representing 242 species arranged in 8 families...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Insect Science
Douglas McPhie, Hannah J Burrack
Female strawberry bud weevils (Anthonomus signatus Say) oviposit in developing flower buds of strawberries (Fragaria spp.), caneberries (Rubus spp.), and red bud (Cercis canadensis). After laying a single egg, weevils will girdle or "clip" the buds at the pedicel, killing the bud and preventing fruit development. This injury is of concern to commercial strawberry growers, who typically assume the loss of one clipped bud is the loss of one average sized fruit, causing the economic threshold to be set extremely low...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
P Martinek, E Kula, J Hedbávný
Reaction of leaf weevil (Phyllobius arborator (Herbst)) to increased concentration of manganese in diet was investigated in laboratory rearing with controlled temperature, humidity, and light conditions. Food for leaf weevils in rearing (leaves of birch Betula pendula Roth) was contaminated by soaking the leaves in solutions of MnCl24H2O with graded concentration of manganese. Direct influence of food was characterized by the consumed amount of leaves, period of feeding, and weight of P. arborator adults. At the same time, the levels of manganese in unconsumed food, excrement, and bodies of adults were determined...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Entomology
K P Bleiker, B H Van Hezewijk
The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
Eleanor C Lahr, Anna Sala
Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
Suhas S Vyavhare, David R Gealy, Michael O Way, Rodante E Tabien, Rebecca A Pearson
The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most important insect pest of rice in the United States. Management of L. oryzophilus mainly depends upon the use of insecticides due to the lack of effective alternative management tactics. A 3-yr field study was conducted to determine if difference exists among rice genotypes and cultivars of inbred tropical japonica subspecies commercially grown in the southern United States [Cocodrie (PI 606331), CL171, and CL151 (PI 654463)] and the germplasm lines of indica subspecies adapted to tropical climates of Asia [WC 4644 (PI 312777), TNI (PI 495830), Rondo (PI 615022), 4612 (PI 615039), TeQing (PI 536047), and 4593 (PI 615031)] for resistance to L...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Larry D Godfrey
BACKGROUND: In California, rice fields are flooded over the winter months (November through March) to facilitate degradation of post-harvest rice straw and to provide temporary habitat for migratory waterfowl. Prior research showed that winter flood rice fields had fewer rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), larvae and pupae during the rice production season than fields that were left unflooded in the winter. A series of experiments were conducted to provide further support for these trends under controlled conditions and to find a mechanism for this phenomenon...
December 19, 2016: Pest Management Science
Thomas H Atkinson
A new species in the genus Cactopinus Schwarz is described from central Mexico bringing the total of known species to 22.
November 9, 2016: Zootaxa
Andrew J Johnson, Thomas H Atkinson, Jiri Hulcr
Two new Hypothenemus species found in southern and southeastern USA are described: Hypothenemus piaparolinae sp. n. and Hypothenemus subterrestris sp. n. The distribution and habits suggest these species are native and widely distributed, but elusive, and not recently arrived exotics. Both appear to have unusual biology: H. subterrestris appears to live in material on or in the ground, and H. piaparolinae has only been collected from the xylem of extensively rotten, fungus-filled twigs.
November 29, 2016: Zootaxa
Vasily V Grebennikov
This paper reports the first discovery of the weevil genus Catapionus in Southwest China. Eighteen specimens of C. mopsus sp.n. were collected in two high altitude localities some 360 km apart: Mt. Haba in Yunnan (the type locality) at 4,158-4,195 m and Mt. Gongga in Sichuan at 3,533-4,143 m. Habitus and genitalia of a male and a female from each locality are extensively illustrated. Six specimens from each locality were DNA barcoded ( Taxonomic validation of the new species name was made by referring to high quality illustrations of the holotype and to its DNA barcode, and without providing a customary verbal description...
December 6, 2016: Zootaxa
Paul E Kendra, Wayne S Montgomery, Elena Q Schnell, Mark A Deyrup, Nancy D Epsky
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a wood-boring pest that has now invaded nine states in the southeastern United States. The beetle's dominant fungal symbiont (Raffaelea lauricola) is phytopathogenic, inducing laurel wilt in trees within the family Lauraceae. Members of the genus Persea are particularly susceptible to the lethal disease, including native redbay (P. borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris), as well as commercial avocado (P. americana). Cubeb oil lures are the current standard for detection of X...
December 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sandra Vacas, Ismael Navarro, Elena Seris, Carina Ramos, Estrella Hernández, Vicente Navarro-Llopis, Jaime Primo
The four-spotted coconut weevil, Diocalandra frumenti Fabricius (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), is a small weevil found attacking economically important palm species, such as coconut, date, oil, and Canary palms. Given the scarcity of detection and management tools for this pest, the availability of a pheromone to be included in trapping protocols would be a crucial advantage. Previous laboratory experiments showed evidence for aggregation behavior; thus, our main goal was to identify the aggregation pheromone in this species...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
J F J Grigolli, L A Souza, M G Fernandes, A C Busoli
The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants...
December 12, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Geoff M Gurr, Jian Liu, Anne C Johnson, Deane N Woruba, Gunnar Kirchhof, Ryosuke Fujinuma, William Sirabis, Yapo Jeffery, Ramakrishna Akkinapally
Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatans) is a food crop of global significance. The storage roots and foliage of crop are attacked by a wide range of pests and diseases. Whilst these are generally well controlled in developed countries using approaches such as clean planting material and monitoring with pheromone traps to guide insecticide use, research into methods suitable for developing countries has lagged. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), sweetpotato is grown extensively as a subsistence crop and commercial production as a cash crop is developing...
2016: PeerJ
Shun Xu, Longhai Li, Jin Tong, Mo Li
To improve the torsional resistance capability of multilayered composite pipes, a bionic design was presented based on the rostrum of Cyrtotrachelus Bugueti Guer. Morphology and mechanical properties of the weevil's rostrum were studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to observe the macro-/microstructure and inner structure. Nanoindentation was carried out to measure the elastic modulus and the hardness of the biological materials. Based on the structure of rostrum, a mathematical model of multilayered biomimetic pipe was established with the statistical methods...
December 9, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Yu-Chen Pu, Tian-Ling Ma, You-Ming Hou, Ming Sun
BACKGROUND: The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is an invasive wood-boring insect that damages palms and sugarcane. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is an entomopathogenic bacterium which has been modified into various strains, and widely used in pest management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of RPW to the HA strain of Bt. RESULTS: Five concentrations of Bt bioassays were used on RPW eggs, 2(nd) and 4(th) instars. Average egg hatching rates exceeded 85% using Bt suspensions or distilled water...
November 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
Vasily V Grebennikov, Katsura Morimoto
The herein reported beetles (Figs 1, 2) were repeatedly sampled by the first author since 2008 by sifting leaf litter in two forested localities in Southwest China: Cang Shan Mountain Range in Yunnan and Mount Emei in Sichuan (Fig. 3). The specimens' characteristic appearance and edaphic way of life were consistent with those of various members of the subfamily Cossoninae (Morimoto 1973, 1993, 1995), although a more precise taxonomic assignment remained elusive. In 2015 the second author saw images of these beetles and suggested their affinities to the genus Cotasterosoma Konishi, 1962...
October 28, 2016: Zootaxa
Xiaodong Sun, Wei Yan, Jing Zhang, Xiaoqing Niu, Fuheng Li, Weiquan Qin, Guangchang Ma
This study determined the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae strain SD-3 against invasive red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (coleoptera:curculionidae) larvae in Hainan Province, China. Inoculation of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL caused 100 % mortality of R. ferrugineus, indicating that the conidia of strain SD-3 were highly virulent. The process of invasion mechanism was showed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and frozen section as follows. Once R. ferrugineus was infected by strain SD-3, M...
2016: SpringerPlus
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