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Cardiology pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330132/an-overview-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-strategic-plan
#1
M K Pugsley, S Authier, J E Koerner, W S Redfern, C G Markgraf, T Brabham, K Correll, M V Soloviev, A Botchway, M Engwall, M Traebert, J-P Valentin, T J Mow, A Greiter-Wilke, D J Leishman, H M Vargas
Safety Pharmacology studies are conducted to characterize the confidence by which biologically active new chemical entities (NCE) may be anticipated as safe. Non-clinical safety pharmacology studies aim to detect and characterize potentially undesirable pharmacodynamic activities using an array of in silico, in vitro and in vivo animal models. While a broad spectrum of methodological innovation and advancement of the science occurs within the Safety Pharmacology Society, the society also focuses on partnerships with health authorities and technology providers and facilitates interaction with organizations of common interest such as pharmacology, physiology, neuroscience, cardiology and toxicology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327527/role-and-relevance-of-blood-pressure-variability-in-hypertension-related-co-morbidities
#2
Ashok Kumar, B C Kalmath, Georgi Abraham, Johann Christopher, Pln Kaparthi, Louie Fischer, Neeta Deshpande, N K Mishra, Praveen Raj, Rajesh Javerani, Ramesh Goyal, Reefa Dsouza, Shashank R Joshi
Despite maintaining mean blood pressure at optimal levels, cardiovascular complications still occur in hypertensive patients. Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been implicated as a prominent factor responsible for incurring this additional risk. In this review we attempted to generate a consensus on the importance of BPV in the hypertension management and to evaluate different therapeutic options available to reduce BPV. Panel comprising of 11 leading experts from India in different areas of clinical practice (including nephrology, diabetes and endocrinology, cardiology, and critical care medicine) was convened...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321066/perioperative-management-of-antiplatelet-therapy-in-patients-undergoing-non-cardiac-surgery-following-coronary-stent-placement-a-systematic-review
#3
Christopher P Childers, Melinda Maggard-Gibbons, Jesus G Ulloa, Ian T MacQueen, Isomi M Miake-Lye, Roberta Shanman, Selene Mak, Jessica M Beroes, Paul G Shekelle
BACKGROUND: The correct perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy (APT) in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (NCS) is often debated by clinicians. American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend postponing elective NCS at least 3 months after stent implantation. Regardless of the timing of surgery, ACC/AHA guidelines recommend continuing at least ASA throughout the perioperative period and ideally continuing dual APT (DAPT) therapy "unless surgery demands discontinuation...
January 10, 2018: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286056/sacubitril-and-valsartan-fixed-combination-to-reduce-heart-failure-events-in-post-acute-myocardial-infarction-patients
#4
M Zaid Iskandar, C C Lang
Heart failure is a term used to define a constellation of symptoms and signs that are commonly attributed to the inability of the heart to produce a cardiac output that meets the demands of the body. It remains a deadly disease, affecting between 1-2% of the population, and is more common in the elderly, with around 6-10% of patients over 65 suffering from the condition. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ-696) is a combined neprilysin inhibitor and angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker approved in recent years for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction...
October 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260237/-anticoagulation-in-geriatric-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-with-what-and-for-whom-no-more
#5
REVIEW
P Bahrmann, M Christ
Based on established risk scores, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc score, the indications for oral anticoagulation are given for patients over 65 years old with atrial fibrillation and even more so for patients over 75 years old. Before beginning anticoagulation a geriatric assessment for evaluation of the cognitive ability, the activities of daily living and the risk of falling should be made because of the known complications of anticoagulation. Geriatric patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) are increasingly being treated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) to prevent ischemic stroke...
December 19, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#6
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206729/extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-the-pediatric-cardiac-population-in-search-of-a-standard-of-care
#7
Javier J Lasa, Parag Jain, Tia T Raymond, Charles G Minard, Alexis Topjian, Vinay Nadkarni, Michael Gaies, Melania Bembea, Paul A Checchia, Lara S Shekerdemian, Ravi Thiagarajan
OBJECTIVES: Although clinical and pharmacologic guidelines exist for the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children (Pediatric Advanced Life Support), the practice of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric cardiac patients remains without universally accepted standards. We aim to explore variation in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures by surveying clinicians who care for this high-risk patient population. DESIGN: A 28-item cross-sectional survey was distributed via a web-based platform to clinicians focusing on cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation team dynamics immediately prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187799/appropriateness-of-digoxin-measurement-in-hospitalized-patients
#8
Seyma Oncu, Ayse Gelal, Ozgur Aslan, Reyhan S Ucku
Introduction: Measurement of serum digoxin concentrations before steady-state is reached results in a falsely low concentration, and may affect treatment safety. We evaluated the proportion of serum digoxin measurements performed before steady-state is reached and the reasons for inappropriate sampling in hospitalized patients. Materials and methods: Electronic medical records of patients hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2015 treated with oral digoxin, that had more than one digoxin measurement were included...
February 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181044/clinical-features-management-and-mortality-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-patients-with-heart-failure-observations-from-the-commit-hf-registry
#9
Łukasz Siedlecki, Bożena Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Łukasz Pyka, Bogumiła Król, Wioletta Szczurek, Mariusz Gąsior
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF) are two common diseases that often co-exist. Aim: To explore clinical characteristics, management strategies and rates of 3-year mortality among diabetic and non-diabetic patients hospitalised in a highly specialized interventional cardiology centre. Material and methods: We used data from COMMIT-HF (COnteMporary Modalities In Treatment of Heart Failure), which is a single-centre, observational, prospective registry of patients with symptomatic chronic systolic HF (LVEF < 35%)...
September 2017: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180263/polypill-hypertension-and-medication-adherence-the-solution-strategy
#10
D Cimmaruta, N Lombardi, C Borghi, G Rosano, F Rossi, A Mugelli
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is an important global health challenge and a leading preventable risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. In current cardiology practice, the main obstacles in the management of patients affected by hypertension are comorbidities and poor adherence to pharmacological treatments. The World Health Organization has recently highlighted increased adherence as a key development need for reducing cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Principal observational and clinical trial data regarding adherence, reductions in cardiovascular risk and safety of the polypill approach are summarized and reviewed...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177981/long-term-incidence-of-inappropriate-shocks-in-patients-with-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillators-in-clinical-practice-an-underestimated-complication
#11
Daniel Hofer, Jan Steffel, David Hürlimann, Laurent Haegeli, Thomas F Lüscher, Firat Duru, Urs Eriksson, Nazmi Krasniqi
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are life-saving device therapy, and patients often carry devices for decades with interim pulse generator exchanges. Inappropriate shocks are associated with impaired quality of life and increased mortality, but available data on their incidence and etiology outside of clinical trials is limited and usually restricted to the lifespan of a singular device. We hypothesized that the incidence in clinical practice is underestimated and aimed this study to retrospectively assess the long-term incidence and etiology of inappropriate shocks in a real-world cohort of patients with multiple ICDs over a long follow-up period...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167415/ticagrelor-leads-to-statin-induced-rhabdomyolysis-a-case-report
#12
Simone M Mrotzek, Tienush Rassaf, Matthias Totzeck
BACKGROUND Following acute coronary intervention in cardiology patients, the combined medical therapy with the platelet inhibitory drug ticagrelor and a statin medication (e.g., simvastatin) is recommended according to international guidelines. Yet combined therapeutic regimens have the potential of pharmacological interaction with both ticagrelor and simvastatin being metabolized by CYP3A4. Rhabdomyolysis is a known side-effect of statin therapy and combined therapy increases the susceptibility to this complication...
November 23, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146532/potential-u-s-population-impact-of-the-2017-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association-high-blood-pressure-guideline
#13
Paul Muntner, Robert M Carey, Samuel Gidding, Daniel W Jones, Sandra J Taler, Jackson T Wright, Paul K Whelton
BACKGROUND: The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication and BP target goals. OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of hypertension, implications of recommendations for antihypertensive medication and prevalence of BP above the treatment goal among US adults using criteria from the 2017 ACC/AHA and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7) guidelines...
November 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140557/withdrawn-pharmacological-cardioversion-for-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter
#14
REVIEW
John Cordina, Gillian E Mead
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the commonest cardiac dysrhythmia. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are two approaches to the management of atrial fibrillation: controlling the ventricular rate or converting to sinus rhythm in the expectation that this would abolish its adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in adults on the annual risk of stroke, peripheral embolism, and mortality...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140555/withdrawn-electrical-cardioversion-for-atrial-fibrillation-and-flutter
#15
REVIEW
Gillian E Mead, Andrew Elder, Andrew D Flapan, John Cordina
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation increases stroke risk and adversely affects cardiovascular haemodynamics. Electrical cardioversion may, by restoring sinus rhythm, improve cardiovascular haemodynamics, reduce the risk of stroke, and obviate the need for long-term anticoagulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter on the risk of thromboembolic events, strokes and mortality (primary outcomes), the rate of cognitive decline, quality of life, the use of anticoagulants and the risk of re-hospitalisation (secondary outcomes) in adults (>18 years)...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133599/potential-us-population-impact-of-the-2017-acc-aha-high-blood-pressure-guideline
#16
Paul Muntner, Robert M Carey, Samuel Gidding, Daniel W Jones, Sandra J Taler, Jackson T Wright, Paul K Whelton
BACKGROUND: The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults provides recommendations for the definition of hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) thresholds for initiation of antihypertensive medication, and BP target goals. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the prevalence of hypertension, implications of recommendations for antihypertensive medication, and prevalence of BP above the treatment goal among US adults using criteria from the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7)...
January 9, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105550/adherence-to-guidelines-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-in-primary-health-care
#17
Maaike Giezeman, Mats Arne, Kersti Theander
OBJECTIVE: To describe adherence to international guidelines for chronic heart failure (CHF) management concerning diagnostics, pharmacological treatment and self-care behaviour in primary health care. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study of patients with CHF, using data obtained from medical records and a postal questionnaire. SETTING: Three primary health care centres in Sweden. SUBJECTS: Patients with a CHF diagnosis registered in their medical record...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102451/autonomic-dysfunction-in-cardiology-pathophysiology-investigation-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Amy C Arnold, Jessica Ng, Lucy Lei, Satish R Raj
Presyncope and syncope are common medical findings, with a > 40% estimated lifetime prevalence. These conditions are often elicited by postural stress and can be recurrent and accompanied by debilitating symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, it is critical for physicians to become familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of common underlying causes of presyncope and syncope. In some patients, altered postural hemodynamic responses result from a failure of compensatory autonomic nervous system reflex mechanisms...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059659/-post-stroke-spasticity-management-including-a-chosen-physiotherapeutic-methods-and-improvements-in-motor-control-review-of-the-current-scientific-evidence
#19
Robert Dymarek, Kuba Ptaszkowski, Lucyna Słupska, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz, Jakub Taradaj, Tomasz Halski, Joanna Rosińczuk
Cerebrovascular diseases based on stroke etiology concern millions of people worldwide, and annual rates of disease are still increasing. In the era of an aging society and suffering from a number of risk factors, in particular those modifiable, strokes and muscles' spastic paresis, subsequently resulting in damage of upper motor neuron structures will become a serious problem for the entire health care system. Effective management and physiotherapy treatment for post-stroke spasticity persisted, both in the acute and chronic, is still a significant medical problem in the interdisciplinary aspect...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059654/-hyperuricemia-in-obese-patients-with-pharmacologically-treated-essential-hypertension
#20
Joanna Niegowska, Alicja Kucharska, Danuta Gajewska
INTRODUCTION: Hyperuricemia and gout are a growing health problem worldwide. Their etiology is complex, and usually caused by excessive production of uric acid and/or impaired excretion. Some drugs used in the treatment of high blood pressure furthermore increase the risk of hyperuricemia. An additional risk factor for hyperuricemia is obesity. Thus far, there is no consensus on the treatment of patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia, despite a large number of studies conducted worldwide...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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