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Mary Leonard

David Weber, Jin Long, Mary B Leonard, Babette Zemel, Joshua F Baker
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity. METHODS: Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds) for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2)...
2016: PloS One
M Teresa de la Morena, David Leonard, Troy R Torgerson, Otavio Cabral-Marques, Mary Slatter, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Sharat Chandra, Luis Murguia-Favela, Francisco Bonilla, Maria Kanariou, Rongras Damrongwatanasuk, Caroline Y Kuo, Christopher C Dvorak, Isabelle Meyts, Karin Chen, Lisa Kobrynski, Neena Kapoor, Darko Richter, Daniela DiGiovanni, Fatima Dhalla, Evangelia Farmaki, Carsten Speckmann, Teresa Espanol, Anna Shcherbina, Celine Hanson, Jiri Litzman, John Routes, Melanie Wong, Ramsay Fuleihan, Suranjith L Seneviratne, Trudy N Small, Ales Janda, Liliana Bezrodnik, Reinhard Seger, Andrea Gomez Raccio, J David M Edgar, Janet Chou, Jordan K Abbott, Joris van Montfrans, Luis Ignacio Gonzalez-Granado, Nancy Bunin, Necil Kutukculer, Paul Gray, Gisela Seminario, Srdjan Pasic, Victor Aquino, Christian Wysocki, Hassan Abolhassani, Eyal Grunebaum, Morna Dorsey, Beatriz Tavares Costa Carvalho, Antonio Condino-Neto, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Alan P Knutsen, John Sleasman, Helen Chapel, Hans D Ochs, Alexandra Filipovich, Mort Cowan, Andrew Gennery, Andrew Cant, Luigi D Notarangelo, Chaim Roifman
BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared to normal individuals. Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications, and may not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM in order to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality, and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yaligara Veeranagouda, Pierrick Rival, Catherine Prades, Claire Mariet, Jean-François Léonard, Jean-Charles Gautier, Xiaobing Zhou, Jufeng Wang, Bo Li, Marie-Laure Ozoux, Eric Boitier
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142708.].
2016: PloS One
Maris Hindrikson, Jaanus Remm, Malgorzata Pilot, Raquel Godinho, Astrid Vik Stronen, Laima Baltrūnaité, Sylwia D Czarnomska, Jennifer A Leonard, Ettore Randi, Carsten Nowak, Mikael Åkesson, José Vicente López-Bao, Francisco Álvares, Luis Llaneza, Jorge Echegaray, Carles Vilà, Janis Ozolins, Dainis Rungis, Jouni Aspi, Ladislav Paule, Tomaž Skrbinšek, Urmas Saarma
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is an iconic large carnivore that has increasingly been recognized as an apex predator with intrinsic value and a keystone species. However, wolves have also long represented a primary source of human-carnivore conflict, which has led to long-term persecution of wolves, resulting in a significant decrease in their numbers, genetic diversity and gene flow between populations. For more effective protection and management of wolf populations in Europe, robust scientific evidence is crucial...
September 28, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Rosanne Govaarts, Emma Beeldman, Mike J Kampelmacher, Marie-Jose van Tol, Leonard H van den Berg, Anneke J van der Kooi, Peter J Wijkstra, Marianne Zijnen-Suyker, Nicolle A M Cobben, Ben A Schmand, Rob J de Haan, Marianne de Visser, Joost Raaphorst
Thirty percent of ALS patients have a frontotemporal syndrome (FS), defined as behavioral changes or cognitive impairment. Despite previous studies, there are no firm conclusions on the effect of the FS on survival and the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. We examined the effect of the FS on survival and the start and duration of NIV in ALS. Behavioral changes were defined as >22 points on the ALS-Frontotemporal-Dementia-Questionnaire or ≥3 points on ≥2 items of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Richard K Zimmerman, G K Balasubramani, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Heather Eng, Leonard Urbanski, Michael L Jackson, Lisa A Jackson, Huong Q McLean, Edward A Belongia, Arnold S Monto, Ryan E Malosh, Manjusha Gaglani, Lydia Clipper, Brendan Flannery, Stephen R Wisniewski
BACKGROUND: The use of neuraminidase-inhibiting anti-viral medication to treat influenza is relatively infrequent. Rapid, cost-effective methods for diagnosing influenza are needed to enable appropriate prescribing. Multi-viral respiratory panels using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to diagnose influenza are accurate but expensive and more time-consuming than low sensitivity rapid influenza tests. Influenza clinical decision algorithms are both rapid and inexpensive, but most are based on regression analyses that do not account for higher order interactions...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Michelle C Dragan, Timothy K Leonard, Andres M Lozano, Mary Pat McAndrews, Karen Ng, Jennifer D Ryan, David F Tang-Wai, Jordana S Wynn, Kari L Hoffman
Episodic memory - composed of memory for unique spatiotemporal experiences - is known to decline with aging, and even more severely in Alzheimer 's disease (AD). Memory for trial-unique objects in spatial scenes depends on the integrity of the hippocampus and interconnected structures that are among the first areas affected in AD. We reasoned that memory for objects-in-scenes would be impaired with aging, and that further impairments would be observed in AD. We asked younger adults, healthy older adults, older adults at-risk for developing cognitive impairments, and older adults with probable early AD to find changing items ('targets') within images of natural scenes, measuring repeated-trial changes in search efficiency and pupil diameter...
September 8, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jason M Nagata, Neville H Golden, Rebecka Peebles, Jin Long, Mary B Leonard, Audrey O Chang, Jennifer L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare sex differences in bone deficits among adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to identify other correlates of bone health. METHOD: Electronic medical records of all patients 9-20 years of age with a DSM-5 diagnosis of AN who were evaluated by the eating disorders program at Stanford with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) between March 1997 and February 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Whole body bone mineral content Z-scores and bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores at multiple sites were recorded using the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS) reference data...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Mahdi Malekpour, Nina Neuhaus, David Martin, Kenneth Widom, Megan Rapp, Diane Leonard, Susan Baro, James Dove, Marie Hunsinger, Joseph Blansfield, Mohsen Shabahang, Denise Torres, Jeffrey Wild
BACKGROUND: The majority of the US population live in urban areas, yet more than half of all trauma deaths occur in rural areas. The Rural Trauma Team Development Course (RTTDC) is developed to improve the outcomes of rural trauma and we aimed to study its effect on patient transfer. METHODS: Trauma referrals 2 years before the RTTDC training were compared with referrals 2 years after the course. RESULTS: Of the 276 studied patients, 97 were referred before the RTTDC training and 179 patients were referred after the course...
July 28, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Joseph H Lorent, Catherine Léonard, Marthe Abouzi, Farida Akabi, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Marie-Paule Mingeot-Leclercq
In perspective of reducing the mortality of cancer, there is a high interest in compounds which act on multiple cellular targets and therefore prevent the appearance of cancer resistances. Saponins and α-hederin, an oleanane-type saponin, induce cancer cell death through different pathways, including apoptosis and membrane permeabilization. Unfortunately, the mechanism by which cell death is induced is unknown. We hypothesized that the activity of α-hederin mainly depends on its interaction with membrane cholesterol and therefore investigated the cholesterol and saponin-structure dependency of apoptosis and membrane permeabilization in two malignant monocytic cell lines...
August 30, 2016: Planta Medica
Marco Onorati, Zhen Li, Fuchen Liu, André M M Sousa, Naoki Nakagawa, Mingfeng Li, Maria Teresa Dell'Anno, Forrest O Gulden, Sirisha Pochareddy, Andrew T N Tebbenkamp, Wenqi Han, Mihovil Pletikos, Tianliuyun Gao, Ying Zhu, Candace Bichsel, Luis Varela, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Steven Lisgo, Yalan Zhang, Anze Testen, Xiao-Bing Gao, Jernej Mlakar, Mara Popovic, Marie Flamand, Stephen M Strittmatter, Leonard K Kaczmarek, E S Anton, Tamas L Horvath, Brett D Lindenbach, Nenad Sestan
The mechanisms underlying Zika virus (ZIKV)-related microcephaly and other neurodevelopment defects remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation and characterization, including single-cell RNA-seq, of neocortical and spinal cord neuroepithelial stem (NES) cells to model early human neurodevelopment and ZIKV-related neuropathogenesis. By analyzing human NES cells, organotypic fetal brain slices, and a ZIKV-infected micrencephalic brain, we show that ZIKV infects both neocortical and spinal NES cells as well as their fetal homolog, radial glial cells (RGCs), causing disrupted mitoses, supernumerary centrosomes, structural disorganization, and cell death...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Michelle Stahlhut, Jenny Downs, Helen Leonard, Anne-Marie Bisgaard, Eva Nordmark
BACKGROUND: The repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome is limited. This study aimed to determine measurement properties of a modified two-minute walk test (2MWT) and a modified Rett syndrome-specific functional mobility scale (FMS-RS) in Rett syndrome. METHODS: Forty-two girls and women with Rett syndrome (median 18.4 years, range 2.4-60.9 years) were assessed for clinical severity, gross motor skills, and mobility. To measure walking capacity, 27 of this group completed a 2MWT twice on two different assessment days...
August 24, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Loren C Denlinger, Brenda R Phillips, Sima Ramratnam, Kristie Ross, Nirav R Bhakta, Juan Carlos Cardet, Mario Castro, Stephen P Peters, Wanda Phipatanakul, Shean Aujla, Leonard B Bacharier, Eugene R Bleecker, Suzy A A Comhair, Andrea Coverstone, Mark DeBoer, Serpil C Erzurum, Sean B Fain, Merritt Fajt, Anne M Fitzpatrick, Jonathan Gaffin, Benjamin Gaston, Annette T Hastie, Gregory A Hawkins, Fernando Holguin, Anne-Marie Irani, Elliot Israel, Bruce D Levy, Ngoc Ly, Deborah A Meyers, Wendy C Moore, Ross Myers, Maria Theresa D Opina, Michael C Peters, Mark L Schiebler, Ronald L Sorkness, W Gerald Teague, Sally E Wenzel, Prescott G Woodruff, David T Mauger, John V Fahy, Nizar N Jarjour
RATIONALE: Reducing asthma exacerbation frequency is an important criterion for approval of asthma therapies, but the clinical features of exacerbation prone asthma (EPA) remain incompletely defined. OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical, physiological, inflammatory and co-morbidity factors associated with EPA. METHODS: Baseline data from the NHLBI Severe Asthma Research Program-3 were analyzed. An exacerbation was defined as a burst of systemic corticosteroids lasting ≥3 days...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Aaron O'Dea, Harilaos A Lessios, Anthony G Coates, Ron I Eytan, Sergio A Restrepo-Moreno, Alberto L Cione, Laurel S Collins, Alan de Queiroz, David W Farris, Richard D Norris, Robert F Stallard, Michael O Woodburne, Orangel Aguilera, Marie-Pierre Aubry, William A Berggren, Ann F Budd, Mario A Cozzuol, Simon E Coppard, Herman Duque-Caro, Seth Finnegan, Germán M Gasparini, Ethan L Grossman, Kenneth G Johnson, Lloyd D Keigwin, Nancy Knowlton, Egbert G Leigh, Jill S Leonard-Pingel, Peter B Marko, Nicholas D Pyenson, Paola G Rachello-Dolmen, Esteban Soibelzon, Leopoldo Soibelzon, Jonathan A Todd, Geerat J Vermeij, Jeremy B C Jackson
The formation of the Isthmus of Panama stands as one of the greatest natural events of the Cenozoic, driving profound biotic transformations on land and in the oceans. Some recent studies suggest that the Isthmus formed many millions of years earlier than the widely recognized age of approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), a result that if true would revolutionize our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary change across the Americas. To bring clarity to the question of when the Isthmus of Panama formed, we provide an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records...
August 2016: Science Advances
Sun Moon Kim, Aimee D Shu, Jin Long, Maria E Montez-Rath, Mary B Leonard, Jeffrey A Norton, Glenn M Chertow
Parathyroidectomy is the only curative therapy for patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. However, the incidence, correlates and consequences of parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism across the entire US population are unknown. We evaluated temporal trends in rates of inpatient parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism, and associated in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and costs. We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2002-2011...
2016: PloS One
Marie-France Humblet, Sébastien Vandeputte, Fabienne Fecher-Bourgeois, Philippe Léonard, Christiane Gosset, Thomas Balenghien, Benoît Durand, Claude Saegerman
This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable for Culex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated...
August 4, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Peggy A Lockhart, Peter Martin, Mary Ann Johnson, Elizabeth Shirtcliff, Leonard W Poon
Longevity in women has been found to be associated with several reproductive factors; the age of women when they give birth, their total number of children, and the age at which they experience menopause. In the context of expectations from the evolutionary theory of aging, the focus of this study examined relationships between lifetime reproduction, age at menopause and longevity, while accounting for various lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study was to assess fertility and age at onset of menopause in 197 women of the Georgia Centenarian Study...
August 12, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
W LaVome Robinson, Mary H Case, Christopher R Whipple, Adia S Gooden, Roberto Lopez-Tamayo, Sharon F Lambert, Leonard A Jason
Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9(th,) 10(th) and 11(th) grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary...
June 2016: Pract Innov (Wash D C)
Emanuela Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Binxing Li, Paul S Bernstein, Rohini Vishwanathan, Mary Ann Johnson, Leonard Poon, Elizabeth J Johnson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155488.].
2016: PloS One
Mary G Leonard, Shawn Jung, Shridhar V Andurkar, Anil Gulati
Centhaquin has been shown to produce antinociception in the mouse hot plate and tail flick assays through the opioid, the α2A and α2B adrenoceptors. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of centhaquin in a rat model of postoperative pain. Involvement of opioid, and adrenergic receptors was assessed by pretreating rats with antagonists at the opioid (naloxone), α2-(atipamezole) or α2B-(imiloxan) adrenergic receptors. Postoperative pain was induced by hind paw plantar incision in male Sprague Dawley rats...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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