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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775457/potassium-and-sodium-microdomains-in-thin-astroglial-processes-a-computational-model-study
#1
Kevin Breslin, John Joseph Wade, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Jim Harkin, Bronac Flanagan, Harm Van Zalinge, Steve Hall, Matthew Walker, Alexei Verkhratsky, Liam McDaid
A biophysical model that captures molecular homeostatic control of ions at the perisynaptic cradle (PsC) is of fundamental importance for understanding the interplay between astroglial and neuronal compartments. In this paper, we develop a multi-compartmental mathematical model which proposes a novel mechanism whereby the flow of cations in thin processes is restricted due to negatively charged membrane lipids which result in the formation of deep potential wells near the dipole heads. These wells restrict the flow of cations to "hopping" between adjacent wells as they transverse the process, and this surface retention of cations will be shown to give rise to the formation of potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) microdomains at the PsC...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775347/dirac-and-chiral-quantum-spin-liquids-on-the-honeycomb-lattice-in-a-magnetic-field
#2
Zheng-Xin Liu, B Normand
Motivated by recent experimental observations in α-RuCl_{3}, we study the K-Γ model on the honeycomb lattice in an external magnetic field. By a slave-particle representation and variational Monte Carlo calculations, we reproduce the phase transition from zigzag magnetic order to a field-induced disordered phase. The nature of this state depends crucially on the field orientation. For particular field directions in the honeycomb plane, we find a gapless Dirac spin liquid, in agreement with recent experiments on α-RuCl_{3}...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775336/angular-momentum-of-a-bose-einstein-condensate-in-a-synthetic-rotational-field
#3
Chunlei Qu, Sandro Stringari
By applying a position-dependent detuning to a spin-orbit-coupled Hamiltonian with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling, we exploit the behavior of the angular momentum of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensed atomic gas and discuss the distinctive role of its canonical and spin components. By developing the formalism of spinor hydrodynamics, we predict the precession of the dipole oscillation caused by the synthetic rotational field, in analogy with the precession of the Foucault pendulum, the excitation of the scissors mode, following the sudden switching off of the detuning, and the occurrence of Hall-like effects...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775333/time-reversal-symmetry-breaking-nematic-insulators-near-quantum-spin-hall-phase-transitions
#4
Fei Xue, A H MacDonald
We study the phase diagram of a model quantum spin Hall system as a function of band inversion and band-coupling strength, demonstrating that when band hybridization is weak, an interaction-induced nematic insulator state emerges over a wide range of band inversion. This property is a consequence of the long-range Coulomb interaction, which favors interband phase coherence that is weakly dependent on momentum and therefore frustrated by the single-particle Hamiltonian at the band inversion point. For weak band hybridization, interactions convert the continuous gap closing topological phase transition at inversion into a pair of continuous phase transitions bounding a state with broken time-reversal and rotational symmetries...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774918/proximity-induced-magnetism-and-an-anomalous-hall-effect-in-bi-2-se-3-lacoo-3-a-topological-insulator-ferromagnetic-insulator-thin-film-heterostructure
#5
Shanna Zhu, Dechao Meng, Genhao Liang, Gang Shi, Peng Zhao, Peng Cheng, Yongqing Li, Xiaofang Zhai, Yalin Lu, Lan Chen, Kehui Wu
Inducing magnetism in a topological insulator (TI) by exchange coupling with a ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) will break the time-reversal symmetry of topological surface states, offering possibilities to realize several predicted novel magneto-electric effects. Seeking suitable FMI materials is crucial for the coupling of heterojunctions, and yet is challenging as well and only a few kinds have been explored. In this report, we introduce epitaxial LaCoO3 thin films on a SrTiO3 substrate, which is an insulating ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of TC ∼ 85 K, to be combined with TIs for proximity coupling...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774787/variability-of-attention-bias-in-socially-anxious-adolescents-differences-in-fixation-duration-toward-adult-and-adolescent-face-stimuli
#6
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Nicole N Capriola-Hall, Rebecca Elias, Thomas H Ollendick, Susan W White
Prior research on attention bias in anxious youth, often utilising a visual dot probe task, has yielded inconsistent findings, which may be due to how bias is assessed and/or variability in the phenomenon. The present study utilises eye gaze tracking to assess attention bias in socially anxious adolescents, and explores several methodological and within-subject factors that may contribute to variability in attention bias. Attention bias to threat was measured in forty-two treatment-seeking adolescents (age 12-16 years) diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder...
May 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774771/how-will-the-chhip-trial-affect-the-future-of-prostate-radiotherapy
#7
David Dearnaley, Emma Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774177/the-new-direct-antiviral-agents-and-hepatitis-c-in-thoracic-transplantation-impact-on-donors-and-recipients
#8
REVIEW
Robert L Gottlieb, Shelley A Hall
Purpose of Review: The landscape of abdominal organ transplantation has been altered by the emergence of curative direct-acting antiviral agents for hepatitis C. Expansion of the thoracic donor pool to include the hearts and the lungs from hepatitis C-positive donors holds promise to increase available donor organs. Recent Findings: Case reports have documented separate lung and heart transplant patients who acquired, and then were cured of, donor-derived hepatitis C using these newer, more effective therapies...
2018: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773937/positive-impact-of-a-pilot-pharmacist-run-diabetes-pharmacotherapy-clinic-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#9
David M Newland, Angelina R Edwards, Reed C Hall, Pamela R Maxwell
Purpose: Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) can lead to significant morbidity and cardiovascular death with a functioning graft. A paucity of literature exists regarding glycemic control in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients, including pharmacist management of PTDM. This study aimed to assess the impact of pharmacist interventions on diabetes management in a pharmacist-run PTDM clinic. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective, observational study of 24 adult SOT recipients enrolled in a pilot pharmacist-managed PTDM clinic from 1 January to 30 June 2015...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773768/us-cuba-health-and-science-cooperation-they-persisted
#10
(no author information available yet)
The first truly universal society was the society of researchers. May the coming generation establish a political and economic society which will insure us against catastrophes. -Albert Einstein in Havana, December 19, 1930 Few may be aware of Einstein's 30 hours in Cuba, just as the world was plummeting into the Great Depression. He was received by the most illustrious academics of his day, leaving the entry above in the Golden Book of the Geographic Society of Cuba. He spoke before what was then the Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences of Havana-precursor of the Cuban Academy of Sciences...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773684/when-fed-foods-with-similar-palatability-healthy-adult-dogs-and-cats-choose-different-macronutrient-compositions
#11
Jean A Hall, Jodi C Vondran, Melissa A Vanchina, Dennis E Jewell
Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773577/determinants-and-outcomes-of-vasoplegia-following-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#12
Kristen M Tecson, Brian Lima, Andy Y Lee, Fayez S Raza, Grace Ching, Cheng-Han Lee, Joost Felius, Ronald D Baxter, Sasha Still, Justin D G Collier, Shelley A Hall, Susan M Joseph
BACKGROUND: Vasoplegia is associated with adverse outcomes following cardiac surgery; however, its impact following left ventricular assist device implantation is largely unexplored. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 252 consecutive patients receiving a left ventricular assist device, vasoplegia was defined as the occurrence of normal cardiac function and index but with the need for intravenous vasopressors within 48 hours following surgery for >24 hours to maintain a mean arterial pressure >70 mm Hg...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771868/the-use-of-technology-for-std-partner-services-in-the-united-states-a-structured-review
#13
Rachel Kachur, Wendasha Hall, Alexandra Coor, Jennine Kinsey, Dayne Collins, F V Strona
BACKGROUND: Since the late 1990s, health departments and STD programs throughout the U.S. have used technologies, such as the internet and mobile phones, to provide services to persons with a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV, and their sex partners, also known as partner services. This study reviewed the published literature to assess and compare partner services outcomes as a result of using technology and to calculate cost savings through cases averted. METHODS: We conducted a structured literature review of all U...
May 1, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771621/tissue-preservation-with-mass-spectroscopic-analysis-implications-for-cancer-diagnostics
#14
O Morgan Hall, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
Surgical intervention is a common treatment modality for localized cancer. Post-operative analysis involves evaluation of surgical margins to assess whether all malignant tissue has been resected because positive surgical margins lead to a greater likelihood of recurrence. Secondary treatments are utilized to minimize the negative effects of positive surgical margins. Recently, in Science Translational Medicine, Zhang et al describe a new mass spectroscopic technique that could potentially decrease the likelihood of positive surgical margins...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771516/adaptive-geometric-networks-for-efficient-coarse-grained-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-with-post-hartree-fock-accuracy
#15
Timothy C Ricard, Cody Haycraft, Srinivasan Sesha Iyengar
We introduce a new coarse-graining technique for ab initio molecular dynamics that is based on the adaptive generation of connected geometric networks or graphs specific to a given molecular ge- ometry. The coarse-grained nodes depict a local chemical environment and are networked to create edges, triangles, tetrahedrons and higher order simplexes based on (a) a Delaunay triangulation procedure and (b) a method that is based on molecular, bonded and non-bonded, local interac- tions. The geometric sub-entities thus created, that is nodes, edges, triangles, and tetrahedrons, each represent an energetic measure for a specific portion of the molecular system, capturing a spe- cific set of interactions...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771204/past-present-and-future-challenges-in-health-care-priority-setting
#16
William Hall, Iestyn Williams, Neale Smith, Marthe Gold, Joanna Coast, Lydia Kapiriri, M Danis, Craig Mitton
Purpose Current conditions have intensified the need for health systems to engage in the difficult task of priority setting. As the search for a "magic bullet" is replaced by an appreciation for the interplay between evidence, interests, culture, and outcomes, progress in relation to these dimensions requires assessment of achievements to date and identification of areas where knowledge and practice require attention most urgently. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach An international survey was administered to experts in the area of priority setting...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769693/caring-for-individuals-with-a-difference-of-sex-development-dsd-a-consensus-statement
#17
REVIEW
Martine Cools, Anna Nordenström, Ralitsa Robeva, Joanne Hall, Puck Westerveld, Christa Flück, Birgit Köhler, Marta Berra, Alexander Springer, Katinka Schweizer, Vickie Pasterski
The term differences of sex development (DSDs; also known as disorders of sex development) refers to a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions affecting human sex determination and differentiation. Several reports highlighting suboptimal physical and psychosexual outcomes in individuals who have a DSD led to a radical revision of nomenclature and management a decade ago. Whereas the resulting recommendations for holistic, multidisciplinary care seem to have been implemented rapidly in specialized paediatric services around the world, adolescents often experience difficulties in finding access to expert adult care and gradually or abruptly cease medical follow-up...
May 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769666/an-unexpected-and-persistent-increase-in-global-emissions-of-ozone-depleting-cfc-11
#18
Stephen A Montzka, Geoff S Dutton, Pengfei Yu, Eric Ray, Robert W Portmann, John S Daniel, Lambert Kuijpers, Brad D Hall, Debra Mondeel, Carolina Siso, J David Nance, Matt Rigby, Alistair J Manning, Lei Hu, Fred Moore, Ben R Miller, James W Elkins
The Montreal Protocol was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by enabling reductions in the abundance of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere1-3 . The reduction in the atmospheric concentration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) has made the second-largest contribution to the decline in the total atmospheric concentration of ozone-depleting chlorine since the 1990s 1 . However, CFC-11 still contributes one-quarter of all chlorine reaching the stratosphere, and a timely recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer depends on a sustained decline in CFC-11 concentrations 1 ...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769352/identifying-occupational-carcinogens-an-update-from-the-iarc-monographs
#19
REVIEW
Dana Loomis, Neela Guha, Amy L Hall, Kurt Straif
The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations...
May 16, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769351/protein-phosphatase-1%C3%AE-interacts-with-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-capsid-protein-and-regulates-viral-replication-through-modulation-of-capsid-phosphorylation
#20
Brian D Carey, Tatiana Ammosova, Chelsea Pinkham, Xionghao Lin, Weidong Zhou, Lance A Liotta, Sergei Nekhai, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase which has been implicated in the regulation of a number of viruses including HIV-1, Ebolavirus and Rift Valley fever virus. Catalytic subunits of PP1 (PP1α, PP1β, or PP1γ) interact with a host of regulatory subunits and target a wide variety of cellular substrates through a combination of short binding motifs, including an RVxF motif present in the majority of PP1 regulatory subunits. Targeting the RVxF interacting site on PP1 with the small molecule, 1E7-03 inhibits HIV-1, Ebolavirus, and Rift Valley fever virus replication...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
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