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Sanae Hayashi, Anis Khan, Brenna C Simons, Chriss Homan, Takeshi Matsui, Kenji Ogawa, Keigo Kawashima, Shuko Murakami, Satoru Takahashi, Masanori Isogawa, Kazuho Ikeo, Masashi Mizokami, Brian J McMahon, Yasuhito Tanaka
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype F1b infection is strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in young Alaskan Native (AN) people. However, the mechanisms by which genotype F1b causes HCC are unclear. Here, we analyzed the clinical and virological significance of genotype F1b in long-term serial samples from 20 HCC patients with HBV infection. Complete sequence analyses revealed that all isolates were genotype F1b. In the HCC patients, T1938C and A2051C mutations in the core region had accumulated significantly with A1762T/G1764A mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) region and G1896A mutation in the precore (PC) region...
June 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
M Kostrouchová, V Kostrouchová, P Yilma, A Benda, V Mandys, M Kostrouchová
Mediator is a multiprotein complex that connects regulation mediated by transcription factors with RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and integrates signals from the cell regulatory cascades with gene expression. One of the Mediator subunits, Mediator complex subunit 28 (MED28), has a dual nuclear and cytoplasmic localization and function. In the nucleus, MED28 functions as part of Mediator and in the cytoplasm, it interacts with cytoskeletal proteins and is part of the regulatory cascades including that of Grb2...
2018: Folia Biologica (Praha)
Diana F Rojas-Rengifo, Maria Camila Alvarez-Silva, Cindy P Ulloa-Guerrero, Vanessa Lucía Nuñez-Velez, Maria Del Pilar Delgado, Sonia Milena Aguilera, Harold Castro, Carlos Alberto Jaramillo, Andrés Fernando González Barrios
The Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is known for causing gastroduodenal diseases, such as atrophic gastritis and peptic ulcerations. Furthermore Helicobacter pylori CagA positive strains has been reported as one of the main risk factors for gastric cancer (Parsonnet et al., 1997). Structural variations in the CagA structure can alter its affinity with the host proteins, inducing differences in the pathogenicity of H. pylori. CagA N-terminal region is characterized for be conserved among all H...
May 25, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Antonio Julià, Francisco Javier López-Longo, José J Pérez Venegas, Silvia Bonàs-Guarch, Àlex Olivé, José Luís Andreu, Mª Ángeles Aguirre-Zamorano, Paloma Vela, Joan M Nolla, José Luís Marenco de la Fuente, Antonio Zea, José María Pego-Reigosa, Mercedes Freire, Elvira Díez, Esther Rodríguez-Almaraz, Patricia Carreira, Ricardo Blanco, Víctor Martínez Taboada, María López-Lasanta, Mireia López Corbeto, Josep M Mercader, David Torrents, Devin Absher, Sara Marsal, Antonio Fernández-Nebro
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common systemic autoimmune disease with a complex genetic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have significantly increased the number of significant loci associated with SLE risk. To date, however, established loci account for less than 30% of the disease heritability and additional risk variants have yet to be identified. Here we performed a GWAS followed by a meta-analysis to identify new genome-wide significant loci for SLE...
May 30, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Jibin Li, Jian Xu, Xiaofei Yan, Keer Jin, Wenya Li, Rui Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is reported to be the third most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. MicroRNA-485 (miR-485) has been reported to be aberrantly expressed and play important roles in several types of human malignancy. However, the expression level, biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-485 in CRC remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine miR-485 expression levels and their clinical significance in CRC and to explore the functions and underlying mechanisms of miR-485 in this disease...
May 17, 2018: Oncology Reports
Y Huang, P Zhang, L Du, M Gui, W L Feng, Z Peng
Objective: To investigate whether fusion protein SD-HA could regulate its downstream signaling molecule activity by competing with the phospho-BCR-ABL Y177 site, and its mechanisms to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of K562 cells. Methods: Co-immunoprecipitation interaction technology analysis of fusion protein SD-HA functioned by potently binding to the phospho-BCR-ABL Y177 site, Ras, MAPK and Akt activities were observed in the Ad5F35-SD-HA-treated cells. Western blot analyses of SD-HA fusion protein on cell membrane receptor pathway to death cascade caspase-8, caspase-3 and PRAP were performed...
April 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Robert E Hynds, Kate H C Gowers, Ersilia Nigro, Colin R Butler, Paola Bonfanti, Adam Giangreco, Cecilia M Prêle, Sam M Janes
There is considerable interest in the ex vivo propagation of primary human basal epithelial stem/progenitor cells with a view to their use in drug development, toxicity testing and regenerative medicine. These cells can be expanded in co-culture with mitotically inactivated 3T3-J2 murine embryonic feeder cells but, similar to other epithelial cell culture systems employing 3T3-J2 cells, the aspects of cross-talk between 3T3-J2 cells and human airway basal cells that are critical for their expansion remain largely unknown...
2018: PloS One
Ana Ruiz-Saenz, Courtney Dreyer, Marcia R Campbell, Veronica Steri, Nathaniel P Gulizia, Mark M Moasser
Current evidence suggests that HER2-driven tumorigenesis requires HER3. This is likely due to the unique ability of HER3 to activate PI3K/Akt pathway signaling, which is not directly accessible to HER2. By genetic elimination of HER3 or shRNA knockdown of HER3 in HER2-amplified cancer cells, we find residual HER2-driven activation of PI3K/Akt pathway signaling that is driven by HER2 through direct and indirect mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms involved second messenger pathways including Ras or Grb2. Direct binding of HER2 to PI3K occurred through p-Tyr1139, which has a weak affinity for PI3K but becomes significant at very high expression and phosphorylation...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research
Ji-Eun Kim, Ah-Reum Ko, Hye-Won Hyun, Su-Ji Min, Tae-Cheon Kang
Recently, we have reported that heat shock protein B1 (HSPB1) and purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2RX7) are involved in astroglial autophagy (clasmatodendrosis), following status epilepticus (SE). However, the underlying mechanisms of astroglial autophagy have not been completely established. In the present study, we found that the lacking of P2rx7 led to prolonged astroglial HSPB1 induction due to impaired mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MAPK1/2)-mediated specificity protein 1 (SP1) phosphorylation, following kainic acid-induced SE...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Qizhong Shi, Yongling Wang, Yonghui Mu, Xin Wang, Qingxia Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding single stranded RNAs of 17-25 nucleotides in size, and their altered expression has been observed in various cancers. Previous studies have confirmed that miR-433-3p has effects on cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, and its expression also correlates with sensitivity to chemotherapy. However, to date, there have been no studies on the biological functions of miR-433-3p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: The Cell Counting Kit-8, transwell, and matrigel assays were used to test the effects of miR-433-3p and its predicted target, growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Eca109 and KYSE30 cells, two types of esophageal cancer cell lines...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chin-Chung Lin, Chao-Lin Kuo, Yi-Ping Huang, Cheng-Yen Chen, Ming-Jie Hsu, Yung Lin Chu, Fu-Shin Chueh, Jing-Gung Chung
BACKGROUND/AIM: Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), one of the curcuminoids present in turmeric, has been shown to induce cell death in many human cancer cell lines, however, there has not been any investigation on whether DMC inhibits metastatic activity in human cervical cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, DMC at 2.5-15 μM decreased cell number, thus, we used IC20 (7.5 μM) for further investigation of its anti-metastatic activity in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The wound healing, migration, invasion, zymography, and western blotting assays were used to investigate the effects of DMC on HeLa cells...
May 2018: Anticancer Research
Md Izhar Ashraf, Seng-Kai Ong, Shama Mujawar, Shrikant Pawar, Pallavi More, Somnath Paul, Chandrajit Lahiri
Identifying effective drug targets, with little or no side effects, remains an ever challenging task. A potential pitfall of failing to uncover the correct drug targets, due to side effect of pleiotropic genes, might lead the potential drugs to be illicit and withdrawn. Simplifying disease complexity, for the investigation of the mechanistic aspects and identification of effective drug targets, have been done through several approaches of protein interactome analysis. Of these, centrality measures have always gained importance in identifying candidate drug targets...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Behzad M Toosi, Amr El Zawily, Luke Truitt, Matthew Shannon, Odette Allonby, Mohan Babu, John DeCoteau, Darrell Mousseau, Mohsin Ali, Tanya Freywald, Amanda Gall, Frederick S Vizeacoumar, Morgan W Kirzinger, C Ronald Geyer, Deborah H Anderson, TaeHyung Kim, Alana L Welm, Peter Siegel, Franco J Vizeacoumar, Anthony Kusalik, Andrew Freywald
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumours that lack expression of oestrogen, and progesterone receptors, and do not overexpress the HER2 receptor represent the most aggressive breast cancer subtype, which is characterised by the resistance to therapy in frequently relapsing tumours and a high rate of patient mortality. This is likely due to the resistance of slowly proliferating tumour-initiating cells (TICs), and understanding molecular mechanisms that control TICs behaviour is crucial for the development of effective therapeutic approaches...
April 27, 2018: Oncogene
Hao Jiang, Li Dong, Fangyan Gong, Yuping Gu, Henghun Zhang, Dong Fan, Zhiguo Sun
Inflammatory genes serve a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation‑associated tumors. However, as recent studies have mainly focused on the effects of single inflammatory genes on colorectal cancer (CRC), but not on the global interactions between genes, the underlying mechanisms between inflammatory genes and CRC remain unclear. In the current study, two inflammation‑associated networks were constructed based on inflammatory genes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CRC vs. normal samples, and protein‑protein interactions (PPIs)...
July 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ramya Ganesan, Karen M Henkels, Lucile E Wrenshall, Yasunori Kanaho, Gilbert Di Paolo, Michael A Frohman, Julian Gomez-Cambronero
The uptake of cholesterol carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is tightly controlled in the body. Macrophages are not well suited to counteract the cellular consequences of excess cholesterol leading to their transformation into "foam cells," an early step in vascular plaque formation. We have uncovered and characterized a novel mechanism involving phospholipase D (PLD) in foam cell formation. Utilizing bone marrow-derived macrophages from genetically PLD deficient mice, we demonstrate that PLD2 (but not PLD1)-null macrophages cannot fully phagocytose aggregated oxidized LDL (Agg-Ox-LDL), which was phenocopied with a PLD2-selective inhibitor...
May 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yulin Tian, Qing Lin
Three γ-heteroatom-substituted N-methylpyrroletetrazole-lysines (mPyTXKs) were synthesized and subsequently incorporated into proteins site-specifically via genetic code expansion. The γ-seleno-substituted derivative, mPyTSeK, showed excellent incorporation efficiency in Escherichia coli and allowed site-selective photo-cross-linking of the GST dimer. Furthermore, the mPyTSeK-cross-linked GST dimer can be cleaved under mild oxidative conditions. The incorporation of mPyTXKs into proteins in mammalian cells was also demonstrated...
April 26, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Fang Yang, Meng Wang, Baoyun Zhang, Wei Xiang, Ke Zhang, Mingxin Chu, Pingqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Progesterone plays an essential role in mammalian ovulation. Although much is known about this process, the gene networks involved in ovulation have yet to be established. When analyze the mechanisms of ovulation, we often need to determine key genes or pathways to investigate the reproduction features. However, traditional experimental methods have a number of limitations. RESULTS: Data, in this study, were acquired from GSE41836 and GSE54584 which provided different samples...
April 3, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Lan Yang, Xiliang Wang, Juan Xu, Ya Wen, Manqiao Zhang, Jingxiao Lu, Rongfu Wang, Xiaojuan Sun
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most frequent primary liver cancer worldwide. The use of antioxidants as cancer prevention and treatment agents has become a focus of research in recent years due to their limited adverse effects. Alpha lipoic acid (ɑ-LA) is synthesized in the liver and is considered a naturally occurring antioxidant. In this study, a total of 4446 differentially expressed genes (2097 down-regulated and 2349 up-regulated) were identified via RNA-Seq in HepG2 cells after exposure to α-LA for 24 hrs...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Malak Haidar, Zineb Rchiad, Hifzur Rahman Ansari, Fathia Ben-Rached, Shahin Tajeri, Perle Latre De Late, Gordon Langsley, Arnab Pain
Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells and macrophages we identify a set of microRNAs induced by infection, whose expression diminishes upon loss of the hyper-disseminating phenotype of virulent transformed macrophages. We describe how infection-induced upregulation of miR-126-5p ablates JIP-2 expression to release cytosolic JNK to translocate to the nucleus and trans-activate AP-1-driven transcription of mmp9 to promote tumour dissemination...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jingjiang Pi, Jie Liu, Tao Zhuang, Lin Zhang, Huimin Sun, Xiaoli Chen, Qian Zhao, Yashu Kuang, Sheng Peng, Xiaohui Zhou, Zuoren Yu, Ting Tao, Brian Tomlinson, Paul Chan, Ying Tian, Huimin Fan, Zhongmin Liu, Xiangjian Zheng, Edward Morrisey, Yuzhen Zhang
Rationale: Angiogenesis is critical for embryonic development and microRNAs fine-tune this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Methods: Endothelial cell (EC) specific miR302-367 line was used as gain-of-function and anti-miRs as loss-of-function models to investigate the effects of miR302-367 on developmental angiogenesis with embryonic hindbrain vasculature as an in vivo model and fibrin gel beads and tube formation assay as in vitro models. Cell migration was evaluated by Boyden chamber and scratch wound healing assay and cell proliferation by cell count, MTT assay, Ki67 immunostaining and PI cell cycle analysis...
2018: Theranostics
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