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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642939/elimination-of-onchocerciasis-from-colombia-first-proof-of-concept-of-river-blindness-elimination-in-the-world
#1
Rubén Santiago Nicholls, Sofía Duque, Luz Adriana Olaya, Myriam Consuelo López, Sol Beatriz Sánchez, Alba Lucía Morales, Gloria Inés Palma
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection originally endemic in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries of Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela). In Colombia, this disease was discovered in 1965 in the Pacific Coast of the country. The National Onchocerciasis Elimination Program was established in 1993 with the aim of eliminating disease morbidity and infection transmission. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) verified Colombia as free of onchocerciasis, becoming the first country in the world to reach such a goal...
April 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617361/a-real-time-pcr-tool-for-the-surveillance-of-zoonotic-onchocerca-lupi-in-dogs-cats-and-potential-vectors
#2
Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Vito Colella, Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Carla Maia, Coralie Martin, Jan Šlapeta, Domenico Otranto
The ocular onchocercosis is caused is by the zoonotic parasite Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). A major hindrance to scientific progress is the absence of a reliable diagnostic test in affected individuals. Microscopic examination of skin snip sediments and the identification of adults embedded in ocular nodules are seldom performed and labour-intensive. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was herein standardized for the detection of O. lupi DNA and the results compared with microscopic examination and conventional PCR (cPCR)...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611501/comparison-of-pcr-methods-for-onchocerca-volvulus-detection-in-skin-snip-biopsies-from-the-tshopo-province-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#3
Jessica Prince-Guerra, Vitaliano Cama, Nana Wilson, Elizabeth A Thiele, Josias Likwela, Nestor N Gyamba, Jacques Muzinga Wa Muzinga, Nicholas Ayebazibwe, Yassa D Ndjakani, Naomi A Pitchouna, Dieudonne M Ngoyi, Antoinette K Tshefu, Guilherme Ogawa, Paul T Cantey
Defining the optimal diagnostic tools for evaluating onchocerciasis elimination efforts in areas co-endemic for other filarial nematodes is imperative. This study compared three published PCR methods: the Onchocerca volvulus -specific qPCR-O150, the pan-filarial qPCR melt curve analysis (MCA), and the O150-PCR ELISA currently used for vector surveillance in skin snip biopsies (skin snips) collected from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The pan-filarial qPCR-MCA was compared with species-specific qPCRs for Loa loa and Mansonella perstans ...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587844/from-river-blindness-control-to-elimination-bridge-over-troubled-water
#4
Robert Colebunders, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Katja Siling, Rory J Post, Anke Rotsaert, Bruno Mmbando, Patrick Suykerbuyk, Adrian Hopkins
BACKGROUND: An estimated 25 million people are currently infected with onchocerciasis (a parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium vectors), and 99% of these are in sub-Saharan Africa. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control closed in December 2015 and the World Health Organization has established a new structure, the Expanded Special Project for the Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases for the coordination of technical support for activities focused on five neglected tropical diseases in Africa, including onchocerciasis elimination...
March 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580280/report-of-the-first-international-workshop-on-onchocerciasis-associated-epilepsy
#5
EDITORIAL
Robert Colebunders, Michel Mandro, Alfred K Njamnshi, Michel Boussinesq, An Hotterbeekx, Joseph Kamgno, Sarah O'Neill, Adrian Hopkins, Patrick Suykerbuyk, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Rory J Post, Belén Pedrique, Pierre-Marie Preux, Wilma A Stolk, Thomas B Nutman, Richard Idro
BACKGROUND: Recently, several epidemiological studies performed in Onchocerca volvulus-endemic regions have suggested that onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) may constitute an important but neglected public health problem in many countries where onchocerciasis is still endemic. MAIN TEXT: On October 12-14th 2017, the first international workshop on onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) was held in Antwerp, Belgium. The workshop was attended by 79 participants from 20 different countries...
March 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505580/onchocerca-volvulus-infection-in-tihama-region-west-of-yemen-continuing-transmission-in-ivermectin-targeted-endemic-foci-and-unveiled-endemicity-in-districts-with-previously-unknown-status
#6
Mohammed A K Mahdy, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Thaker A A Abdulrahman, Samira M A Al-Eryani, Abdulsalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Sami A A Alhaidari, Ahmed A Azazy
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis in Yemen is one of the most neglected diseases, where baseline estimates of onchocerciasis and monitoring of the impact of ivermectin regularly administered to the affected individuals on its transmission are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the anti-Ov16 IgG4 seroprevalence among local communities of Hodeidah and Al-Mahwit governorates of Tihama Region. The factors possibly associated with previous exposure to infection were also studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two ivermectin-targeted districts endemic for onchocerciasis in Hodeidah and Al-Mahwit and two untargeted districts with unknown previous endemicity in Hodeidah between February and July 2017...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494606/onchocerca-volvulus-infection-and-serological-prevalence-ocular-onchocerciasis-and-parasite-transmission-in-northern-and-central-togo-after-decades-of-simulium-damnosum-s-l-vector-control-and-mass-drug-administration-of-ivermectin
#7
Kossi Komlan, Patrick S Vossberg, Richard G Gantin, Tchalim Solim, Francois Korbmacher, Méba Banla, Koffi Padjoudoum, Potchoziou Karabou, Carsten Köhler, Peter T Soboslay
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin has become the main intervention to control onchocerciasis or "river blindness". In Togo, after many years of MDA, Onchocerca volvulus infection has declined dramatically, and elimination appears achievable, but in certain river basins the current situation remains unknown. We have conducted parasitological, serological, ophthalmological, and entomological assessments in northern and central Togo within the river basins of Ôti, Kéran and Mô...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490766/association-between-urticaria-and-nematode-infections
#8
Paola L Minciullo, Antonio Cascio, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: The association between parasites and urticaria was first suggested in the last century. A wide range, 0-75.4%, of the prevalence of parasitic infection has been reported with chronic urticaria (CU). Moreover, urticaria may be detected in patients with parasitosis. Nematodes are a type of helminth that infect hundreds of millions of people throughout the world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to collect and review the published studies and cases of urticaria associated with nematode infections...
March 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476600/international-dog-travelling-and-risk-for-zoonotic-onchocerca-lupi
#9
V Colella, R P Lia, G Di Paola, H Cortes, L Cardoso, D Otranto
Onchocerca lupi is a recently recognized threat for the health of animals and humans in European, American, African and Middle Eastern countries. We describe a case of imported O. lupi infection in Italy and report the lifespan of this parasite in a non-endemic area, to advocate increased awareness of the veterinary community for this zoonotic parasitosis.
February 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471342/alternative-treatment-strategies-to-accelerate-the-elimination-of-onchocerciasis
#10
Michel Boussinesq, Grace Fobi, Annette C Kuesel
The use of alternative (or complementary) treatment strategies (ATSs) i.e. differing from annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is required in some African foci to eliminate onchocerciasis by 2025. ATSs include vector control, biannual or pluriannual CDTI, better timing of CDTI, community-directed treatment with combinations of currently available anthelminthics or new drugs, and 'test-and-treat' (TNT) strategies requiring diagnosis of infection and/or contraindications to treatment for decisions on who to treat with what regimen...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471341/onchocerciasis-shifting-the-target-from-control-to-elimination-requires-a-new-first-step-elimination-mapping
#11
Maria P Rebollo, Honorat Zoure, Kisito Ogoussan, Yao Sodahlon, Eric A Ottesen, Paul T Cantey
The meaning of 'mapping' in relation to onchocerciasis has changed at least three times over the past 50 years as the programmatic goals and the assessment tools have changed. With the current goal being global elimination of Onchocerca volvulus (OV), all areas where OV might currently be transmitted and where mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin treatment has not been delivered previously must now be identified by careful, detailed 'elimination mapping' as either OV endemic or not, so that appropriate programmatic targets can be established...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471340/operationalization-of-the-test-and-not-treat-strategy-to-accelerate-the-elimination-of-onchocerciasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis-in-central-africa
#12
Joseph Kamgno, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Sébastien D Pion, Cédric B Chesnais, Amy D Klion, Charles D Mackenzie, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
After 30 years of treatment with Mectizan (ivermectin), cutaneous and ocular complications of Onchocerca volvulus infection are now scarce in endemic communities. Indeed, transmission has been interrupted and the O. volvulus- associated disease has disappeared in some African foci. Despite this success, onchocerciasis elimination in Loa loa co-endemic areas is still constrained by severe adverse events (SAEs) occurring after ivermectin treatment in some individuals harbouring very high L. loa microfilaremia...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448039/development-of-sirna-mediated-rna-interference-and-functional-analysis-of-novel-parasitic-nematode-specific-protein-of-setaria-digitata
#13
M B C L Somarathne, Y I N S Gunawardena, N V Chandrasekharan, R S Dassanayake
Despite the differences of the host, parasitic nematodes may share commonalities in their parasitizing genes. Setaria digitata novel protein (SDNP) is such an entity which is parasitic nematode-specific and having sequence similarities with those of W. bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Post-transcriptional gene silencing by siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in functional genomics. Though the technique has been used in several free-living, plant and animal parasitic nematodes, it has not yet been tried out for the filarial worm S...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410302/the-blackfly-vectors-and-transmission-of-onchocerca-volvulus-in-mahenge-south-eastern-tanzania
#14
Adam Hendy, Andreas Krüger, Kenneth Pfarr, Jacobus De Witte, Addow Kibweja, Upendo Mwingira, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Rory Post, Robert Colebunders, Sarah O'Neill, Akili Kalinga
The Mahenge Mountains onchocerciasis focus in south eastern Tanzania was historically one of the most heavily infected areas in the country. The vectors of Onchocerca volvulus are mainly Simulium damnosum complex blackflies, but a species of the Simulium neavei group may also contribute to transmission in some areas. The only detailed studies of parasite transmission in Mahenge were conducted in the late 1960s. The taxonomy of the S. damnosum complex has since been revised and onchocerciasis control through annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) commenced in 1997...
February 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404746/full-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genome-comparison-confirms-that-onchocerca-sp-siisa-is-onchocerca-ochengi
#15
Tegegn G Jaleta, Christian Rödelsperger, Babette Abanda, Albert Eisenbarth, Mbunkah D Achukwi, Alfons Renz, Adrian Streit
Onchocerca ochengi is a nodule-forming filarial nematode parasite of cattle. It is the closest known relative of the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus, with which it shares the black fly vector Simulium damnosum. Onchocerca sp. "Siisa" was described in black flies and in cattle and, based on limited mitochondrial sequence information, appeared to be about equally phylogenetically distant from O. ochengi and O. volvulus. Based on molecular genetic markers and apparent interbreeding, we later proposed that O...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377880/evaluation-of-oxfendazole-in-the-treatment-of-zoonotic-onchocerca-lupi-infection-in-dogs
#16
Vito Colella, Carla Maia, André Pereira, Nuno Gonçalves, Marta Caruso, Coralie Martin, Luis Cardoso, Lenea Campino, Ivan Scandale, Domenico Otranto
The genus Onchocerca encompasses parasitic nematodes including Onchocerca volvulus, causative agent of river blindness in humans, and the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs and cats. In dogs, O. lupi adult worms cause ocular lesions of various degrees while humans may bear the brunt of zoonotic onchocercosis with patients requiring neurosurgical intervention because of central nervous system localization of nematodes. Though the zoonotic potential of O. lupi has been well recognized from human cases in Europe, the United States and the Middle East, a proper therapy for curing this parasitic infection in dogs is lacking...
January 29, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361335/single-dose-moxidectin-versus-ivermectin-for-onchocerca-volvulus-infection-in-ghana-liberia-and-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#17
Nicholas O Opoku, Didier K Bakajika, Eric M Kanza, Hayford Howard, Germain L Mambandu, Amos Nyathirombo, Maurice M Nigo, Kambale Kasonia, Safari L Masembe, Mupenzi Mumbere, Kambale Kataliko, Jemmah P Larbelee, Mawolo Kpawor, Kpehe M Bolay, Fatorma Bolay, Simon K Attah, Michel Vaillant, Christine M Halleux, Annette C Kuesel
BACKGROUND: The morbidity and socioeconomic effects of onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease that is primarily endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, have motivated large morbidity and transmission control programmes. Annual community-directed ivermectin treatment has substantially reduced prevalence. Elimination requires intensified efforts, including more efficacious treatments. We compared parasitological efficacy and safety of moxidectin and ivermectin. METHODS: This double-blind, parallel group, superiority trial was done in four sites in Ghana, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
January 17, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313477/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-performance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-linear-epitopes-in-a-peptide-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#18
Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Erik Nijs, Bieke Van Dorst, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alex Debrah, Taniawati Supali, Erliyani Sartono, Lieven J Stuyver
Diagnostic tools for the detection of infection with Onchocerca volvulus are presently limited to microfilaria detection in skin biopsies and serological assessment using the Ov16 immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) rapid test, both of which have limited sensitivity. We have investigated the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on immunodominant linear epitopes previously discovered. Peptides that were used in these assays were designated O. volvulus motif peptides (OvMP): OvMP-1 (VSV-EPVTTQET-VSV), OvMP-2 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV), OvMP-3 (VSV-QTSNLD-VSV), and the combination of the latter two, OvMP-23 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV-QTSNLD-VSV)...
March 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289559/geographical-distribution-and-species-identification-of-human-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis-in-bioko-island-equatorial-guinea
#19
Thuy-Huong Ta, Laura Moya, Justino Nguema, Pilar Aparicio, María Miguel-Oteo, Gema Cenzual, Isabel Canorea, Marta Lanza, Agustín Benito, James Lee Crainey, José Miguel Rubio
Human filariae are vector-borne parasites and the causative agents of various diseases, including human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Onchocerciasis causes a spectrum of cutaneous and ophthalmologic manifestations (including blindness) and has long been a major public health problem in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bioko Island has been included in the WHO's Onchocerciasis Control Program since 1987. In Bioko Island, the specificity and sensitivity of clinical Onchocerca volvulus diagnosis is key...
April 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288080/onchocerciasis-associated-epilepsy-an-additional-reason-for-strengthening-onchocerciasis-elimination-programs
#20
REVIEW
Robert Colebunders, F J Nelson Siewe, An Hotterbeekx
A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in onchocerciasis-endemic regions with high onchocerciasis transmission. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that Onchocerca volvulus infection is the trigger causing the seizures, which appear in previously healthy children between the ages of 3 and 18 years. Persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy present with a wide spectrum of seizures, including atonic and myoclonic neck seizures; but also absences and most frequently generalized tonic-clonic seizures...
March 2018: Trends in Parasitology
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