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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471342/alternative-treatment-strategies-to-accelerate-the-elimination-of-onchocerciasis
#1
Michel Boussinesq, Grace Fobi, Annette C Kuesel
The use of alternative (or complementary) treatment strategies (ATSs) i.e. differing from annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is required in some African foci to eliminate onchocerciasis by 2025. ATSs include vector control, biannual or pluriannual CDTI, better timing of CDTI, community-directed treatment with combinations of currently available anthelminthics or new drugs, and 'test-and-treat' (TNT) strategies requiring diagnosis of infection and/or contraindications to treatment for decisions on who to treat with what regimen...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471341/onchocerciasis-shifting-the-target-from-control-to-elimination-requires-a-new-first-step-elimination-mapping
#2
Maria P Rebollo, Honorat Zoure, Kisito Ogoussan, Yao Sodahlon, Eric A Ottesen, Paul T Cantey
The meaning of 'mapping' in relation to onchocerciasis has changed at least three times over the past 50 years as the programmatic goals and the assessment tools have changed. With the current goal being global elimination of Onchocerca volvulus (OV), all areas where OV might currently be transmitted and where mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin treatment has not been delivered previously must now be identified by careful, detailed 'elimination mapping' as either OV endemic or not, so that appropriate programmatic targets can be established...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471340/operationalization-of-the-test-and-not-treat-strategy-to-accelerate-the-elimination-of-onchocerciasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis-in-central-africa
#3
Joseph Kamgno, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Sébastien D Pion, Cédric B Chesnais, Amy D Klion, Charles D Mackenzie, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
After 30 years of treatment with Mectizan (ivermectin), cutaneous and ocular complications of Onchocerca volvulus infection are now scarce in endemic communities. Indeed, transmission has been interrupted and the O. volvulus- associated disease has disappeared in some African foci. Despite this success, onchocerciasis elimination in Loa loa co-endemic areas is still constrained by severe adverse events (SAEs) occurring after ivermectin treatment in some individuals harbouring very high L. loa microfilaremia...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448039/development-of-sirna-mediated-rna-interference-and-functional-analysis-of-novel-parasitic-nematode-specific-protein-of-setaria-digitata
#4
M B C L Somarathne, Y I N S Gunawardena, N V Chandrasekharan, R S Dassanayake
Despite the differences of the host, parasitic nematodes may share commonalities in their parasitizing genes. Setaria digitata novel protein (SDNP) is such an entity which is parasitic nematode-specific and having sequence similarities with those of W. bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Post-transcriptional gene silencing by siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in functional genomics. Though the technique has been used in several free-living, plant and animal parasitic nematodes, it has not yet been tried out for the filarial worm S...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410302/the-blackfly-vectors-and-transmission-of-onchocerca-volvulus-in-mahenge-south-eastern-tanzania
#5
Adam Hendy, Andreas Krüger, Kenneth Pfarr, Jacobus De Witte, Addow Kibweja, Upendo Mwingira, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Rory Post, Robert Colebunders, Sarah O'Neill, Akili Kalinga
The Mahenge Mountains onchocerciasis focus in south eastern Tanzania was historically one of the most heavily infected areas in the country. The vectors of Onchocerca volvulus are mainly Simulium damnosum complex blackflies, but a species of the Simulium neavei group may also contribute to transmission in some areas. The only detailed studies of parasite transmission in Mahenge were conducted in the late 1960s. The taxonomy of the S. damnosum complex has since been revised and onchocerciasis control through annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) commenced in 1997...
February 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404746/full-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genome-comparison-confirms-that-onchocerca-sp-siisa-is-onchocerca-ochengi
#6
Tegegn G Jaleta, Christian Rödelsperger, Babette Abanda, Albert Eisenbarth, Mbunkah D Achukwi, Alfons Renz, Adrian Streit
Onchocerca ochengi is a nodule-forming filarial nematode parasite of cattle. It is the closest known relative of the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus, with which it shares the black fly vector Simulium damnosum. Onchocerca sp. "Siisa" was described in black flies and in cattle and, based on limited mitochondrial sequence information, appeared to be about equally phylogenetically distant from O. ochengi and O. volvulus. Based on molecular genetic markers and apparent interbreeding, we later proposed that O...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377880/evaluation-of-oxfendazole-in-the-treatment-of-zoonotic-onchocerca-lupi-infection-in-dogs
#7
Vito Colella, Carla Maia, André Pereira, Nuno Gonçalves, Marta Caruso, Coralie Martin, Luis Cardoso, Lenea Campino, Ivan Scandale, Domenico Otranto
The genus Onchocerca encompasses parasitic nematodes including Onchocerca volvulus, causative agent of river blindness in humans, and the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs and cats. In dogs, O. lupi adult worms cause ocular lesions of various degrees while humans may bear the brunt of zoonotic onchocercosis with patients requiring neurosurgical intervention because of central nervous system localization of nematodes. Though the zoonotic potential of O. lupi has been well recognized from human cases in Europe, the United States and the Middle East, a proper therapy for curing this parasitic infection in dogs is lacking...
January 29, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361335/single-dose-moxidectin-versus-ivermectin-for-onchocerca-volvulus-infection-in-ghana-liberia-and-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#8
Nicholas O Opoku, Didier K Bakajika, Eric M Kanza, Hayford Howard, Germain L Mambandu, Amos Nyathirombo, Maurice M Nigo, Kambale Kasonia, Safari L Masembe, Mupenzi Mumbere, Kambale Kataliko, Jemmah P Larbelee, Mawolo Kpawor, Kpehe M Bolay, Fatorma Bolay, Simon K Attah, Michel Vaillant, Christine M Halleux, Annette C Kuesel
BACKGROUND: The morbidity and socioeconomic effects of onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease that is primarily endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, have motivated large morbidity and transmission control programmes. Annual community-directed ivermectin treatment has substantially reduced prevalence. Elimination requires intensified efforts, including more efficacious treatments. We compared parasitological efficacy and safety of moxidectin and ivermectin. METHODS: This double-blind, parallel group, superiority trial was done in four sites in Ghana, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
January 17, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313477/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-performance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-linear-epitopes-in-a-peptide-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#9
Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Erik Nijs, Bieke Van Dorst, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alex Debrah, Taniawati Supali, Erliyani Sartono, Lieven J Stuyver
Diagnostic tools for the detection of infection with Onchocerca volvulus are presently limited to microfilaria detection in skin biopsies and serological assessment using the Ov16 immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) rapid test, both of which have limited sensitivity. We have investigated the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on immunodominant linear epitopes previously discovered. Peptides that were used in these assays were designated O. volvulus motif peptides (OvMP): OvMP-1 (VSV-EPVTTQET-VSV), OvMP-2 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV), OvMP-3 (VSV-QTSNLD-VSV), and the combination of the latter two, OvMP-23 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV-QTSNLD-VSV)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289559/geographical-distribution-and-species-identification-of-human-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis-in-bioko-island-equatorial-guinea
#10
Thuy-Huong Ta, Laura Moya, Justino Nguema, Pilar Aparicio, María Miguel-Oteo, Gema Cenzual, Isabel Canorea, Marta Lanza, Agustín Benito, James Lee Crainey, José Miguel Rubio
Human filariae are vector-borne parasites and the causative agents of various diseases, including human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Onchocerciasis causes a spectrum of cutaneous and ophthalmologic manifestations (including blindness) and has long been a major public health problem in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bioko Island has been included in the WHO's Onchocerciasis Control Program since 1987. In Bioko Island, the specificity and sensitivity of clinical Onchocerca volvulus diagnosis is key...
December 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288080/onchocerciasis-associated-epilepsy-an-additional-reason-for-strengthening-onchocerciasis-elimination-programs
#11
REVIEW
Robert Colebunders, F J Nelson Siewe, An Hotterbeekx
A high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in onchocerciasis-endemic regions with high onchocerciasis transmission. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that Onchocerca volvulus infection is the trigger causing the seizures, which appear in previously healthy children between the ages of 3 and 18 years. Persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy present with a wide spectrum of seizures, including atonic and myoclonic neck seizures; but also absences and most frequently generalized tonic-clonic seizures...
December 26, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285494/new-evidence-for-nodding-disease-as-an-autoimmune-reaction-to-onchocerca-volvulus
#12
EDITORIAL
Michael J Boivin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285492/river-blindness-goes-beyond-the-eye-autoimmune-antibodies-cross-reactive-with-onchocerca-volvulus-antigen-detected-in-brain-of-patients-with-nodding-syndrome
#13
EDITORIAL
Christoph Kaiser, Sébastien D S Pion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277087/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-for-detection-of-subconjunctival-onchocerca-lupi-infection-in-a-dog
#14
Michele L Edelmann, Mason Jager, Filipe Espinheira, Eric C Ledbetter
A seven-year-old male castrated mixed-breed dog was diagnosed with bilateral subconjunctival masses. In vivo confocal microscopy facilitated visualization of Onchocerca lupi adult nematodes and their characteristic cuticular morphology. Long, thin, white nematodes were extracted during excisional biopsy. Histopathologic and parasitologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of O. lupi. In addition to surgical debulking of the parasitic granulomas, the dog received systemic doxycycline, prednisone, and ivermectin therapy...
December 25, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275076/dermatological-manifestations-in-onchocerciasis-a-retrospective-study-of-400-imported-cases
#15
Sabino Puente, German Ramirez-Olivencia, Mar Lago, Mercedes Subirats, Eugenio Perez-Blazquez, Fernando Bru, Teresa Garate, Belén Vicente, Moncef Belhassen-Garcia, Antonio Muro
INTRODUCTION: Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and mainly leads to pruritus and skin and visual disorders, including blindness. Seventeen million people are infected in 38 countries; 31 of these are in sub-Saharan Africa, six in Latin America and one on the Arabian Peninsula. More than 99% of cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa where 120 million people are at risk of infection. Eye disorders have been well-documented; however, skin disorders have not been described accurately...
December 20, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187277/molecular-identification-of-onchocerca-spp-larvae-in-simulium-damnosum-sensu-lato-collected-in-northern-uganda
#16
Guilherme G Verocai, Hassan K Hassan, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Moses N Katabarwa, Stephen Begumisa, Philbert Clouds, James Katamanywa, Christine Nahabwe, Thomas R Unnasch
Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of larvae of other filarial species in Simulium damnosum sensu lato can distort estimates of transmission potential for Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa. However, studies conducted in foci of onchocerciasis in West Central Uganda indicated that larvae other than O. volvulus were not common in vectors collected there. Recent data collected in Northern Uganda revealed a striking discordance between estimates of the prevalence of flies carrying O. volvulus infective larvae obtained from molecular pool screening and dissection methods...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141764/potential-role-for-flubendazole-in-limiting-filariasis-transmission-observations-of-microfilarial-sensitivity
#17
Maeghan O'Neill, Jelil Abdel Njouendou, Michael Dzimianski, Erica Burkman, Patrick Chouna Ndongmo, Jonas A Kengne-Ouafo, Samuel Wanji, Andrew Moorhead, Charles D Mackenzie, Timothy G Geary
Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a potent and efficacious macrofilaricide after parenteral administration. Studies in animal models and one trial in patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus revealed that FLBZ elicits minimal effects on microfilariae (mf). Severe complications after ivermectin (IVM) treatment of patients with high Loa loa microfilaraemia are of great concern. We examined the potential of FLBZ to rapidly kill L. loa mf, the phenomenon proposed to underlie the complications. Mf of L. loa were exposed to FLBZ, its reduced metabolite, albendazole, or IVM in vitro...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138647/nodding-syndrome-ns-and-onchocerca-volvulus-ov-in-northern-uganda
#18
David Kitara Lagoro, Denis Anywar Arony
Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034165/nodular-onchocercosis-in-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-in-sweden
#19
Bim Boijsen, Henrik Uhlhorn, Erik Ågren, Johan Höglund
The presence of subcutaneous nodular onchocercosis was investigated at slaughter of 151 red deer (Cervus elaphus) (107 juveniles and 44 adults) between October-December 2015. The prevalence of subcutaneous nodules was 56%. Nodules were located in the lumbar region of the back in 96% of the cases, and 38% of the infected red deer had additional parasitic nodules in other body locations, such as rump, thorax, forelimbs and neck. The number of nodules per deer was 1-10 in two-thirds of the affected animals, and only 2% had more than 50 nodules...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031285/evaluation-of-community-directed-operation-of-black-fly-traps-for-entomological-surveillance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-transmission-in-the-madi-mid-north-focus-of-onchocerciasis-in-northern-uganda
#20
Denis Loum, Charles R Katholi, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Thomas R Unnasch
Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. As the focus of the international community has shifted from onchocerciasis control to elimination, replacement of human landing collections has become a priority...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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