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Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
M G Basáñez, M Walker, H C Turner, L E Coffeng, S J de Vlas, W A Stolk
Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the few neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) whose control strategies have been informed by mathematical modelling. With the change in focus from elimination of the disease burden to elimination of Onchocerca volvulus, much remains to be done to refine, calibrate and validate existing models. Under the impetus of the NTD Modelling Consortium, the teams that developed EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have joined forces to compare and improve these frameworks to better assist ongoing elimination efforts...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Francesca Tamarozzi, Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Angela Midgley, Ana F Guimaraes, Kelly L Johnston, Steven W Edwards, Mark J Taylor
The endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, induce neutrophilic responses to the human helminth pathogen Onchocerca volvulus. The formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs), has been implicated in anti-microbial defence, but has not been identified in human helminth infection. Here, we demonstrate NETs formation in human onchocerciasis. Extracellular NETs and neutrophils were visualised around O. volvulus in nodules excised from untreated patients but not in nodules from patients treated with the anti-Wolbachia drug, doxycycline...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stephen R Doyle, Samuel Armoo, Alfons Renz, Mark J Taylor, Mike Yaw Osei-Atweneboana, Warwick N Grant
BACKGROUND: Genetic surveillance of the human filarial parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, from onchocerciasis endemic regions will ideally focus on genotyping individual infective larval stages collected from their intermediate host, Simuliid blackflies. However, blackflies also transmit other Onchocerca species, including the cattle parasite O. ochengi, which are difficult to distinguish from the human parasite based on morphological characteristics alone. This study describes a versatile approach to discriminate between O...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Freda Osei Akoto
BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that not only do anti-filarials significantly reduce larval forms, but that host immune responses also contribute to the clearance of filarial parasites; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. MAIN TEXT: Filarial infections caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia species (lymphatic filariasis) and Onchocerca volvulus (onchocerciasis) affect almost 200 million individuals worldwide and pose major public health challenges in endemic regions...
October 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
James W Kazura
Onchocerciasis is one of the two filarial helminth "neglected tropical diseases" (the other being lymphatic filariasis) that has been targeted for geographically local elimination followed by global eradication. The last known areas of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Americas have recently been reported to be eliminated. In contrast, achieving metrics for interruption of O. volvulus transmission in Africa, thus removing the requirement for continued monitoring and mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin, has been more challenging...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Annette C Kuesel
Onchocerciasis is a parasitic, vector borne disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. More than 99% of the population at risk of infection live in Africa. Onchocerciasis control was initiated in West Africa in 1974 with vector control, later complemented by ivermectin mass drug administration and in the other African endemic countries in 1995 with annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI.) This has significantly reduced infection prevalence. Together with proof-of-concept for onchocerciasis elimination with annual CDTI from foci in Senegal and Mali, this has resulted in targeting onchocerciasis elimination in selected African countries by 2020 and in 80% of African countries by 2025...
May 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Benjamin L Makepeace, Vincent N Tanya
Although of limited veterinary significance, Onchocerca ochengi has become famous as a natural model or 'analogue' of human onchocerciasis (river blindness), which is caused by Onchocerca volvulus. On the basis of both morphological and molecular criteria, O. ochengi is the closest extant relative of O. volvulus and shares several key natural history traits with the human pathogen. These include exploitation of the same group of insect vectors (blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex) and formation of collagenous nodules with a similar histological structure to human nodules...
September 21, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
A M Radwan, N E Ahmed, L M Elakabawy, M Y Ramadan, R S Elmadawy
AIM: The primary objective of the present study is to determine the commonness of filarial parasites in donkeys in Egypt, identification of the filarial species tainting them and the delivered pathogenic impact connected with the infestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 188 donkeys were examined for filarial infection. The blood samples and scraping of the cutaneous bleeding lesions were collected, stained, and inspected for microfilariae all through the period from March 2011 to October 2013...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Sindew Mekasha Feleke, Gemechu Tadesse, Kalkidan Mekete, Afework Hailemariam Tekle, Amha Kebede
Onchocerciasis is mainly found in western part of Ethiopia and there is no evidence of transmission in the east ward. However, some zones (Bale, Borena, and West Arsi) are suspected for transmission given the area has fast flowing rivers and is covered with vegetation. Therefore, this study was conducted to map onchocerciasis transmission in those zones. About 19 villages were selected based on proximity to the rivers, representation of districts, zones, and vegetation covers, whereas the study participants, all village residents of age > 5 years with good health condition, were skin sniped and examined using microscopy...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Ana Hernández-González, Laura Moya, María J Perteguer, Zaida Herrador, Rufino Nguema, Justino Nguema, Pilar Aparicio, Agustín Benito, Teresa Gárate
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted through infected blackflies (Simulium spp.). Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) used to show a high endemicity for onchocerciasis. During the last years, the disease control programmes using different larvicides and ivermectin administration have considerably reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. Based on this new epidemiological scenario, in the present work we aimed to assess the impact of the strategies applied against onchocerciasis in Bioko Island by an evaluation of IgG4 antibodies specific for recombinant Ov-16 in ELISA...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Nancy Johnstone McLean, Kimberly Newkirk, Coenraad M Adema
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical exam findings, treatment and outcomes of 16 dogs diagnosed with ocular onchocerciasis in New Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of dogs diagnosed by the primary author were reviewed (2011-2015). Records that were accessible and included a diagnosis of Onchocerca lupi by histopathologic or molecular identification of the nematode were included. RESULTS: Sixteen cases were included. 3/16 dogs were treated with year-round heartworm prophylaxis prior to infection...
September 13, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Felix Bosch, Ralph Manzanell, Alexander Mathis
Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Bronwyn Campbell, Helder Cortes, Giada Annoscia, Alessio Giannelli, Antonio Parisi, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Luís Cardoso, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Of increasing importance to the medical and veterinary communities is the zoonotic filarioid nematode Onchocerca lupi. Onchocercosis, thus far found in wolves, dogs, cats and humans, is diagnosed via skin snips to detect microfilariae and surgical removal of adults from the eye of the host. These methods are time-consuming, laborious and invasive, highlighting the need for new tools for the diagnosis of O. lupi in susceptible hosts. Symptoms related to the presence of the adults in the eye can range from none apparent to severe, including blindness...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Fidelis Cho-Ngwa, Elvis Monya, Boris K Azantsa, Faustin Pascal T Manfo, Smith B Babiaka, James A Mbah, Moses Samje
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is the world's second leading infectious cause of blindness. Its control is currently hampered by the lack of a macrofilaricidal drug and by severe adverse events observed when the lone recommended microfilaricide, ivermectin is administered to individuals co-infected with Loa loa. Therefore, there is the need for a safe and effective macrofilaricidal drug that will be able to cure the infection and break transmission cycles, or at least, an alternative microfilaricide that does not kill L...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Laura Senyonjo, Joseph Oye, Didier Bakajika, Benjamin Biholong, Afework Tekle, Daniel Boakye, Elena Schmidt, Elizabeth Elhassan
BACKGROUND: Community Directed Treatment with ivermectin is the cornerstone of current efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis. However recent studies suggest there are foci where long-term annual distribution of the drug alone has failed to ensure elimination thresholds are reached. It is important to achieve high levels of compliance in order to obtain elimination targets. An epidemiological and entomological evaluation conducted in the western region of Cameroon in 2011 revealed that two health districts remained with a high prevalence of infection, despite long-term distribution of ivermectin since 1996...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Glory Enjong Mbah, Rene Bilingwe Ayiseh, Fidelis Cho-Ngwa
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis, caused by the parasitic nematode, Onchocerca volvulus afflicts some 37 million people worldwide, and is the second leading infectious cause of blindness globally. The only currently recommended drug for treatment of the disease, ivermectin, is only microfilaricidal and has serious adverse effects in individuals co-infected with high loads of Loa loa microfilariae (mf), prompting the search for new and better drugs. Onchocerciasis drug discovery studies have so far been based on in vivo models using Onchocerca species which are not the closest to O...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Ana Gabriela de Oliveira do Rêgo, Everton Diogo de Farias Firmino, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento Ramos, Gílcia Aparecida de Carvalho, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto, Leucio Câmara Alves
Species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera Dirofilaria and Acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. Recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in Europe. In Brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to Dirofilaria immitis, Acanthocheilonema reconditum and Cercopithifilaria bainae. To investigate the distribution of filarial infections in dogs living in an endemic region from northeastern Brazil, blood and skin samples (n=104) were microscopically (modified Knott's test and skin snip sediment examination) and molecularly evaluated...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Poppy H L Lamberton, Robert A Cheke, Martin Walker, Peter Winskill, J Lee Crainey, Daniel A Boakye, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Iñaki Tirados, Michael D Wilson, Anthony Tetteh-Kumah, Sampson Otoo, Rory J Post, María-Gloria Basañez
BACKGROUND: Vector-biting behaviour is important for vector-borne disease (VBD) epidemiology. The proportion of blood meals taken on humans (the human blood index, HBI), is a component of the biting rate per vector on humans in VBD transmission models. Humans are the definitive host of Onchocerca volvulus, but the simuliid vectors feed on a range of animals and HBI is a key indicator of the potential for human onchocerciasis transmission. Ghana has a diversity of Simulium damnosum complex members, which are likely to vary in their HBIs, an important consideration for parameterization of onchocerciasis control and elimination models...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Andy Alhassan, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Kwadwo F Kyeremeh, Catherine B Poole, Zhiru Li, Edward Tettevi, Nathan A Tanner, Clotilde K S Carlow
Accurate, simple and affordable diagnostics are needed to detect Onchocerca volvulus infection in humans. A newly developed colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was compared to PCR and skin snip analysis for diagnosis of onchocerciasis. The robustness and simplicity of the assay indicates that it may be a useful field tool for surveillance in endemic countries.
July 26, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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