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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187277/molecular-identification-of-onchocerca-spp-larvae-in-simulium-damnosum-sensu-lato-collected-in-northern-uganda
#1
Guilherme G Verocai, Hassan K Hassan, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Moses N Katabarwa, Stephen Begumisa, Philbert Clouds, James Katamanywa, Christine Nahabwe, Thomas R Unnasch
Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of larvae of other filarial species in Simulium damnosum sensu lato can distort estimates of transmission potential for Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa. However, studies conducted in foci of onchocerciasis in West Central Uganda indicated that larvae other than O. volvulus were not common in vectors collected there. Recent data collected in Northern Uganda revealed a striking discordance between estimates of the prevalence of flies carrying O. volvulus infective larvae obtained from molecular pool screening and dissection methods...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141764/potential-role-for-flubendazole-in-limiting-filariasis-transmission-observations-of-microfilarial-sensitivity
#2
Maeghan O'Neill, Jelil Abdel Njouendou, Michael Dzimianski, Erica Burkman, Patrick Chouna Ndongmo, Jonas A Kengne-Ouafo, Samuel Wanji, Andrew Moorhead, Charles D Mackenzie, Timothy G Geary
Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a potent and efficacious macrofilaricide after parenteral administration. Studies in animal models and one trial in patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus revealed that FLBZ elicits minimal effects on microfilariae (mf). Severe complications after ivermectin (IVM) treatment of patients with high Loa loa microfilaraemia are of great concern. We examined the potential of FLBZ to rapidly kill L. loa mf, the phenomenon proposed to underlie the complications. Mf of L. loa were exposed to FLBZ, its reduced metabolite, albendazole, or IVM in vitro...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138647/nodding-syndrome-ns-and-onchocerca-volvulus-ov-in-northern-uganda
#3
David Kitara Lagoro, Denis Anywar Arony
Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034165/nodular-onchocercosis-in-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-in-sweden
#4
Bim Boijsen, Henrik Uhlhorn, Erik Ågren, Johan Höglund
The presence of subcutaneous nodular onchocercosis was investigated at slaughter of 151 red deer (Cervus elaphus) (107 juveniles and 44 adults) between October-December 2015. The prevalence of subcutaneous nodules was 56%. Nodules were located in the lumbar region of the back in 96% of the cases, and 38% of the infected red deer had additional parasitic nodules in other body locations, such as rump, thorax, forelimbs and neck. The number of nodules per deer was 1-10 in two-thirds of the affected animals, and only 2% had more than 50 nodules...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031285/evaluation-of-community-directed-operation-of-black-fly-traps-for-entomological-surveillance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-transmission-in-the-madi-mid-north-focus-of-onchocerciasis-in-northern-uganda
#5
Denis Loum, Charles R Katholi, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Thomas R Unnasch
Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. As the focus of the international community has shifted from onchocerciasis control to elimination, replacement of human landing collections has become a priority...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020189/the-macrofilaricidal-efficacy-of-repeated-doses-of-ivermectin-for-the-treatment-of-river-blindness
#6
Martin Walker, Sébastien D S Pion, Hanwei Fang, Jacques Gardon, Joseph Kamgno, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Michel Boussinesq
Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin is the cornerstone of efforts to eliminate human onchocerciasis by 2020/2025. The feasibility of elimination crucially depends on the effects of multiple ivermectin doses on Onchocerca volvulus. A single ivermectin (standard) dose clears the skin-dwelling microfilarial progeny of adult worms (macrofilariae) and temporarily impedes the release of such progeny by female macrofilariae, but a macrofilaricidal effect has been deemed minimal...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017875/hierarchical-dynamics-influence-the-distribution-of-immature-black-flies-diptera-simuliidae
#7
Anbalagan Sankarappan, Kannan Mani, Dinakaran Sundaram, Balasubramanian Chelliah, Krishnan Muthukalingan
Adult black flies (Simuliidae) are medically important insects and they are the sole vector of Onchocerca volvulus. Immature black flies are major components of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams and play a vital role in nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined effect of hierarchical dynamics (spatio-temporal pattern) on the distribution of immature black flies in South Indian streams. The sampling was done in streams of Western Ghats, South India. A total of 16 species belong to two subgenera: Simulium (10 species) and Gowmphostilbia (6 species) of Simulium were observed...
October 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969662/o-5s-quantitative-real-time-pcr-a-new-diagnostic-tool-for-laboratory-confirmation-of-human-onchocerciasis
#8
Solomon A Mekonnen, Marcus Beissner, Malkin Saar, Solomon Ali, Ahmed Zeynudin, Kassahun Tesfaye, Mulatu G Adbaru, Florian Battke, Sven Poppert, Michael Hoelscher, Thomas Löscher, Gisela Bretzel, Karl-Heinz Herbinger
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. In endemic areas, the diagnosis is commonly confirmed by microscopic examination of skin snip samples, though this technique is considered to have low sensitivity. The available melting-curve based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using degenerated primers targeting the O-150 repeat of O. volvulus was considered insufficient for confirming the individual diagnosis, especially in elimination studies...
October 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958602/onchocerca-volvulus-the-road-from-basic-biology-to-a-vaccine
#9
REVIEW
Sara Lustigman, Benjamin L Makepeace, Thomas R Klei, Simon A Babayan, Peter Hotez, David Abraham, Maria Elena Bottazzi
Human onchocerciasis - commonly known as river blindness - is one of the most devastating yet neglected tropical diseases, leaving many millions in sub-Saharan Africa blind and/or with chronic disabilities. Attempts to eliminate onchocerciasis, primarily through the mass drug administration of ivermectin, remains challenging and has been heightened by the recent news that drug-resistant parasites are developing in some populations after years of drug treatment. Needed, and needed now, in the fight to eliminate onchocerciasis are new tools, such as preventive and therapeutic vaccines...
September 22, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934436/insights-into-onchocerca-volvulus-population-biology-through-multilocus-immunophenotyping
#10
Carmelle T Norice-Tra, José Ribeiro, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Michael P Fay, Rahul Tyagi, Makedonka Mitreva, Thomas B Nutman
We have developed a serologically based immunophenotyping approach to study Onchocerca volvulus (Ov) population diversity. Using genomic sequence data and polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping, we identified nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of 16 major immunogenic Ov proteins: Ov-CHI-1/Ov-CHI-2, Ov16, Ov-FAR-1, Ov-CPI-1, Ov-B20, Ov-ASP-1, Ov-TMY-1, OvSOD1, OvGST1, Ov-CAL-1, M3/M4, Ov-RAL-1, Ov-RAL-2, Ov-ALT-1, Ov-FBA-1, and Ov-B8. We assessed the immunoreactivity of onchocerciasis patient sera (n = 152) from the Americas, West Africa, Central Africa, and East Africa against peptides derived from 10 of these proteins containing SNPs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921893/a-case-of-ocular-infection-with-onchocerca-lupi-in-a-dog-from-germany
#11
A Hodžić, B Hinney, S König, T J Naucke, G Duscher, A Joachim
Onchocerca lupi is an emerging zoonotic parasite infecting the ocular connective tissue of dogs, cats and humans. The only known case of canine ocular onchocerciasis in Germany was documented in 2002 in a shelter dog. However, the species of Onchocerca causing the infection could not be identified. Here, we report a case of the ocular infection with O. lupi in a dog, confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the cox1 gene. Further investigations are required to assess the risk factors for transmission and spread of the parasite in Germany...
September 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884022/identification-characterization-and-structure-of-tm16-from-trichuris-muris
#12
Zhuyun Liu, Alan Kelleher, Shanii Tabb, Junfei Wei, Jeroen Pollet, Peter J Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Bin Zhan, Oluwatoyin A Asojo
Trichuriasis is a disease of poverty for which excretory and secretory (ES) products that induce the protective immunity are being investigated as candidate vaccines antigens. In this study, ES products of T. muris and immune sera were produced. The immune sera recognized more than 20 proteins on a 2D-gel of ES products of T. muris adult worms. Tm16 was one of the proteins identified by mass spectrometry. Tm16 shares 57% sequence identity with Ov16, an immunodominant diagnostic antigen from Onchocerca volvulus...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820716/evaluation-of-community-directed-operation-of-black-fly-traps-for-entomological-surveillance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-transmission-in-the-madi-mid-north-focus-of-onchocerciasis-in-northern-uganda
#13
Denis Loum, Charles R Katholi, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Thomas R Unnasch
Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. As the focus of the international community has shifted from onchocerciasis control to elimination, replacement of human landing collections has become a priority...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806951/phytochemical-analysis-and-in-vitro-anthelmintic-activity-of-lophira-lanceolata-ochnaceae-on-the-bovine-parasite-onchocerca-ochengi-and-on-drug-resistant-strains-of-the-free-living-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Justin Kalmobé, Dieudonné Ndjonka, Djafsia Boursou, Jacqueline Dikti Vildina, Eva Liebau
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is one of the tropical neglected diseases (NTDs) caused by the nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Control strategies currently in use rely on mass administration of ivermectin, which has marked activity against microfilariae. Furthermore, the development of resistance to ivermectin was observed. Since vaccine and safe macrofilaricidal treatment against onchocerciasis are still lacking, there is an urgent need to discover novel drugs. This study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Lophira lanceolata on the cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the anthelmintic drug resistant strains of the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and to determine the phytochemical profiles of the extracts and fractions of the plants...
August 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789852/recombinant-calponin-of-human-filariid-brugia-malayi-secondary-structure-and-immunoprophylactic-potential
#15
Shiv K Verma, Ashish Arora, P Kalpana Murthy
In the search for potential vaccine candidates for the control of human lymphatic filariasis, we recently identified calponin-like protein, that regulates actin/myosin interactions, in a proinflammatory fraction F8 (45.24-48.64kDa) of Brugia malayi adult worms. In the present study, the gene was cloned, expressed, and the recombinant Calponin of B. malayi (r-ClpBm) was prepared and characterized. r-ClpBm bears homology with OV9M of Onchocerca volvulus, a non-lymphatic filariid that causes loss of vision and cutaneous pathology...
August 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746337/genome-wide-analysis-of-ivermectin-response-by-onchocerca-volvulus-reveals-that-genetic-drift-and-soft-selective-sweeps-contribute-to-loss-of-drug-sensitivity
#16
Stephen R Doyle, Catherine Bourguinat, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Jonas A Kengne-Ouafo, Sébastien D S Pion, Jean Bopda, Joseph Kamgno, Samuel Wanji, Hua Che, Annette C Kuesel, Martin Walker, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Daniel A Boakye, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Michel Boussinesq, Roger K Prichard, Warwick N Grant
BACKGROUND: Treatment of onchocerciasis using mass ivermectin administration has reduced morbidity and transmission throughout Africa and Central/South America. Mass drug administration is likely to exert selection pressure on parasites, and phenotypic and genetic changes in several Onchocerca volvulus populations from Cameroon and Ghana-exposed to more than a decade of regular ivermectin treatment-have raised concern that sub-optimal responses to ivermectin's anti-fecundity effect are becoming more frequent and may spread...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743489/lipid-profiling-of-the-filarial-nematodes-onchocerca-volvulus-onchocerca-ochengi-and-litomosoides-sigmodontis-reveals-the-accumulation-of-nematode-specific-ether-phospholipids-in-the-host
#17
Vera Wewer, Benjamin L Makepeace, Vincent N Tanya, Helga Peisker, Kenneth Pfarr, Achim Hoerauf, Peter Dörmann
Onchocerciasis, a neglected tropical disease prevalent in western and central Africa, is a major health problem and has been targeted for elimination. The causative agent for this disease is the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Onchocerca ochengi and Litomosoides sigmodontis, infectious agents of cattle and rodents, respectively, serve as model organisms to study filarial nematode infections. Biomarkers to determine infection without the use of painful skin biopsies and microscopic identification of larval worms are needed and their discovery is facilitated by an improved knowledge of parasite-specific metabolites...
July 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722605/characterizing-reactivity-to-onchocerca-volvulus-antigens-in-multiplex-bead-assays
#18
Karla R Feeser, Vitaliano Cama, Jeffrey W Priest, Elizabeth A Thiele, Ryan E Wiegand, Thomson Lakwo, Sindew M Feleke, Paul T Cantey
Multiplex bead assays (MBAs) may provide a powerful integrated tool for monitoring, evaluation, and post-elimination surveillance of onchocerciasis and co-endemic diseases; however, the specificity and sensitivity of Onchocerca volvulus antigens have not been characterized within this context. An MBA was developed to evaluate three antigens (OV-16, OV-17, and OV-33) for onchocerciasis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to characterize antigen performance using a panel of 610 specimens: 109 O...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686665/the-esperanza-window-trap-reduces-the-human-biting-rate-of-simulium-ochraceum-s-l-in-formerly-onchocerciasis-endemic-foci-in-southern-mexico
#19
Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier A Garza-Hernández, Mario C Salinas-Carmona, Ildefonso Fernández-Salas, Filiberto Reyes-Villanueva, Olga Real-Najarro, Eddie W Cupp, Thomas R Unnasch
BACKGROUND: The Esperanza Window Trap (EWT) baited with CO2 and human sweat compounds is attractive to Simulium ochraceum s.l., the primary vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the historically largest endemic foci in México and Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ability of the EWT to locally reduce numbers of questing S. ochraceum s.l. was evaluated in two formerly onchocerciasis endemic communities in Southern México. At each community, two EWTs were placed in or near a school or household and flies were collected sequentially for a total of 10 days...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648713/zoonotic-infection-with-onchocerca-dewittei-japonica-in-an-11-year-old-boy-in-kansai-region-western-honshu-japan
#20
Shigehiko Uni, Masako Fukuda, Kou Ogawa, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Takeshi Agatsuma, Naruemon Bunchom, Weerachai Saijuntha, Yasushi Otsuka, Subha Bhassu, Ahmad Syihan Mat Udin, Nur Afiqah Zainuri, Hasmahzaiti Omar, Jun Nakatani, Makoto Matsubayashi, Haruhiko Maruyama, Rosli Ramli, Mohd Sofian Azirun, Hiroyuki Takaoka
An 11-year-old boy living in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture, Kansai Region, Western Honshu, Japan had zoonotic onchocercosis. The patient developed a painful swelling on the little finger of his left hand. The worm detected in the excised mass had external transverse ridges but did not have inner striae in the cuticle. On the basis of the parasite's histopathological characteristics, the causative agent was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). The species of the filarial parasite was confirmed by sequencing the cox1 gene of the parasite...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology International
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