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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149303/changes-in-cytokine-filarial-antigen-and-dna-levels-associated-with-adverse-events-following-treatment-of-lymphatic-filariasis
#1
Britt J Andersen, Jessica Kumar, Kurt Curtis, Nelly Sanuku, Samson Satofan, Christopher L King, Peter U Fischer, Gary J Weil
Background: Mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) are common after treatment of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and pose a major challenge for the global LF elimination program. We studied changes in cytokine levels and filarial worm components in plasma of subjects with and without AEs following treatment of LF. Methods: Participants (N=24) were hospitalized and monitored for AEs following treatment. Cytokines (27), filarial DNA, circulating filarial antigen (CFA), and immune complexes were measured in plasma samples collected before and after treatment...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143669/considerations-for-using-minocycline-vs-doxycycline-for-treatment-of-canine-heartworm-disease
#2
Mark G Papich
BACKGROUND: Doxycycline has been considered the first drug of choice for treating Wolbachia, a member of the Rickettsiaceae, which has a symbiotic relationship with filarial worms, including heartworms. Wolbachia, is susceptible to tetracyclines, which have been used as adjunctive treatments for heartworm disease. Treatment with doxycycline reduces Wolbachia numbers in all stages of heartworms and improves outcomes and decreased microfilaremia in dogs treated for heartworm disease. The American Heartworm Society recommends treatment with doxycycline in dogs diagnosed with heartworm disease at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily for 28 days...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141750/use-of-a-novel-portable-three-dimensional-scanner-to-measure-limb-volume-and-circumference-in-patients-with-filarial-lymphedema
#3
Channa Yahathugoda, Michael J Weiler, Ramakrishna Rao, Lalindi De Silva, J Brandon Dixon, Mirani V Weerasooriya, Gary J Weil, Philip J Budge
The World Health Organization's Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) has reduced LF transmission worldwide, but millions remain affected by filarial lymphedema. Tools for clinically monitoring lymphedema in developing nations are limited. We tested a novel, portable, infrared three-dimensional (3D) scanner against water displacement (WD) and tape measurement of limb circumference (TMLC) among patients with filarial leg lymphedema in Galle, Sri Lanka. Outcomes were accuracy and reproducibility of scanner measurements...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141050/differential-immunomodulation-in-human-monocytes-versus-macrophages-by-filarial-cystatin
#4
Gopinath Venugopal, Marion Mueller, Susanne Hartmann, Svenja Steinfelder
Parasitic nematodes have evolved powerful immunomodulatory molecules to enable their survival in immunocompetent hosts by subverting immune responses and minimizing pathological processes. One filarial molecule known to counteract host immune responses by inducing IL-10 and regulatory macrophages in mice is filarial cystatin. During a patent filarial infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122006/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-angiogenic-and-lymphangiogenic-pathways-are-associated-with-lymphedema-caused-by-wuchereria-bancrofti
#5
Linda Batsa Debrah, Anna Albers, Alexander Yaw Debrah, Felix F Brockschmidt, Tim Becker, Christine Herold, Andrea Hofmann, Jubin Osei-Mensah, Yusif Mubarik, Holger Fröhlich, Achim Hoerauf, Kenneth Pfarr
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema (LE) is a chronic clinical manifestation of filarial nematode infections characterized by lymphatic dysfunction and subsequent accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the interstitial space-lymphatic filariasis. A number of studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with primary and secondary LE. To assess SNPs associated with LE caused by lymphatic filariasis, a cross-sectional study of unrelated Ghanaian volunteers was designed to genotype SNPs in 285 LE patients as cases and 682 infected patients without pathology as controls...
November 9, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118653/a-combined-human-case-of-dirofilaria-ursi-infection-in-dorsal-subcutaneous-tissue-and-anisakis-simplex-sensu-stricto-s-s-infection-in-ventral-subcutaneous-tissue
#6
Minoru Yamada, Namiko Shishito, Yoshihiro Nozawa, Shigehiko Uni, Keisuke Nishioka, Takaaki Nakaya
Background: Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode that parasitizes the subcutaneous tissues of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) and Japanese black bear (Ursus thiabetanus japonicus). D. ursi that has parasitized black bears has the potential to subsequently infect humans. In addition, extra-gastrointestinal anisakiasis is less common in Japan. Case presentation: We report a case of ventral subcutaneous anisakiasis and dorsal subcutaneous dirofilariasis that was acquired in Fukushima, in the northern part of Japan...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114130/phylogenetic-study-based-on-28s-rrna-gene-sequencing-of-wuchereria-bancrofti-isolated-from-the-filaria-endemic-areas-of-bankura-district-west-bengal-india
#7
Soumendranath Chatterjee, Swapan Kumar Rudra, Syed Afrin Azmi, Raktima Bandyopadhyay
Lymphatic filariasis is one of the major public health concern in India, and Bankura district of West Bengal is one of the main filaria prone area of the country. Wuchereria bancrofti is the causative organism and Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis in India. In the present study, infection and infectivity rate of filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus were determined. The molecular characterization, DNA fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of W. bancrofti was done. In the study area, overall vector infection and infectivity rates were 4...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084213/reassessment-of-areas-with-persistent-lymphatic-filariasis-nine-years-after-cessation-of-mass-drug-administration-in-sri-lanka
#8
Ramakrishna U Rao, Sandhya D Samarasekera, Kumara C Nagodavithana, Tharanga D M Dassanayaka, Manjula W Punchihewa, Udaya S B Ranasinghe, Gary J Weil
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka was one of the first countries to initiate a lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination program based on WHO guidelines. The Anti-Filariasis Campaign provided 5 annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole in all 8 endemic districts from 2002-2006. Microfilaremia (Mf) prevalences have been consistently <1% in all sentinel and spot-check sites since 2006, and all evaluation units passed school-based transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in 2013...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080766/interaction-between-wolbachia-and-the-fibrinolytic-system-as-a-possible-pathological-mechanism-in-cardiopulmonary-dirofilariosis
#9
Alicia Diosdado, Paula Josefina Gómez, Rodrigo Morchón, Fernando Simón, Javier González-Miguel
Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne parasite that produces an inflammatory process in the wall of the blood vessels of its definitive host during cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis, known as proliferative endarteritis. Parasite antigens participate in the appearance of this inflammatory event, among other mechanisms through the over-activation of the host fibrinolytic system. Since Wolbachia, endosymbiont bacteria of filarial nematodes, is released into the vertebrate host when worms die, the aim of this work was to analyse the interaction between this bacteria and the host fibrinolytic system to complete the study of this part of the host-parasite relationships...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080508/exploration-of-antifilarial-activity-of-gold-nanoparticle-against-human-and-bovine-filarial-parasites-a-nanomedicinal-mechanistic-approach
#10
Priya Roy, Swadhin K Saha, Prajna Gayen, Pranesh Chowdhury, Santi P Sinha Babu
The present work seeks to explore the antifilarial activity of biopolymer functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against human filarial parasite (Wuchereria bancrofti) through Nrf2 signaling for the first time. A natural polymer, chitosan is used along with Terminalia chebula extract to synthesize AuNPs following the principles of green chemistry. The probable mode of action of AuNPs as filaricidal agent has been investigated in detail using model filarial parasite, Setaria cervi (bovine parasite). Biopolymers inspired AuNPs exhibit superior antifilarial activity against both human and bovine filarial parasites, and are able to induce oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in filarial parasites mediated through mitochondria...
October 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078351/albendazole-and-antibiotics-synergize-to-deliver-short-course-anti-wolbachia-curative-treatments-in-preclinical-models-of-filariasis
#11
Joseph D Turner, Raman Sharma, Ghaith Al Jayoussi, Hayley E Tyrer, Joanne Gamble, Laura Hayward, Richard S Priestley, Emma A Murphy, Jill Davies, David Waterhouse, Darren A N Cook, Rachel H Clare, Andrew Cassidy, Andrew Steven, Kelly L Johnston, John McCall, Louise Ford, Janet Hemingway, Stephen A Ward, Mark J Taylor
Elimination of filariasis requires a macrofilaricide treatment that can be delivered within a 7-day period. Here we have identified a synergy between the anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) and drugs depleting the filarial endosymbiont Wolbachia, a proven macrofilaricide target, which reduces treatment from several weeks to 7 days in preclinical models. ABZ had negligible effects on Wolbachia but synergized with minocycline or rifampicin (RIF) to deplete symbionts, block embryogenesis, and stop microfilariae production...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067894/mansonella-ozzardi-and-its-vectors-in-the-new-world-an-update-with-emphasis-on-the-current-situation-in-haiti
#12
C P Raccurt
Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a little studied filarial nematode. This human parasite, transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and blackflies (genus Simulium), is endemic to the Neotropical regions of the New World. With a patchy geographical distribution from southern Mexico to north-western Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065795/antifilarial-activity-of-caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-on-brugia-pahangi-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Nazeh M Al-Abd, Zurainee Mohamed Nor, Quazim O Junaid, Marzida Mansor, M S Hasan, Mustafa Kassim
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector borne disease caused by parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Current therapeutics to treat LF are mainly microfilarcidal, and lack activity against adult worms. This set back, poses a challenge for the control and elimination of filariasis. Thus, in this study the activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against the filarial worm B. pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia were evaluated...
October 25, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059186/lymphatic-pathology-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-children-with-wuchereria-bancrofti-infection-in-children-from-odisha-india-and-its-reversal-with-dec-and-albendazole-treatment
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Shantanu K Kar, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Birendra K Das, Bikash K Agrawala, Cherubala P Ramachandran, John Horton
BACKGROUND: Once interruption of transmission of lymphatic filariasis is achieved, morbidity prevention and management becomes more important. A study in Brugia malayi filariasis from India has shown sub-clinical lymphatic pathology with potential reversibility. We studied a Wuchereria bancrofti infected population, the major contributor to LF globally. METHODS: Children aged 5-18 years from Odisha, India were screened for W. bancrofti infection and disease. 102 infected children, 50 with filarial disease and 52 without symptoms were investigated by lymphoscintigraphy and then randomized to receive a supervised single oral dose of DEC and albendazole which was repeated either annually or semi-annually...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055709/thioredoxin-reductase-from-the-bovine-filarial-parasite-setaria-cervi-studies-on-its-localization-and-optimization-of-the-extraction
#15
Nikhilesh Joardar, Suprabhat Mukherjee, Santi P Sinha Babu
Exploration of novel drug targets has been the major thrust area in filarial research. In this regard, identification and characterization of oxidative enzymes that play pivotal role in the survival of filarial parasite inside host are of immense importance. In this study, we are reporting the presence of an important redox regulatory enzyme, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in the bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi. TrxR was found to be exists throughout the developmental stages viz. oocyte, microfilaria and adult of the parasite...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042606/population-genomics-of-wolbachia-and-mtdna-in-drosophila-simulans-from-california
#16
Sarah Signor
Wolbachia pipientis is an intracellular endosymbiont infecting many arthropods and filarial nematodes. Little is known about the short-term evolution of Wolbachia or its interaction with its host. Wolbachia is maternally inherited, resulting in co-inheritance of mitochondrial organelles such as mtDNA. Here I explore the evolution of Wolbachia, and the relationship between Wolbachia and mtDNA, using a large inbred panel of Drosophila simulans. I compare this to the only other large population genomic Wolbachia dataset from D...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032984/immune-response-in-mansonella-ozzardi-infection-modulated-by-il-6-il-10-axis-in-amazon-region-of-brazil
#17
Allyson Guimarães Costa, Aya Sadahiro, Andréa Monteiro Tarragô, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa, Bruna Pires Loiola, Adriana Malheiro, Jansen Fernandes Medeiros
Mansonellosis is an endemic disease in the South and Central America. In Brazil, one of the etiological agents is Mansonella ozzardi. This filarial infection is yet poorly understood, with a controversial morbity, presenting since a oligosymptoms, malaria-like signs or without complaint in humans. The knowledge of the human immune response to microfilariae infection is limited mainly by different evolutionary cycles of the parasite in the host. In addition, the prevalence of this filarial parasite infection is high in several regions of Amazonas State...
October 9, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031509/mining-filarial-genomes-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-targets
#18
REVIEW
Sasisekhar Bennuru, Elise M O'Connell, Papa M Drame, Thomas B Nutman
Filarial infections of humans cause some of the most important neglected tropical diseases. The global efforts for eliminating filarial infections by mass drug administration programs may require additional tools (safe macrofilaricidal drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic biomarkers). The accurate and sensitive detection of viable parasites is essential for diagnosis and for surveillance programs. Current community-wide treatment modalities do not kill the adult filarial worms effectively; hence, there is a need to identify and develop safe macrofilaricidal drugs...
October 11, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021653/are-there-any-factors-affecting-the-outcome-of-endoscopic-sclerotherapy-in-filarial-chyluria-a-prospective-study
#19
Bimalesh Purkait, Apul Goel, Yogesh Garg, Shriya Pant, Bhupendra Pal Singh, Satya Narayan Sankhwar
INTRODUCTION: Filarial chyluria is a frequent problem in India. While endoscopic therapy is the mainstay of treatment, it is not always successful. We aimed to determine parameters that affect outcomes of endoscopic sclerotherapy for filarial chyluria (FC). METHODS: Prospectively maintained data of FC patients who received endoscopic sclerotherapy between June 2011 and March 2015 were analyzed. Sclerotherapy included either povidone-iodine (0.1%) or silver nitrate (1%)...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020042/is-mass-drug-administration-against-lymphatic-filariasis-required-in-urban-settings-the-experience-in-kano-nigeria
#20
Dung D Pam, Dziedzom K de Souza, Susan D'Souza, Millicent Opoku, Safiya Sanda, Ibrahim Nazaradden, Ifeoma N Anagbogu, Chukwu Okoronkwo, Emmanuel Davies, Elisabeth Elhassan, David H Molyneux, Moses J Bockarie, Benjamin G Koudou
BACKGROUND: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), launched in 2000, has the target of eliminating the disease as a public health problem by the year 2020. The strategy adopted is mass drug administration (MDA) to all eligible individuals in endemic communities and the implementation of measures to reduce the morbidity of those suffering from chronic disease. Success has been recorded in many rural endemic communities in which elimination efforts have centered...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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