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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890076/dirofilaria-immitis-exhibits-sex-and-stage-specific-differences-in-excretory-secretory-mirna-and-protein-profiles
#1
Lucienne Tritten, Damian Clarke, Scott Timmins, Tom McTier, Timothy G Geary
The canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis releases excretory/secretory molecules into its host and in culture. We report analyses of the types, amounts and stage-dependence of microRNAs and proteins found in D. immitis culture media recovered after incubating 800,000 microfilariae for 6days, 500L3 and 500L4 for 7days, as well as 40 adult females and 40 adult males for 48h, all separately. In addition, the presence of exosome-like particles was established by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Our results are in concordance with the D...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881553/stage-specific-transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-of-the-filarial-parasite-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#2
Sasisekhar Bennuru, James A Cotton, Jose M C Ribeiro, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Nancy Holroyd, Amruta Mhashilkar, Douglas M Molina, Arlo Z Randall, Adam D Shandling, Thomas R Unnasch, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B Nutman
: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv)...
November 23, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876997/scope-of-detectability-of-circulating-antigens-of-human-lymphatic-filarial-parasite-wuchereria-bancrofti-with-smaller-amount-of-serum-by-og4c3-assay-its-application-in-lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-programme
#3
K Athisaya Mary, K Krishnamoorthy, S L Hoti
Filarial antigen detection is an appropriate epidemiological indicator for mapping lymphatic filariasis and impact evaluation of filariasis elimination programme in view of low sensitivity of parasite detection. Monoclonal antibody-based Og4C3 immunological test requires 100 µl serum, which is difficult to collect by finger prick method during community based surveys. Hence, we tested lesser volume of serum compared to standard volume of 100 µl to compare its sensitivity and specificity in detecting the circulating filarial antigens...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875706/filariasis-in-mandible-and-maxilla-a-rare-entity-first-report-of-a-case
#4
Sthitaprajna Lenka, Nitish Kumar Panda, Sobhan Mishra, Karishma Rathor
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, categorized as nematodes, are responsible for causing lymphatic filariasis. Even though it can affect individuals of all age groups and both genders, it predominantly affects people of low socioeconomic strata. The filarial worms dwell in the subcutaneous tissues and lymphatics of human hosts. In India, W bancrofti is the primary nematode to cause filariasis, which is transmitted through the bite of blood-sucking infected female anopheles mosquitoes. Lymphangitis, leading to elephantiasis of the legs, arms, scrotum, and breast, is the most salient clinical feature of lymphatic filariasis...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869790/the-genome-of-onchocerca-volvulus-agent-of-river-blindness
#5
James A Cotton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Alan Tracey, Robin Beech, Stephen R Doyle, Matthew Dunn, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Nancy Holroyd, Taisei Kikuchi, Olivia Lambert, Amruta Mhashilkar, Prudence Mutowo, Nirvana Nursimulu, Jose M C Ribeiro, Matthew B Rogers, Eleanor Stanley, Lakshmipuram S Swapna, Isheng J Tsai, Thomas R Unnasch, Denis Voronin, John Parkinson, Thomas B Nutman, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman
Human onchocerciasis is a serious neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that can lead to blindness and chronic disability. Control of the disease relies largely on mass administration of a single drug, and the development of new drugs and vaccines depends on a better knowledge of parasite biology. Here, we describe the chromosomes of O. volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. We provide the highest-quality sequence assembly for any parasitic nematode to date, giving a glimpse into the evolution of filarial parasite chromosomes and proteomes...
November 21, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869138/the-helminth-product-es-62-modulates-dendritic-cell-responses-by-inducing-the-selective-autophagolysosomal-degradation-of-tlr-transducers-as-exemplified-by-pkc%C3%AE
#6
Russell J Eason, Kara S Bell, Fraser A Marshall, David T Rodgers, Miguel A Pineda, Christina N Steiger, Lamyaa Al-Riyami, William Harnett, Margaret M Harnett
We have previously shown that ES-62, a phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein secreted by the parasitic filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae targets dendritic cell (DC) responses, specifically by suppressing TLR4 signalling to inhibit Th1/Th17-driven inflammation. We have now investigated the molecular mechanisms underpinning such immunomodulation and show here that ES-62-mediated downregulation of protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ), a TLR4-associated signalling mediator required for full activation of LPS-driven pro-inflammatory responses, is associated with induction of a low level of autophagic flux, as evidenced by upregulation and trafficking of p62 and LC3 and their consequent autophagolysosomal degradation...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861499/maternal-filarial-infection-influences-the-development-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-children-from-infancy-to-early-childhood
#7
Madhusmita Bal, Manoranjan Ranjit, K Gopinath Achary, Ashok K Satapathy
BACKGROUND: Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858056/determinants-of-parasite-drug-resistance-in-human-lymphatic-filariasis
#8
REVIEW
F Cobo
Infection with filarial nematodes remains endemic in several countries worldwide and some of these infections are commonly associated with severe disease. The elimination of lymphatic filariasis relies on drug administration using the three drugs currently available for treatment: diethylcarbamazine, albendazole, and ivermectin. However, development of drug resistance is a reported phenomenon. The issue of resistance to antihelminthics used in humans has become increasing importance since the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis is implemented in larger population groups and the duration of the program is increasing...
December 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855517/synthesis-and-characterization-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-and-bacillus-subtilis-to-control-filarial-vector-culex-pipiens-pallens-and-its-antimicrobial-activity
#9
Hatem Fouad, Li Hongjie, Ding Yanmei, Yu Baoting, Ahmed El-Shakh, Ghulam Abbas, Mo Jianchu
Culex pipiens pallens are the most common mosquito's vector in Asia. In order to protect the people from diseases, the anti-mosquito population is necessary that uses safe and new bio-pesticides such as bacteria-AgNPs. In our report, we used two kinds of bacteria to synthesize silver nanoparticles to examine the toxic effect on the larvae and pupae of Cx. pipiens pallens and also used as antimicrobial activity. The biosynthesis of AgNPs and its characterization was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, TEM, SEM, and EDX...
November 18, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802280/lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-in-american-samoa-evaluation-of-molecular-xenomonitoring-as-a-surveillance-tool-in-the-endgame
#10
Colleen L Lau, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie, Patricia M Graves
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has made significant progress toward interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA). Operational challenges in defining endpoints of elimination programs include the need to determine appropriate post-MDA surveillance strategies. As humans are the only reservoirs of LF parasites, one such strategy is molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes using molecular methods (PCR), to provide an indirect indicator of infected persons nearby...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799641/serological-responses-to-filarial-antigens-in-malian-children-attending-elementary-schools
#11
Delynn M Moss, Anna N Chard, Victoria Trinies, Seydou Doumbia, Matthew C Freeman, Patrick J Lammie
Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from 805 children attending 42 elementary schools in the regions of Mopti, Sikasso, Koulikoro, and the regional capital of Bamako in Mali as part of an evaluation of a school health intervention. Eluted immunoglobulin (Ig) G from the DBS was assessed by a multiplex bead assay (MBA) for two filariasis antigens, Wuchereria bancrofti, Wb123, and Brugia malayi, Bm14, to determine the effectiveness of mass drug administration (MDA) programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF)...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799335/functional-impairment-of-murine-dendritic-cell-subsets-following-infection-with-infective-larval-stage-3-of-brugia-malayi
#12
Aditi Sharma, Pankaj Sharma, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Mrigank Srivastava
Filarial parasites cause functional impairment of host Dendritic cells (DCs). However, effects of early infection on individual DC subsets are not known. In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied its effect on FACS-sorted DC subsets. While Myeloid DCs (mDCs) accumulated within day 3 post-infection (p.i.), Lymphoid DCs (LDCs) and CD8(+) Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) peaked at day 7 p.i. in the spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) of infected mice...
October 31, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796352/filarial-infection-influences-mosquito-behaviour-and-fecundity
#13
Katherine Gleave, Darren Cook, Mark J Taylor, Lisa J Reimer
Understanding vector-parasite interactions is increasingly important as we move towards the endpoint goals set by the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), as interaction dynamics may change with reduced transmission pressure. Elimination models used to predict programmatic endpoints include parameters for vector-specific transmission dynamics, despite the fact that our knowledge of the host-seeking behaviour of filariasis infected mosquitoes is lacking. We observed a dynamic, stage-specific and density dependent change in Aedes aegypti behaviour towards host cues when exposed to Brugia malayi filarial parasites...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790964/increased-igg-antibody-responses-to-excretory-secretory-antigens-in-neonates-born-from-mothers-infected-with-filarial-nematodes
#14
K G Achary, M S Bal, N N Mandal, A K Satapathy
The present investigation aimed to evaluate the extent to which maternal filarial infection influences IgG subclass immune responses in the cord blood of neonates. Prevalence of antigenaemia was detected using an Og4C3 assay. Filaria-specific IgG subclasses against excretory/secretory antigens were measured by ELISA. Transplacental transfer of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was observed from 34.8% of CFA-positive mothers to their respective cord bloods. Filaria-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 responses were significantly higher among cord bloods of infected mothers compared to cord bloods of uninfected mothers...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790506/does-24bp-duplication-of-human-chit1-gene-chitotriosidase1-predispose-to-filarial-chyluria-a-case-control-study
#15
Shriya Pant, Jyotsna Agarwal, Apul Goel, Pravin K Gangwar, Mohammad Waseem, Prashant Gupta, Satya N Sankhwar, Bimalesh Purkait
INTRODUCTION: Chyluria which is endemic in many parts of the world is mainly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. CHIT1 (chitotriosidase) is produced by macrophages and plays an important role in the defense against chitin containing pathogen such as filarial parasite. Variation in the coding region with 24 bp duplication allele results in reduced CHIT1 activity that enhance the survival of parasite which may play a role in the occurrence of disease. AIM: To examine the role of 24bp duplication of CHIT1 gene in patients of filarial chyluria (FC)...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790454/fine-needle-aspiration-of-a-subcutaneous-nodule-showing-eggs-of-adult-filarial-worm
#16
Sandeep Ojha, Leena Naik, Kanchan Kothari, Mona Agnihotri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788338/congenital-filariasis-caused-by-setaria-bidentata-nematoda-filarioidea-in-the-red-brocket-deer-mazama-americana
#17
Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta, Pedro Mayor
The filarial nematode Setaria bidentata was found in 10 of 31 fetuses of the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. A total of 25 specimens were collected and morphologically identified as S. bidentata. Filarial nematodes were found in the peritoneal cavity of 9 deer fetuses and the thoracic cavity of 1 fetus. Most specimens were adult stage. In this report, we provide morphometric data for these filarial specimens. This is the first study to demonstrate prenatal S...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780697/pulmonary-artery-dissection-causing-haemothorax-in-a-cat-potential-role-of%C3%A2-dirofilaria-immitis-infection-and-literature-review
#18
I Biasato, M Tursi, S Zanet, E Longato, M T Capucchio
A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat suddenly died. Gross examination revealed severe right-sided haemothorax with blood clots, four adult filarial nematodes in the blood clots and the caudal vena cava and haemorrhage dissecting into the tunica media of the right pulmonary artery. Histopathological investigation showed fibrosis of the tunica intima and disorganization/fragmentation of the elastic fibres accompanied by fibrous tissue deposition in the tunica media of both branches of pulmonary artery...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777032/filarial-infection-deserves-attention-as-neglected-tropical-disease
#19
Peter U Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761717/filarial-infection-caused-by-onchocerca-boehmi-supperer-1953-in-a-horse-from-italy
#20
Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
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