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Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Julio Furlong-Silva, Hanna Sjoberg, Stephen Cross, Alice Halliday, Ana F Guimaraes, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Nico Van Rooijen, Judith E Allen, Stephen J Jenkins, Mark J Taylor
Eosinophils are effectors in immunity to tissue helminths but also induce allergic immunopathology. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in non-mucosal tissues during infection remain unresolved. Here we identify a pivotal function of tissue macrophages (Mϕ) in eosinophil anti-helminth immunity using a BALB/c mouse intra-peritoneal Brugia malayi filarial infection model. Eosinophilia, via C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)3, was necessary for immunity as CCR3 and eosinophil impairments rendered mice susceptible to chronic filarial infection...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Maria J Gonzalez-Moa, Bieke Van Dorst, Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Lieven Stuyver, Marco A Biamonte
Three O. volvulus immunogenic peptide sequences recently discovered by peptide microarray were adapted to a lateral flow assay (LFA). The LFA employs gold nanoshells as novel high-contrast reporter nanoparticles and detects a serological response against the 3 peptides, found in OvOC9384, OvOC198, and OvOC5528, respectively. When tested on 118 sera from O. volvulus infected patients and 208 control sera, the LFA was 90, 63, and 98% sensitive for each peptide, respectively, and 99-100% specific vs. samples from healthy volunteers...
March 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Kimberly Y Won, Keri Robinson, Katy L Hamlin, Joseph Tufa, Margaret Seespesara, Ryan E Wiegand, Katherine Gass, Joseph Kubofcik, Thomas B Nutman, Patrick J Lammie, Saipale Fuimaono
BACKGROUND: Current WHO recommendations for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance advise programs to implement activities to monitor for new foci of transmission after stopping mass drug administration (MDA). A current need in the global effort to eliminate LF is to standardize diagnostic tools and surveillance activities beyond the recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS). METHODOLOGY: TAS was first conducted in American Samoa in 2011 (TAS 1) and a repeat TAS was carried out in 2015 (TAS 2)...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nathália F Lima, Raquel M Gonçalves-Lopes, Yvonne C M Kruize, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Marcelo U Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Chronic helminth infections typically induce an immunoregulatory environment, with markedly reduced immune responses to both parasite-specific and unrelated bystander antigens. Here we tested whether these changes are also observed in human infections with Mansonella ozzardi, a neglected filarial nematode widely distributed across Latin America. METHODS: CD4+ T cell populations from microfilaremic (Fil+) and uninfected (Fil-) inhabitants in M. ozzardi-endemic riverine communities in Brazil were characterized by flow cytometry analysis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aditi Sharma, Pankaj Sharma, Laxmi Ganga, Neha Satoeya, Shikha Mishra, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Mrigank Srivastava
Filarial parasites suppress, divert, or polarize the host immune response to aid their survival. However, mechanisms that govern the polarization of host MΦs during early filarial infection are not completely understood. In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. Results showed that MΦs displayed M2-phenotype by day 3 p.i. characterized by upregulated IL-4, but reduced IL-12 and Prostaglandin-D2 secretion...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mandira Chakraborty, Hasina Banu, Partha Pratim Chakraborty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
M B C L Somarathne, Y I N S Gunawardena, N V Chandrasekharan, R S Dassanayake
Despite the differences of the host, parasitic nematodes may share commonalities in their parasitizing genes. Setaria digitata novel protein (SDNP) is such an entity which is parasitic nematode-specific and having sequence similarities with those of W. bancrofti, B. malayi, Loa loa and Onchocerca volvulus. Post-transcriptional gene silencing by siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used technique in functional genomics. Though the technique has been used in several free-living, plant and animal parasitic nematodes, it has not yet been tried out for the filarial worm S...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Marcelo H S Paiva, Rosângela M R Barbosa, Suzane A Santos, Norma M Silva, Marcia B Paula, Constância F J Ayres, Walter S Leal
Culex mosquitoes are primarily found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide where they play a crucial role as main vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. In Recife, a northeast city in Brazil, high densities of Culex quinquefasciatus are often found in association with human populated areas. In marked contrast to another part of the city, field tests conducted in the neighborhood of Sítio dos Pintos showed that trapping of mosquitoes in skatole-baited ovitraps did not differ significantly from captures in control (water) traps...
February 14, 2018: Insect Science
Jovana Šupić, Alma Šeho Alić, Melida Hasanić, Šejla Goletić, Georg G Duscher, Adnan Hodžić, Amer Alić
Filarial nematodes of the Eulimdana genus inhabit subcutaneous tissue of various avian species, mostly Charadriiforme birds. In domestic pigeons, E. clava is the only species recorded in the subcutaneous tissue in a number of isolated cases. In the present study, we discuss the morphology and histopathology of filarial nematodes recovered from subcutaneous tissue of domestic pigeons in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In total 110 pigeons were submitted to necropsy at the Department of Pathology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Sarajevo...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Dipti Ranjan Behera, Sunita Bhatnagar
Antifilarial potential of three medicinal plants namely, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia catappa was explored using Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10mg/ml. Amongst all the extracts, methanol extract of T. bellerica showed highest macrofilaricidal activity i.e. 84.63±1.11 at 10mg/ml in MTT reduction assay with IC50 value of 2.7mg/ml. which was better than the standard DEC i.e. 79.22±3.1% at 10mg/ml with IC50 value 2.84mg/ml. Other plant extracts showed mild in vitro macrofilaricidal activity...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Jansen Fernandes Medeiros, Gilberto Fontes, Vilma Lopes do Nascimento, Moreno Rodrigues, Jacob Cohen, Edmar Vaz de Andrade, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa, Marilaine Martins
BACKGROUND: The human filarial worm Mansonella ozzardi is highly endemic in the large tributaries of the Amazon River. This infection is still highly neglected and can be falsely negative when microfilariae levels are low. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the frequency of individuals with M. ozzardi in riverine communities in Coari municipality, Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Different diagnostic methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), blood polycarbonate membrane filtration (PCMF), Knott's method (Knott), digital thick blood smears (DTBS) and venous thick blood smears (VTBS) were used to compare sensitivity and specificity among the methods...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Namdev Togre, Priyanka Bhoj, Nitin Amdare, Kalyan Goswami, Aaditya Tarnekar, Moreshwar Shende
OBJECTIVE: Immunomodulation by helminth proteins has potential therapeutic implications in inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we have explored the therapeutic effect of a RAL family protein of filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti i.e., rWbL2 protein against DSS induced colitis in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-inflammatory activity of rWbL2 on mice peritoneal exudate cells was analyzed under in vitro condition. The colitis mice were treated intraperitoneally (i...
February 7, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Tegegn G Jaleta, Christian Rödelsperger, Babette Abanda, Albert Eisenbarth, Mbunkah D Achukwi, Alfons Renz, Adrian Streit
Onchocerca ochengi is a nodule-forming filarial nematode parasite of cattle. It is the closest known relative of the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus, with which it shares the black fly vector Simulium damnosum. Onchocerca sp. "Siisa" was described in black flies and in cattle and, based on limited mitochondrial sequence information, appeared to be about equally phylogenetically distant from O. ochengi and O. volvulus. Based on molecular genetic markers and apparent interbreeding, we later proposed that O...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
Indu Malhotra, A Desiree LaBeaud, Nathan Morris, Maxim McKibben, Peter Mungai, Eric Muchiri, Christopher L King, Charles H King
Background: Antenatal exposure to parasites can affect infants' subsequent responses to vaccination. The present study investigated how maternal prenatal infections and newborns' anti-parasite cytokine profiles relate to IgG responses to standard vaccination during infancy. Methods: 450 Kenyan women were tested for parasitic infections during pregnancy. Their newborns' responses to malaria, schistosome, and filaria antigens were assessed in cord blood (CB) lymphocytes...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Arvind Singh Kushwaha, K C Verma, M P Cariappa
Background: Routine annual filarial surveys are conducted amongst various categories of military personnel and their families as per policies in vogue in the Armed Forces. The neglect and inattention faced by this disease needs to be addressed in terms of policy, provisioning and processes while dealing with filariasis in the Armed Forces. Methods: Routine annual filarial survey was conducted in a garrison during the months of Nov and Dec in 2013 and 2014. Blood slides from 6305 and 10,162 persons were collected in 2013 and 2014 respectively...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Jorge Cano, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Simon J O'Hanlon, Afework H Tekle, Samuel Wanji, Honorat G Zouré, Maria P Rebollo, Rachel L Pullan
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are major filarial infections targeted for elimination in most endemic sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries by 2020/2025. The current control strategies are built upon community-directed mass administration of ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis, and ivermectin plus albendazole for LF, with evidence pointing towards the potential for novel drug regimens. When distributing microfilaricides however, considerable care is needed to minimise the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) in areas that are co-endemic for onchocerciasis or LF and loiasis...
January 31, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Joseph Pryce, Hayley E Mableson, Ramesh Choudhary, Basu Dev Pandey, Dambar Aley, Hannah Betts, Charles D Mackenzie, Louise A Kelly-Hope, Hugh Cross
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and leprosy are disabling infectious diseases endemic in Nepal. LF infection can lead to lymphoedema and hydrocoele, while secondary effects of leprosy infection include impairments to hands, eyes and feet. The disabling effects of both conditions can be managed through self-care and the supportive effects of self-help groups (SHGs). A network of SHGs exists for people affected by leprosy in four districts in Nepal's Central Development Region, however no such service exists for people affected by LF...
January 30, 2018: BMC Public Health
Noé Patrick M'bondoukwé, Eric Kendjo, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Jeanne Vanessa Koumba Lengongo, Christelle Offouga Mbouoronde, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Fousseyni Touré, Marielle Karine Bouyou-Akotet
BACKGROUND: Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon. METHODS: During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. In addition, blood and stool samples were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium, filarial roundworm, intestinal protozoan, and helminth infections...
January 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Darren A N Cook, Nils Pilotte, Corrado Minetti, Steven A Williams, Lisa J Reimer
Background: Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the testing of insect vectors for the presence of human pathogens, has the potential to provide a non-invasive and cost-effective method for monitoring the prevalence of disease within a community. Current MX methods require the capture and processing of large numbers of mosquitoes, particularly in areas of low endemicity, increasing the time, cost and labour required. Screening the excreta/feces (E/F) released from mosquitoes, rather than whole carcasses, improves the throughput by removing the need to discriminate vector species since non-vectors release ingested pathogens in E/F...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
Yaser Salim-Abadi, Mohammad Asadpour, Iraj Sharifi, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Mohammad Amin Gorouhi, Azim Paksa, Zohre Tayyebi, Abbas Aghaei-Afshar
Background: Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is an important vector for many human diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility level of larval and adult stages of Cu. quinquefasciatus to different groups of WHO recommended insecticides for vector control. Methods: Larval stages of the Culex mosquitoes were collected from their natural habitats in Rafsanjan County at Kerman Province, southeast of Iran in 2016. Insecticide susceptibility status of adult female Cx...
December 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
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