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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334340/identification-of-anti-filarial-leads-against-aspartate-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-of-brugia-malayi-combined-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-approaches
#1
Dhamodharan Prabhu, Sundaraj Rajamanikandan, Mathimaran Amala, Surekha Kanagarajan, Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan
Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating vector borne parasitic disease that infects human lymphatic system by nematode Brugia malayi. Currently available anti-filarial drugs are effective only on the larval stages of parasite. So far, no effective drugs are available for humans to treat filarial infections. In this regard, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASDase) in lysine biosynthetic pathway from Wolbachia endosymbiont Brugia malayi represents an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel anti-filarial agents...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331268/the-population-biology-and-transmission-dynamics-of-loa-loa
#2
REVIEW
Charles Whittaker, Martin Walker, Sébastien D S Pion, Cédric B Chesnais, Michel Boussinesq, María-Gloria Basáñez
Endemic to Central Africa, loiasis - or African eye worm (caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa) - affects more than 10 million people. Despite causing ocular and systemic symptoms, it has typically been considered a benign condition, only of public health relevance because it impedes mass drug administration-based interventions against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in co-endemic areas. Recent research has challenged this conception, demonstrating excess mortality associated with high levels of infection, implying that loiasis warrants attention as an intrinsic public health problem...
January 10, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324858/mapping-the-geographical-distribution-of-podoconiosis-in-cameroon-using-parasitological-serological-and-clinical-evidence-to-exclude-other-causes-of-lymphedema
#3
Kebede Deribe, Amuam Andrew Beng, Jorge Cano, Abdel Jelil Njouendo, Jerome Fru-Cho, Abong Raphael Awah, Mathias Esum Eyong, Patrick W Chounna Ndongmo, Emanuele Giorgi, David M Pigott, Nick Golding, Rachel L Pullan, Abdisalan M Noor, Fikre Enquselassie, Christopher J L Murray, Simon J Brooker, Simon I Hay, Peter Enyong, Melanie J Newport, Samuel Wanji, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324739/mansonella-perstans-microfilaremic-individuals-are-characterized-by-enhanced-type-2-helper-t-and-regulatory-t-and-b-cell-subsets-and-dampened-systemic-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#4
Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Nora Nganyewo Nghochuzie, Lucy Cho Nchang, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kathrin Arndts, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf
The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310700/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-filarial-and-leishmania-co-endemicity-in-two-ecologically-distinct-settings-in-mali
#5
Moussa Brema Sangare, Yaya Ibrahim Coulibaly, Siaka Yamoussa Coulibaly, Michel Emmanuel Coulibaly, Bourama Traore, Ilo Dicko, Ibrahim Moussa Sissoko, Sibiry Samake, Sekou Fantamady Traore, Thomas Bruce Nutman, Jesus Gilberto Valenzuela, Ousmane Faye, Shaden Kamhawi, Fabiano Oliveira, Roshanak Tolouei Semnani, Seydou Doumbia
BACKGROUND: Filariasis and leishmaniasis are two neglected tropical diseases in Mali. Due to distribution and associated clinical features, both diseases are of concern to public health. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with filarial (Wuchereria bancrofti and Mansonella perstans) and Leishmania major parasites in two ecologically distinct areas of Mali, the Kolokani district (villages of Tieneguebougou and Bougoudiana) in North Sudan Savanna area, and the district of Kolondieba (village of Boundioba) in the South Sudan Savanna area...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300732/combinations-of-registered-drugs-reduce-treatment-times-required-to-deplete-wolbachia-in-the-litomosoides-sigmodontis-mouse-model
#6
Sabine Specht, Kenneth M Pfarr, Sandra Arriens, Marc P Hübner, Ute Klarmann-Schulz, Marianne Koschel, Sonja Sternberg, Coralie Martin, Louise Ford, Mark J Taylor, Achim Hoerauf
Filarial parasites can be targeted by antibiotic treatment due to their unique endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia bacteria. This finding has led to successful treatment strategies in both, human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. A 4-6 week treatment course using doxycycline results in long-term sterility and safe macrofilaricidal activity in humans. However, current treatment times and doxycycline contraindications in children and pregnant women preclude widespread administration of doxycycline in public health control programs; therefore, the search for shorter anti-wolbachial regimens is a focus of ongoing research...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299998/myeloid-cell-recruitment-versus-local-proliferation-differentiates-susceptibility-from-resistance-to-filarial-infection
#7
Sharon M Campbell, Johanna A Knipper, Dominik Ruckerl, Conor M Finlay, Nicola Logan, Carlos M Minutti, Matthias Mack, Stephen J Jenkins, Matthew D Taylor, Judith E Allen
Both TH2-dependent helminth killing and suppression of the TH2 effector response have been attributed to macrophages (MΦ) activated by IL-4 (M(IL-4)). To investigate how M(IL-4) contribute to diverse infection outcomes, the MΦ compartment of susceptible BALB/c mice and more resistant C57BL/6 mice was profiled during infection of the pleural cavity with the filarial nematode, Litomosoides sigmodontis. C57BL/6 mice exhibited a profoundly expanded resident MΦ (resMΦ) population, which was gradually replenished from the bone marrow in an age-dependent manner...
January 4, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273505/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-prolyl-oligopeptidase-in-filarial-parasite-setaria-cervi
#8
Mohit Wadhawan, Savitri Tiwari, Shweta Sharma, Sushma Rathaur
A 75 KDa serine protease having prolyl oligopeptidase activity has been purified from Setaria cervi, a bovine filarial parasite. The MALDI-MS/MS analysis of the purified protein revealed 6 peptides showing nearest match S9A (prolyl oligopeptidase) family protein from Plesiocystis pacifica. The ScPOP was found to be unique compared to mammalian POP with respect to its kinetic properties. To elucidate its role, filarial parasites were exposed to specific inhibitor of POP, Z-Pro-prolinal (ZPP) for 8 h. The inhibition of POP induced calcium signaling via phospholipase c stimulation which further triggered mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in filarial parasites...
December 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250727/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-holarrhena-antidysenterica-l-wall-bark-extract-and-their-larvicidal-activity-against-dengue-and-filariasis-vectors
#9
Dinesh Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Veena Agrawal
The present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal potential of methanol, hexane, acetone, chloroform, and aqueous bark extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous bark extract against the third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. AgNPs were prepared by adding 10 ml of aqueous bark extract in 90 ml of 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. After 5 min of mixing, a change in color from yellow to dark brown occurred indicating the synthesis of AgNPs...
December 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224979/perceptions-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-for-the-prevention-and-control-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-conakry-republic-of-guinea
#10
Bernard L Kouassi, Aboulaye Barry, Kathrin Heitz-Tokpa, Stefanie J Krauth, Andre Goépogui, Mamadou S Baldé, Oumar Barry, Marie L Niamey, Moses J Bockarie, Benjamin G Koudou, Jürg Utzinger
Little is known about the perceptions, attitudes and practices of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Yet, such knowledge is important for an optimal design and implementation of setting-specific prevention and control measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data related to people's general experience with lymphatic filariasis, their perception of the causes of the disease, the onset of elephantiasis, care-seeking behaviour and the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis were collected by in-depth interviews with 85 respondents...
December 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217955/determinants-of-podoconiosis-a-case-control-study
#11
Berhanu Elfu Feleke
Background: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial swelling of lower extremity endemic in tropical regions, North America and India. The etiology and pathophysiology of the disease remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of Podoconiosis. Methods: Unmatched case control study design was conducted. The sample size was calculated using Epi-info soft ware: 95% CI, 85% power, control to case ratio of 2:1, expected frequency of barefoot among controls 50%, odds ratio of 1...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207343/development-of-novel-anti-filarial-agents-using-carbamo-dithioperoxo-thioate-derivatives
#12
Arin Gucchait, Nikhilesh Joardar, Pravat Kumar Parida, Priya Roy, Niladri Mukherjee, Ananya Dutta, Ravichandran Yesuvadian, Santi P SinhaBabu, Kuladip Jana, Anup Kumar Misra
A series of novel carbamo(dithioperoxo)thioate derivatives have been prepared in excellent yield using a significantly fast, one-pot three component reaction and experimented for their potential as anti-filarial agents against model filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Among 23 compounds (4a-w) evaluated for the anti-filarial activities, five compounds (4a, 4b, 4c, 4d and 4h) have shown promising anti-proliferative effects on the juvenile stage microfilariae (mf) as well as in adults in a time and dose dependent manner...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202080/a-practical-approach-for-scaling-up-the-alternative-strategy-for-the-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-loa-loa-endemic-countries-developing-an-action-plan
#13
Louise A Kelly-Hope, Michelle C Stanton, Honorat G M Zouré, Boniface E Kinvi, Alexei Mikhailov, Afework Tekle, Jonathan D King
Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne parasitic disease that is being targeted for elimination through mass drug administration (MDA). The co-distribution of Loa loa in Central Africa poses a significant barrier to the expansion of the MDA due to risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin that is routinely used. National LF programmes are yet to significantly scale up in co-endemic areas and need a practical approach to make preliminary decisions based on the mapping status and potential treatment strategies...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194776/endosymbiosis-and-its-significance-in-dermatology
#14
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187277/molecular-identification-of-onchocerca-spp-larvae-in-simulium-damnosum-sensu-lato-collected-in-northern-uganda
#15
Guilherme G Verocai, Hassan K Hassan, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Moses N Katabarwa, Stephen Begumisa, Philbert Clouds, James Katamanywa, Christine Nahabwe, Thomas R Unnasch
Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of larvae of other filarial species in Simulium damnosum sensu lato can distort estimates of transmission potential for Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa. However, studies conducted in foci of onchocerciasis in West Central Uganda indicated that larvae other than O. volvulus were not common in vectors collected there. Recent data collected in Northern Uganda revealed a striking discordance between estimates of the prevalence of flies carrying O. volvulus infective larvae obtained from molecular pool screening and dissection methods...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183411/an-arv1-homologue-from-a-filarial-nematode-is-functional-in-yeast
#16
H M L P B Herath, Y I N S Gunawardene, M Pathiranage, P D S U Wickramasinghe, P G T S Wickramatunge, R S Dassanayake
The transmembrane protein, ARV1, plays a key role in intracellular sterol homeostasis by controlling sterol distribution and cellular uptake. To date, only the ARV1s from yeast and humans have been characterized to some extent. In this study, the ARV1 of an animal filarial parasite, Setaria digitata (SdARV1), was characterized; its cDNA was 761 bp and encoded a protein of 217 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 25 kDa, containing a highly conserved ARV1 homology domain and three transmembrane domains in the bioinformatic analyses...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175490/impact-of-two-follow-up-schemes-on-morbidity-management-and-disability-prevention-mmdp-programme-for-filarial-lymphedema-in-matara-sri-lanka
#17
T Channa Yahathugoda, Mirani V Weerasooriya, Wilfred A Samarawickrema, Eisaku Kimura, Makoto Itoh
Alleviating morbidity due to lymphatic filariasis (LF)-especially in elderly patients who are rather ignorant-is presently the biggest challenge for the national filariasis campaign. We introduced two follow-up schemes and compared each other to address three key programmatic issues (1) locating patients, (2) educating patients, family members on practice of lymphoedema self-care (3) well sustained daily self-care. Hundred and seven lymphoedema patients were introduced to the new Community Home Based Care (CHBC) programme as a part of MMDP programme at their homes...
November 22, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165352/antibody-based-protective-immunity-against-helminth-infections-antibody-phage-display-derived-antibodies-against-bmr1-antigen
#18
Anizah Rahumatullah, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Rahmah Noordin, Theam Soon Lim
Helminth parasite infections are significantly impacting global health, with more than two billion infections worldwide with a high morbidity rate. The complex life cycle of the nematodes has made host immune response studies against these parasites extremely difficult. In this study, we utilized two phage antibody libraries; the immune and naïve library were used to identify single chain fragment variable (scFv) clones against a specific filarial antigen (BmR1). The V-gene analysis of isolated scFv clones will help shed light on preferential VDJ gene segment usage against the filarial BmR1 antigen in healthy and infected states...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149303/changes-in-cytokine-filarial-antigen-and-dna-levels-associated-with-adverse-events-following-treatment-of-lymphatic-filariasis
#19
Britt J Andersen, Jessica Kumar, Kurt Curtis, Nelly Sanuku, Samson Satofan, Christopher L King, Peter U Fischer, Gary J Weil
Background: Mild to moderate adverse events (AEs) are common after treatment of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and pose a major challenge for the global LF elimination program. We studied changes in cytokine levels and filarial worm components in plasma of subjects with and without AEs following treatment of LF. Methods: Participants (N=24) were hospitalized and monitored for AEs following treatment. Cytokines (27), filarial DNA, circulating filarial antigen (CFA), and immune complexes were measured in plasma samples collected before and after treatment...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143669/considerations-for-using-minocycline-vs-doxycycline-for-treatment-of-canine-heartworm-disease
#20
Mark G Papich
BACKGROUND: Doxycycline has been considered the first drug of choice for treating Wolbachia, a member of the Rickettsiaceae, which has a symbiotic relationship with filarial worms, including heartworms. Wolbachia, is susceptible to tetracyclines, which have been used as adjunctive treatments for heartworm disease. Treatment with doxycycline reduces Wolbachia numbers in all stages of heartworms and improves outcomes and decreased microfilaremia in dogs treated for heartworm disease. The American Heartworm Society recommends treatment with doxycycline in dogs diagnosed with heartworm disease at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily for 28 days...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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