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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100285/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-setaria-digitata-nematoda-setariidae-from-china
#1
G-H Liu, J-Y Li, X-Q Zhu
Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, horses and sheep, resulting in substantial economic losses to livestock farmers. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of S. digitata from China was determined, characterized and compared with that of S. digitata from Sri Lanka. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.3% between S. digitata from China and Sri Lanka, and the complete mt genome sequence of S. digitata from China was slightly shorter (25 bp) than that from Sri Lanka...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087534/mechanisms-of-horizontal-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-wolbachia-spp-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Pamela M White, Jose E Pietri, Alain Debec, Shelbi Russell, Bhavin Patel, William Sullivan
: Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germline, though horizontal transmission has also been documented. Several studies indicate that Wolbachia is capable of transfer between somatic and germline cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078772/skin-cleansing-and-emolliating-for-older-people-a-quasi-experimental-pilot-study
#3
Jill Brooks, Fiona Cowdell, Steven J Ersser, Eric D Gardiner
AIMS: The aims of this study were to (i) assess the effect of low-cost hygiene and emollient regimens on the skin barrier function (SBF) of people aged >65 year with xerosis (dry skin) on their lower legs; (ii) to assess the utility of portable measures of skin barrier function in terms of stratum corneum hydration (SCH) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in community settings; and iii) to provide evidence for a randomised controlled trial on the treatment of adults in a resource-poor country with dry skin on their lower legs which causes and exacerbates the skin disease podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis)...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056021/comparison-of-doxycycline-minocycline-doxycycline-plus-albendazole-and-albendazole-alone-in-their-efficacy-against-onchocerciasis-in-a-randomized-open-label-pilot-trial
#4
Ute Klarmann-Schulz, Sabine Specht, Alexander Yaw Debrah, Linda Batsa, Nana Kwame Ayisi-Boateng, Jubin Osei-Mensah, Yusif Mubarik, Peter Konadu, Arcangelo Ricchiuto, Rolf Fimmers, Sandra Arriens, Bettina Dubben, Louise Ford, Mark Taylor, Achim Hoerauf
: The search for new macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis that can be administered in shorter regimens than required for doxycycline (DOX, 200mg/d given for 4-6 weeks), identified minocycline (MIN) with superior efficacy to DOX. Further reduction in the treatment regimen may be achieved with co-administration with standard anti-filarial drugs. Therefore a randomized, open-label, pilot trial was carried out in an area in Ghana endemic for onchocerciasis, comprising 5 different regimens: the standard regimen DOX 200mg/d for 4 weeks (DOX 4w, N = 33), the experimental regimens MIN 200mg/d for 3 weeks (MIN 3w; N = 30), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks plus albendazole (ALB) 800mg/d for 3 days (DOX 3w + ALB 3d, N = 32), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks (DOX 3w, N = 31) and ALB 800mg for 3 days (ALB 3d, N = 30)...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053918/pulmonary-localization-of-mansonella-perstans-in-a-16-months-old-male-patient-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-bukavu-democratic-republic-of-congo
#5
Landry Kabego, Joe Bwija Kasengi, Patrick Mirindi, Vurayai Ruhanya, David Lupande, André Bulabula, Patrick Ngoma
INTRODUCTION: Mansonella perstans is a human filarial parasite transmitted by biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the genus Culicoides and it is widely spread in sub-Saharan Africa. While most cases are asymptomatic, mansonelliasis can be associated with angioedema, arthralgia, swellings, pain in the scrotum or in serous cavities such as the pleura, the peritoneum, the pericardium, etc. Mansonelliasis can be really hard to treat, but it has been shown that an intensive treatment using albendazole can clear the parasite...
December 2016: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045905/human-leukocytes-kill-brugia-malayi-microfilariae-independently-of-dna-based-extracellular-trap-release
#6
Ciaran J McCoy, Barbara J Reaves, Steeve Giguère, Ruby Coates, Balázs Rada, Adrian J Wolstenholme
BACKGROUND: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori infect over 100 million people worldwide and are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. Some parasite carriers are amicrofilaremic whilst others facilitate mosquito-based disease transmission through blood-circulating microfilariae (Mf). Recent findings, obtained largely from animal model systems, suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) contribute to parasitic nematode-directed type 2 immune responses. When exposed to certain pathogens PMNs release extracellular traps (NETs) in the form of chromatin loaded with various antimicrobial molecules and proteases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032096/serological-and-molecular-detection-of-dirofilaria-species-in-stray-dogs-and-investigation-of-wolbachia-dna-by-pcr-in-turkey
#7
Sami Simsek, Ayse Turkan Ciftci
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are the most common species of filarial nematodes described in the dogs. A single-step multiplex PCR was applied to detect and differentiate simultaneously and unequivocally D. immitis and D. repens on DNA extracted from canine peripheral blood and besides to detect the seroprevalance of D. immitis by ELISA in Elazig Province, Turkey. A PCR detection of the Wolbachia, which plays an important role in D. immitis biology and contributes to the inflammatory pathology of the heartworm, was also applied for the first time in Turkey...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030352/characterization-of-immunoreactive-proteins-of-setaria-cervi-isolated-by-preparative-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis
#8
Priyanka Priyadarshi, Piyush Dravid, Inayat Hussain Sheikh, Sunita Saxena, Ashish Tandon, Deep C Kaushal, Shakir Ali, Nuzhat A Kaushal
Filarial parasites are complex mixtures of antigenic proteins and characterization of these antigenic molecules is essential to identify the diagnostically important filaria-specific antigens. In the present study, we have fractionated the somatic extracts from adults of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) on preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tested the immunoreactivity of the separated gel fractions with polyclonal antibodies against filarial excretory-secretory antigens as well as filarial patients sera...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009239/central-nervous-system-filariasis-masquerading-as-a-glioma-case-report
#9
Adesh Shrivastava, Prateek Arora, Akriti Khare, Garima Goel, Neelkamal Kapoor
Filariasis, an endemic zoonosis in the Southeast Asia region, has been reported to affect various organs as well as the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammatory reactions mimicking those from neoplastic lesions clinically and radiologically have been reported in the breast and urinary bladder. To date, a CNS manifestation of filarial infestation has been reported in the form of meningoencephalitis. The authors here present an interesting case of a young man presenting in status epilepticus, which on radiological evaluation appeared to be a glioma...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004792/nod2-dependent-neutrophil-recruitment-is-required-for-early-protective-immune-responses-against-infectious-litomosoides-sigmodontis-l3-larvae
#10
Jesuthas Ajendra, Sabine Specht, Sebastian Ziewer, Andrea Schiefer, Kenneth Pfarr, Marijo Parčina, Thomas A Kufer, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P Hübner
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) recognizes muramyl dipeptide (MDP) of bacterial cell walls, triggering NFκB-induced pro-inflammation. As most human pathogenic filariae contain Wolbachia endobacteria that synthesize the MDP-containing cell wall precursor lipid II, NOD2's role during infection with the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis was investigated. In NFκB reporter-cells, worm-extract containing Wolbachia induced NOD2 and NOD1. NOD2-deficient mice infected with L...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992545/attempts-to-image-the-early-inflammatory-response-during-infection-with-the-lymphatic-filarial-nematode-brugia-pahangi-in-a-mouse-model
#11
Elmarie Myburgh, Ryan Ritchie, Amy Goundry, Kerry O'Neill, Francesco Marchesi, Eileen Devaney
Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987881/development-of-chitosan-based-gold-nanomaterial-as-an-efficient-antifilarial-agent-a-mechanistic-approach
#12
Swadhin K Saha, Priya Roy, Maloy K Mondal, Debiprasad Roy, Prajna Gayen, Pranesh Chowdhury, Santi P Sinha Babu
The gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been synthesized biogenically by using black pepper (Piper nigrum) extract according to the principles of green chemistry in presence and absence of a biopolymer, chitosan. A comprehensive study (up to cellular level) on the antifilarial (against Setaria cervi) activity of AuNPs has been made for the first time with a view to use it clinically. The bioactivity of biopolymer capped biogenic AuNP increases significantly compared to simple biogenic AuNP. The biopolymer plays an important role in inspiring AuNP through its inherent positive charges and hydrophobicity...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977689/tick-borne-diseases-in-turkey-a-review-based-on-one-health-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Abdullah Inci, Alparslan Yildirim, Onder Duzlu, Mehmet Doganay, Serap Aksoy
The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD])...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923052/filariae-retrovirus-co-infection-in-mice-is-associated-with-suppressed-virus-specific-igg-immune-response-and-higher-viral-loads
#14
Kirsten Katrin Dietze, Ulf Dittmer, Daniel Karim Koudaimi, Simone Schimmer, Martina Reitz, Minka Breloer, Wiebke Hartmann
Worldwide more than 2 billion people are infected with helminths, predominantly in developing countries. Co-infections with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common due to the geographical overlap of these pathogens. Helminth and viral infections induce antagonistic cytokine responses in their hosts. Helminths shift the immune system to a type 2-dominated immune response, while viral infections skew the cytokine response towards a type 1 immune response. Moreover, chronic helminth infections are often associated with a generalized suppression of the immune system leading to prolonged parasite survival, and also to a reduced defence against unrelated pathogens...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912789/dynamics-of-antigenemia-and-transmission-intensity-of-wuchereria-bancrofti-following-cessation-of-mass-drug-administration-in-a-formerly-highly-endemic-region-of-mali
#15
Yaya I Coulibaly, Siaka Y Coulibaly, Housseini Dolo, Siaka Konate, Abdallah A Diallo, Salif S Doumbia, Lamine Soumaoro, Michel E Coulibaly, Ilo Dicko, Moussa B Sangare, Benoit Dembele, Modibo Sangare, Massitan Dembele, Yeya T Touré, Louise Kelly-Hope, Katja Polman, Dominique Kyelem, Sekou F Traore, Moses Bockarie, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman
BACKGROUND: After seven annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) in six Malian villages highly endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti (overall prevalence rate of 42.7%), treatment was discontinued in 2008. Surveillance was performed over the ensuing 5 years to detect recrudescence. METHODS: Circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was measured using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT) and Og4C3 ELISA in 6-7 year-olds. Antibody to the W. bancrofti infective larval stage (L3) antigen, Wb123, was tested in the same population in 2012...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890076/dirofilaria-immitis-exhibits-sex-and-stage-specific-differences-in-excretory-secretory-mirna-and-protein-profiles
#16
Lucienne Tritten, Damian Clarke, Scott Timmins, Tom McTier, Timothy G Geary
The canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis releases excretory/secretory molecules into its host and in culture. We report analyses of the types, amounts and stage-dependence of microRNAs and proteins found in D. immitis culture media recovered after incubating 800,000 microfilariae for 6days, 500L3 and 500L4 for 7days, as well as 40 adult females and 40 adult males for 48h, all separately. In addition, the presence of exosome-like particles was established by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Our results are in concordance with the D...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881553/stage-specific-transcriptome-and-proteome-analyses-of-the-filarial-parasite-onchocerca-volvulus-and-its-wolbachia-endosymbiont
#17
Sasisekhar Bennuru, James A Cotton, Jose M C Ribeiro, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Nancy Holroyd, Amruta Mhashilkar, Douglas M Molina, Arlo Z Randall, Adam D Shandling, Thomas R Unnasch, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman, Thomas B Nutman
: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv)...
November 23, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876997/scope-of-detectability-of-circulating-antigens-of-human-lymphatic-filarial-parasite-wuchereria-bancrofti-with-smaller-amount-of-serum-by-og4c3-assay-its-application-in-lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-programme
#18
K Athisaya Mary, K Krishnamoorthy, S L Hoti
Filarial antigen detection is an appropriate epidemiological indicator for mapping lymphatic filariasis and impact evaluation of filariasis elimination programme in view of low sensitivity of parasite detection. Monoclonal antibody-based Og4C3 immunological test requires 100 µl serum, which is difficult to collect by finger prick method during community based surveys. Hence, we tested lesser volume of serum compared to standard volume of 100 µl to compare its sensitivity and specificity in detecting the circulating filarial antigens...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875706/filariasis-in-mandible-and-maxilla-a-rare-entity-first-report-of-a-case
#19
Sthitaprajna Lenka, Nitish Kumar Panda, Sobhan Mishra, Karishma Rathor
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, categorized as nematodes, are responsible for causing lymphatic filariasis. Even though it can affect individuals of all age groups and both genders, it predominantly affects people of low socioeconomic strata. The filarial worms dwell in the subcutaneous tissues and lymphatics of human hosts. In India, W bancrofti is the primary nematode to cause filariasis, which is transmitted through the bite of blood-sucking infected female anopheles mosquitoes. Lymphangitis, leading to elephantiasis of the legs, arms, scrotum, and breast, is the most salient clinical feature of lymphatic filariasis...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869790/the-genome-of-onchocerca-volvulus-agent-of-river-blindness
#20
James A Cotton, Sasisekhar Bennuru, Alexandra Grote, Bhavana Harsha, Alan Tracey, Robin Beech, Stephen R Doyle, Matthew Dunn, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Nancy Holroyd, Taisei Kikuchi, Olivia Lambert, Amruta Mhashilkar, Prudence Mutowo, Nirvana Nursimulu, Jose M C Ribeiro, Matthew B Rogers, Eleanor Stanley, Lakshmipuram S Swapna, Isheng J Tsai, Thomas R Unnasch, Denis Voronin, John Parkinson, Thomas B Nutman, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew Berriman, Sara Lustigman
Human onchocerciasis is a serious neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that can lead to blindness and chronic disability. Control of the disease relies largely on mass administration of a single drug, and the development of new drugs and vaccines depends on a better knowledge of parasite biology. Here, we describe the chromosomes of O. volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. We provide the highest-quality sequence assembly for any parasitic nematode to date, giving a glimpse into the evolution of filarial parasite chromosomes and proteomes...
November 21, 2016: Nature Microbiology
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