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I Biasato, M Tursi, S Zanet, E Longato, M T Capucchio
A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat suddenly died. Gross examination revealed severe right-sided haemothorax with blood clots, four adult filarial nematodes in the blood clots and the caudal vena cava and haemorrhage dissecting into the tunica media of the right pulmonary artery. Histopathological investigation showed fibrosis of the tunica intima and disorganization/fragmentation of the elastic fibres accompanied by fibrous tissue deposition in the tunica media of both branches of pulmonary artery...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Peter U Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
Juan F Quintana, Simon A Babayan, Amy H Buck
Parasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to communicate with their hosts in order to survive and successfully establish an infection. The transfer of RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has recently been described as a mechanism that could contribute to this communication in filarial nematodes. It has been shown that these EVs are loaded with several types of RNAs, including microRNAs, leading to the hypothesis that parasites could actively use these molecules to manipulate host gene expression and to the exciting prospect that these pathways could result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
October 17, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Amanda M V Brown, Sulochana K Wasala, Dana K Howe, Amy B Peetz, Inga A Zasada, Dee R Denver
Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sébastien D Pion, Céline Montavon, Cédric B Chesnais, Joseph Kamgno, Samuel Wanji, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Since the mid-2000s, the immunochromatographic card test (ICT), a point-of-care test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigens (CFAs), has been the backbone for mapping and monitoring lymphatic filariasis (LF) worldwide. Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with Loa loa microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between L. loa and CFA using additional diagnostic tools (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], Og4C3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IgG4 antibodies to Wb123 assays) to demonstrate the relationship between L...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Esra Yilmaz, Moritz Fritzenwanker, Nikola Pantchev, Mathias Lendner, Sirichit Wongkamchai, Domenico Otranto, Inge Kroidl, Martin Dennebaum, Thanh Hoa Le, Tran Anh Le, Sabrina Ramünke, Roland Schaper, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Sven Poppert, Jürgen Krücken
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous dirofilariosis is a canine mosquito-borne zoonosis that can cause larva migrans disease in humans. Dirofilaria repens is considered an emerging pathogen occurring with high prevalence in Mediterranean areas and many parts of tropical Asia. In Hong Kong, a second species, Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis, has been reported. The present study aimed to compare mitochondrial genomes from these parasites and to obtain population genetic information. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Complete mitochondrial genomes were obtained by PCR and Sanger sequencing or ILLUMINA sequencing for four worms...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Stephen R Doyle, Samuel Armoo, Alfons Renz, Mark J Taylor, Mike Yaw Osei-Atweneboana, Warwick N Grant
BACKGROUND: Genetic surveillance of the human filarial parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, from onchocerciasis endemic regions will ideally focus on genotyping individual infective larval stages collected from their intermediate host, Simuliid blackflies. However, blackflies also transmit other Onchocerca species, including the cattle parasite O. ochengi, which are difficult to distinguish from the human parasite based on morphological characteristics alone. This study describes a versatile approach to discriminate between O...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Vijaya Lakshmi Nag, Manodeep Sen, Nihar Ranjan Dash, R Bansal, Manoj Kumar, Anand Kumar Maurya
There are few reports of "microfilaria in the urine." We report an elderly woman with gross hematuria who was being investigated for urinary tract tuberculosis. Three consecutive urine samples showed microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti. However, she did not have chyluria. Treatment with diethylcarbamazine cleared up the hematuria within 3 days. Chyluria, hematuria, and hematochyluria are problems of Bancroftian filariasis reported worldwide. The literature review was made to present a simplified way for management...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Freda Osei Akoto
BACKGROUND: There is compelling evidence that not only do anti-filarials significantly reduce larval forms, but that host immune responses also contribute to the clearance of filarial parasites; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. MAIN TEXT: Filarial infections caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia species (lymphatic filariasis) and Onchocerca volvulus (onchocerciasis) affect almost 200 million individuals worldwide and pose major public health challenges in endemic regions...
October 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jean Frantz Lemoine, Anne Marie Desormeaux, Franck Monestime, Carl Renad Fayette, Luccene Desir, Abdel Nasser Direny, Sarah Carciunoiu, Lior Miller, Alaine Knipes, Patrick Lammie, Penelope Smith, Melissa Stockton, Lily Trofimovich, Kalpana Bhandari, Richard Reithinger, Kathryn Crowley, Eric Ottesen, Margaret Baker
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have been targeted since 2000 in Haiti, with a strong mass drug administration (MDA) program led by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and its collaborating international partners. By 2012, Haiti's neglected tropical disease (NTD) program had reached full national scale, and with such consistently good epidemiological coverage that it is now able to stop treatment for LF throughout almost all of the country. Essential to this success have been in the detail of how MDAs were implemented...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
James W Kazura
Onchocerciasis is one of the two filarial helminth "neglected tropical diseases" (the other being lymphatic filariasis) that has been targeted for geographically local elimination followed by global eradication. The last known areas of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Americas have recently been reported to be eliminated. In contrast, achieving metrics for interruption of O. volvulus transmission in Africa, thus removing the requirement for continued monitoring and mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin, has been more challenging...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Annette C Kuesel
Onchocerciasis is a parasitic, vector borne disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. More than 99% of the population at risk of infection live in Africa. Onchocerciasis control was initiated in West Africa in 1974 with vector control, later complemented by ivermectin mass drug administration and in the other African endemic countries in 1995 with annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI.) This has significantly reduced infection prevalence. Together with proof-of-concept for onchocerciasis elimination with annual CDTI from foci in Senegal and Mali, this has resulted in targeting onchocerciasis elimination in selected African countries by 2020 and in 80% of African countries by 2025...
May 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Thangadurai Mani, Catherine Bourguinat, Kathy Keller, Elena Carreton, Andrew Peregrine, Roger K Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial parasite, causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and wild canids. The macrocyclic lactone (ML) class of drugs has been used to prevent heartworm infection. There is confirmed ML resistance in D. immitis and thus there is an urgent need to find new anthelmintics that could prevent and/or control the disease. Targeting ion channels of D. immitis for drug design has obvious advantages. These channels, present in the nematode nervous system, control movement, feeding, mating and respond to environmental cues which are necessary for survival of the parasite...
July 1, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
N P Amdare, V K Khatri, R S P Yadav, A Tarnekar, K Goswami, M V R Reddy
Epidemiological and experimental evidence has supported the concept of using helminths as alternative bio-therapeutic agents in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In the current study, two filarial proteins, recombinant Wuchereria bancrofti L2 (rWbL2) and Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT-2) have been investigated, individually and in combination, for their therapeutic potential in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D. The rWbL2 and rBmALT-2 proteins, when administered individually or in combination, have resulted in lowering of the blood glucose levels and reducing the incidence of T1D in mice...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Sandip Mukherjee, Samir Bhattacharya, Santi Prasad Sinha Babu
Lymphatic filariasis is a vector borne parasitic disease results morbidities, disabilities and socio-economic loss in each year globally. Inflammatory consequences associated with any form of filariasis have drawn special attention. However, the molecular insight behind inflammation of host macrophage (MФ) is considered as one of the shaded areas in filarial research. Herein major emphasis was given to study the signaling pathway of MФ inflammation induced by surface proteins (SPs) of filarial parasite through in vitro and in vivo approaches...
September 23, 2016: Parasite Immunology
A M Radwan, N E Ahmed, L M Elakabawy, M Y Ramadan, R S Elmadawy
AIM: The primary objective of the present study is to determine the commonness of filarial parasites in donkeys in Egypt, identification of the filarial species tainting them and the delivered pathogenic impact connected with the infestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 188 donkeys were examined for filarial infection. The blood samples and scraping of the cutaneous bleeding lesions were collected, stained, and inspected for microfilariae all through the period from March 2011 to October 2013...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Anastasia Diakou, Emmanouil Kapantaidakis, Androniki Tamvakis, Vassilios Giannakis, Nina Strus
BACKGROUND: The nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are enzootic in Greece. In the light of evidence of dirofilariosis spreading to new areas around the world, the aim of the present study was to update and enrich the current knowledge on the prevalence of Dirofilaria infections in dogs in Greece, to assess the risk factors of heartworm infection, and to initiate the drawing of the epizootiological map of canine dirofilariosis, investigating Dirofilaria infections in five locations along the north-south axis of the country, i...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ana Hernández-González, Laura Moya, María J Perteguer, Zaida Herrador, Rufino Nguema, Justino Nguema, Pilar Aparicio, Agustín Benito, Teresa Gárate
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted through infected blackflies (Simulium spp.). Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) used to show a high endemicity for onchocerciasis. During the last years, the disease control programmes using different larvicides and ivermectin administration have considerably reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. Based on this new epidemiological scenario, in the present work we aimed to assess the impact of the strategies applied against onchocerciasis in Bioko Island by an evaluation of IgG4 antibodies specific for recombinant Ov-16 in ELISA...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Sandra Ramos-Lopez, Ma Fabiola León-Galván, Mariana Salas-Alatorre, Alma A Lechuga-Arana, Mauricio Valencia-Posadas, Abner J Gutiérrez-Chávez
Dirofilaria repens is the causative zoonotic agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis. Although the American continent is considered currently free of D. repens infections, in the past few years there have been some reports suggesting the presence of this agent in the Americas. In Guanajuato, Mexico, there is a report of the presence of D. repens. To determine whether this parasite is really present in Guanajuato, a total of 177 EDTA blood samples from dogs were tested using the modified Knott's technique. Using this technique, we found 15 positive samples, which were then analyzed using the PCR technique, with a panfilarial set of primers and a specific primer pair for D...
September 15, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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