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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208221/increased-fas-ligand-expression-of-peripheral-b-1-cells-correlated-with-cd4-t-cell-apoptosis-in-filarial-infected-patients
#1
Rashmi Mishra, Santosh K Panda, Prakash K Sahoo, Bal, A K Satapathy
Cellular hypo responsiveness observed during helminth infections are attributed to factors like Antigen presenting cells (APC) dysfunction, increased Interleukin-10(IL-10), regulatory T cells and induction of CD4(+) T (Th) cell apoptosis.. Increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of B-1 cells and induction of apoptosis of Th cells by FasL expressing B-1 cells due to helminth infection was demonstrated in murine model of helminth infection where as profile of FasL expression, Th cell apoptosis and correlation between these two populations of cells in clinical filariasis remain unknown...
February 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199317/colorimetric-tests-for-diagnosis-of-filarial-infection-and-vector-surveillance-using-non-instrumented-nucleic-acid-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-nina-lamp
#2
Catherine B Poole, Zhiru Li, Andy Alhassan, Dylan Guelig, Steven Diesburg, Nathan A Tanner, Yinhua Zhang, Thomas C Evans, Paul LaBarre, Samuel Wanji, Robert A Burton, Clotilde K S Carlow
Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Nucleic acid-based molecular assays offer high levels of specificity and sensitivity, and can be used to detect infection in both humans and vectors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182103/filarial-abscess-aspiration-of-adult-gravid-female-worm-from-submandibular-region-an-unusual-presentation
#3
Ruquiya Afrose, Mohammad Feroz Alam, Syed Shamshad Ahmad, Mohammed Naim
Microfilaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is an endemic problem in India. Wuchereria bancrofti is the most common filarial infection. In some cases, microfilariae and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine-needle aspirates of various lesions; detection of microfilaria from subcutaneous site or from abscess site is even rarer. We here report an unusual case of Bancroftian microfilariasis in a 68-year-old female coming from endemic area presenting with right submandibular abscess...
January 2017: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168837/immunity-in-filarial-infections-lessons-from-animal-models-and-human-studies
#4
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno
Our understanding of immunity to filarial infection is enigmatic and continues to be passionately debated. The mechanisms whereby filarial nematodes are killed in vivo and how these parasites avoid these mechanisms are poorly understood. Although vaccination studies in permissive animals took off seven decades ago, the exact mechanisms driving protective immunity is extensively being investigated. Currently, little is known regarding the collective functions or counter-regulatory mechanisms of the antibody isotypes in filarial infection with respect to protective immunity...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149012/filarial-abundant-larval-transcript-protein-alt-2-an-immunomodulatory-therapeutic-agent-for-type-1-diabetes
#5
Sridhar M Reddy, Pooja M Reddy, Nitin Amdare, Vishal Khatri, Aaditya Tarnekar, Kalyan Goswami, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) that accounts for about 5-10 % of all diabetes cases results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It is characterized by severe inflammatory reaction mediated by pronounced T helper type-1 response. Parasitic infections having the ability to skew the host immune responses towards type-2 type as a part of their defense mechanism are able to induce protection against autoimmune diseases like T1D. Hence, the present study is undertaken to explore a recombinant abundant larval transcript protein of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (rBmALT-2), a known anti-inflammatory molecule for its therapeutic effect on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D in mice...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129759/demography-maternal-health-and-the-epidemiology-of-malaria-and-other-major-infectious-diseases-in-the-rural-department-tsamba-magotsi-ngounie-province-in-central-african-gabon
#6
R Zoleko Manego, G Mombo-Ngoma, M Witte, J Held, M Gmeiner, T Gebru, B Tazemda, J Mischlinger, M Groger, B Lell, A A Adegnika, S T Agnandji, P G Kremsner, B Mordmüller, M Ramharter, P B Matsiegui
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations. To address this question for a remote rural region located in the central African rainforest region of Gabon, this study was conducted to assess reasons for health care attendance and to characterize the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases for the department of Tsamba Magotsi...
January 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126543/lessons-from-the-genomes-and-transcriptomes-of-filarial-nematodes
#7
Alexandra Grote, Sara Lustigman, Elodie Ghedin
Human filarial infections are a leading cause of morbidity in the developing world. While a small arsenal of drugs exists to treat these infections, there remains a tremendous need for the development of additional interventions. Recent genome sequences and transcriptome analyses of filarial nematodes have provided novel biological insight and allowed for the prediction of novel drug targets as well as potential vaccine candidates. In this review, we discuss the currently available data, insights gained into the metabolism of these organisms, and how the filaria field can move forward by leveraging these data...
January 23, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125577/identification-of-three-immunodominant-motifs-with-atypical-isotype-profile-scattered-over-the-onchocerca-volvulus-proteome
#8
Ole Lagatie, Bieke Van Dorst, Lieven J Stuyver
Understanding the immune response upon infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the mechanisms that evolved in this parasite to evade immune mediated elimination is essential to expand the toolbox available for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines development. Using high-density peptide microarrays we scanned the proteome-wide linear epitope repertoire in Cameroonian onchocerciasis patients and healthy controls from Southern Africa which led to the identification of 249 immunodominant antigenic peptides...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120100/molecular-identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-wuchereria-bancrofti-from-human-blood-samples-in-egypt
#9
Iman R Abdel-Shafi, Eman Y Shoieb, Samar S Attia, José M Rubio, Thuy-Huong Ta-Tang, Ayman A El-Badry
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W...
January 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118850/humans-from-wuchereria-bancrofti-endemic-area-elicit-substantial-immune-response-to-proteins-of-the-filarial-parasite-brugia-malayi-and-its-endosymbiont-wolbachia
#10
Ruchi Jha, Mamta Gangwar, Dhanvantri Chahar, Anand Setty Balakrishnan, Mahendra Pal Singh Negi, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: In the past, immune responses to several Brugia malayi immunodominant antigens have been characterized in filaria-infected populations; however, little is known regarding Wolbachia proteins. We earlier cloned and characterized few B. malayi (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, Bm-TPP and heavy chain myosin, BmAF-Myo) and Wolbachia (translation initiation factor-1, Wol Tl IF-1 and NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase, wBm-LigA) proteins and investigated the immune responses, which they triggered in animal models...
January 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117548/filarial-dance-in-the-axillary-lymph-node
#11
Zuhal Bayramoglu, Ravza Yılmaz, Ahmet Gocmez, Artur Salmaslıoglu, Gulden Acunas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111713/plasma-derived-parasitic-micrornas-have-insufficient-concentrations-to-be-used-as-diagnostic-biomarker-for-detection-of-onchocerca-volvulus-infection-or-treatment-monitoring-using-lna-based-rt-qpcr
#12
Ole Lagatie, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alex Debrah, Lieven J Stuyver
River blindness, caused by infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of people. There is a clear need for diagnostic tools capable of identifying infected patients, but that can also be used for monitoring disease progression and treatment efficacy. Plasma-derived parasitic microRNAs have been suggested as potential candidates for such diagnostic tools. We have investigated whether these parasitic microRNAs are present in sufficient quantity in plasma of Onchocerca-infected patients to be used as a diagnostic biomarker for detection of O...
January 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100285/characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-setaria-digitata-nematoda-setariidae-from-china
#13
G-H Liu, J-Y Li, X-Q Zhu
Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, horses and sheep, resulting in substantial economic losses to livestock farmers. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of S. digitata from China was determined, characterized and compared with that of S. digitata from Sri Lanka. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.3% between S. digitata from China and Sri Lanka, and the complete mt genome sequence of S. digitata from China was slightly shorter (25 bp) than that from Sri Lanka...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087534/mechanisms-of-horizontal-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-wolbachia-spp-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Pamela M White, Jose E Pietri, Alain Debec, Shelbi Russell, Bhavin Patel, William Sullivan
: Wolbachia is an intracellular endosymbiont present in most arthropod and filarial nematode species. Transmission between hosts is primarily vertical, taking place exclusively through the female germline, though horizontal transmission has also been documented. Several studies indicate that Wolbachia is capable of transfer between somatic and germline cells during nematode development and in adult flies. However, the mechanisms underlying horizontal cell-to-cell transfer remain largely unexplored...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078772/skin-cleansing-and-emolliating-for-older-people-a-quasi-experimental-pilot-study
#15
Jill Brooks, Fiona Cowdell, Steven J Ersser, Eric D Gardiner
AIMS: The aims of this study were to (i) assess the effect of low-cost hygiene and emollient regimens on the skin barrier function (SBF) of people aged >65 year with xerosis (dry skin) on their lower legs; (ii) to assess the utility of portable measures of skin barrier function in terms of stratum corneum hydration (SCH) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in community settings; and iii) to provide evidence for a randomised controlled trial on the treatment of adults in a resource-poor country with dry skin on their lower legs which causes and exacerbates the skin disease podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis)...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056021/comparison-of-doxycycline-minocycline-doxycycline-plus-albendazole-and-albendazole-alone-in-their-efficacy-against-onchocerciasis-in-a-randomized-open-label-pilot-trial
#16
Ute Klarmann-Schulz, Sabine Specht, Alexander Yaw Debrah, Linda Batsa, Nana Kwame Ayisi-Boateng, Jubin Osei-Mensah, Yusif Mubarik, Peter Konadu, Arcangelo Ricchiuto, Rolf Fimmers, Sandra Arriens, Bettina Dubben, Louise Ford, Mark Taylor, Achim Hoerauf
: The search for new macrofilaricidal drugs against onchocerciasis that can be administered in shorter regimens than required for doxycycline (DOX, 200mg/d given for 4-6 weeks), identified minocycline (MIN) with superior efficacy to DOX. Further reduction in the treatment regimen may be achieved with co-administration with standard anti-filarial drugs. Therefore a randomized, open-label, pilot trial was carried out in an area in Ghana endemic for onchocerciasis, comprising 5 different regimens: the standard regimen DOX 200mg/d for 4 weeks (DOX 4w, N = 33), the experimental regimens MIN 200mg/d for 3 weeks (MIN 3w; N = 30), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks plus albendazole (ALB) 800mg/d for 3 days (DOX 3w + ALB 3d, N = 32), DOX 200mg/d for 3 weeks (DOX 3w, N = 31) and ALB 800mg for 3 days (ALB 3d, N = 30)...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053918/pulmonary-localization-of-mansonella-perstans-in-a-16-months-old-male-patient-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-bukavu-democratic-republic-of-congo
#17
Landry Kabego, Joe Bwija Kasengi, Patrick Mirindi, Vurayai Ruhanya, David Lupande, André Bulabula, Patrick Ngoma
INTRODUCTION: Mansonella perstans is a human filarial parasite transmitted by biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the genus Culicoides and it is widely spread in sub-Saharan Africa. While most cases are asymptomatic, mansonelliasis can be associated with angioedema, arthralgia, swellings, pain in the scrotum or in serous cavities such as the pleura, the peritoneum, the pericardium, etc. Mansonelliasis can be really hard to treat, but it has been shown that an intensive treatment using albendazole can clear the parasite...
December 2016: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045905/human-leukocytes-kill-brugia-malayi-microfilariae-independently-of-dna-based-extracellular-trap-release
#18
Ciaran J McCoy, Barbara J Reaves, Steeve Giguère, Ruby Coates, Balázs Rada, Adrian J Wolstenholme
BACKGROUND: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori infect over 100 million people worldwide and are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. Some parasite carriers are amicrofilaremic whilst others facilitate mosquito-based disease transmission through blood-circulating microfilariae (Mf). Recent findings, obtained largely from animal model systems, suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) contribute to parasitic nematode-directed type 2 immune responses. When exposed to certain pathogens PMNs release extracellular traps (NETs) in the form of chromatin loaded with various antimicrobial molecules and proteases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032096/serological-and-molecular-detection-of-dirofilaria-species-in-stray-dogs-and-investigation-of-wolbachia-dna-by-pcr-in-turkey
#19
Sami Simsek, Ayse Turkan Ciftci
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are the most common species of filarial nematodes described in the dogs. A single-step multiplex PCR was applied to detect and differentiate simultaneously and unequivocally D. immitis and D. repens on DNA extracted from canine peripheral blood and besides to detect the seroprevalance of D. immitis by ELISA in Elazig Province, Turkey. A PCR detection of the Wolbachia, which plays an important role in D. immitis biology and contributes to the inflammatory pathology of the heartworm, was also applied for the first time in Turkey...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030352/characterization-of-immunoreactive-proteins-of-setaria-cervi-isolated-by-preparative-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis
#20
Priyanka Priyadarshi, Piyush Dravid, Inayat Hussain Sheikh, Sunita Saxena, Ashish Tandon, Deep C Kaushal, Shakir Ali, Nuzhat A Kaushal
Filarial parasites are complex mixtures of antigenic proteins and characterization of these antigenic molecules is essential to identify the diagnostically important filaria-specific antigens. In the present study, we have fractionated the somatic extracts from adults of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) on preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tested the immunoreactivity of the separated gel fractions with polyclonal antibodies against filarial excretory-secretory antigens as well as filarial patients sera...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
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