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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435138/proteomic-analysis-of-a-mosquito-host-cell-response-to-persistent-wolbachia-infection
#1
Gerald Baldridge, LeeAnn Higgins, Bruce Witthuhn, Todd Markowski, Abigail Baldridge, Anibal Armien, Ann Fallon
Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with arthropods and filarial worms, is a target for filarial disease treatment and provides a gene drive agent for insect vector population suppression/replacement. We compared proteomes of Aedes albopictus mosquito C/wStr1 cells persistently infected with Wolbachia strain wStr, relative to uninfected C7-10 control cells. Among approximately 2,500 proteins, iTRAQ data identified 815 differentially abundant proteins. As functional classes, energy and central intermediary metabolism proteins were elevated in infected cells, while suppressed proteins with roles in host DNA replication, transcription and translation suggested that Wolbachia suppresses pathways that support host cell growth and proliferation...
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432603/immunoprophylaxis-of-multi-antigen-peptide-map-vaccine-for-human-lymphatic-filariasis
#2
Christiana Immanuel, Aparnaa Ramanathan, Malathi Balasubramaniyan, Vishal Kishor Khatri, Nitin Purushottam Amdare, Donthamsetty Nageswara Rao, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy, Kaliraj Perumal
Human lymphatic filariasis, the parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, is ranked as the second most complex clinical condition leading to permanent and long-term disability. The multiple antigen peptide (MAP) approach is an effective method to chemically synthesize and deliver multiple T and B cell epitopes as the constituents of a single immunogen. Here, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and immunoprophylaxis of three epitopes that have been identified from promising vaccine candidates reported in our previous studies, constructed as MAP on an inert lysine core for human lymphatic filariasis in Jird model...
April 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427478/morphological-and-molecular-characteristics-of-malayfilaria-sofiani-uni-mat-udin-takaoka-n-g-n-sp-nematoda-filarioidea-from-the-common-treeshrew-tupaia-glis-diard-duvaucel-mammalia-scandentia-in-peninsular-malaysia
#3
Shigehiko Uni, Ahmad Syihan Mat Udin, Takeshi Agatsuma, Weerachai Saijuntha, Kerstin Junker, Rosli Ramli, Hasmahzaiti Omar, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Sinnadurai Sivanandam, Emilie Lefoulon, Coralie Martin, Daicus Martin Belabut, Saharul Kasim, Muhammad Rasul Abdullah Halim, Nur Afiqah Zainuri, Subha Bhassu, Masako Fukuda, Makoto Matsubayashi, Masashi Harada, Van Lun Low, Chee Dhang Chen, Narifumi Suganuma, Rosli Hashim, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Mohd Sofian Azirun
BACKGROUND: The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) and B. timori Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, Oemijati & Cross, 1977 cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, while B. pahangi (Buckley & Edeson, 1956) infects carnivores and causes zoonotic diseases in humans in Malaysia. Wuchereria bancrofti, W. kalimantani Palmieri, Pulnomo, Dennis & Marwoto, 1980 and six out of ten Brugia spp. have been described from Australia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420428/significant-heterogeneity-in-wolbachia-copy-number-within-and-between-populations-of-onchocerca-volvulus
#4
Samuel Armoo, Stephen R Doyle, Mike Y Osei-Atweneboana, Warwick N Grant
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria found in arthropods and several filarial nematode species. The filarial Wolbachia have been proposed to be involved in the immunopathology associated with onchocerciasis. Higher Wolbachia-to-nematode ratios have been reported in the savannah-ecotype compared to the forest-ecotype, and have been interpreted as consistent with a correlation between Wolbachia density and disease severity. However, factors such as geographic stratification and ivermectin drug exposure can lead to significant genetic heterogeneity in the nematode host populations, so we investigated whether Wolbachia copy number variation is also associated with these underlying factors...
April 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416024/polymorphism-in-male-genitalia-of-aedes-ochlerotatus-scapularis-rondani-1848
#5
V Petersen, F Virginio, L Suesdek
Morphology of male genitalia of culicids is generally species-specific and often used as a taxonomic marker. However, some characters of the male genitalia vary intraspecifically and are not taxonomically diagnostic. This might be the case of Aedes scapularis, a Neotropical culicid with vector competence for arboviruses and filarial worms. Males of this species may or not present a retrorse process (RP) in the genitalic claspette filaments, which led authors to suspect that this variance might be indicative of population divergence or incipient speciation process...
April 18, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410595/examining-the-role-of-macrolides-and-host-immunity-in-combatting-filarial-parasites
#6
REVIEW
Doug S Carithers
Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), specifically the avermectins and milbemycins, are known for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of disease-causing nematodes and arthropods in humans and animals. In most nematodes, drugs in this class induce paralysis, resulting in starvation, impaired ability to remain associated with their anatomical environment, and death of all life stages. Initially, this was also thought to be the ML mode of action against filarial nematodes, but researchers have not been able to validate these characteristic effects of immobilization/starvation of MLs in vitro, even at higher doses than are possible in vivo...
April 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381279/loa-loa-vectors-chrysops-spp-perspectives-on-research-distribution-bionomics-and-implications-for-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis
#7
REVIEW
Louise Kelly-Hope, Rossely Paulo, Brent Thomas, Miguel Brito, Thomas R Unnasch, David Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Loiasis is a mild disease, but individuals with high microfilaria loads may suffer from severe adverse events if treated with ivermectin during mass drug administration campaigns for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. This poses significant challenges for elimination programmes and alternative interventions are required in L...
April 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367033/microfilaria-in-pleural-fluid-cytology-a-rare-finding
#8
Subrata Pal, Kingshuk Bose, Abhishek Sharma, Mrinal Sikder
Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in India and Southeast Asia. Detection of microfilaria is infrequently reported during cytological evaluation of various lesions or body cavity fluids. Presence of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology is very rare finding even in endemic areas. Few cases of accidental finding of microfilaria have been reported in association with malignant pleural effusion. But pleural effusion of filarial origin is extremely rare manifestation. Here we report a classical case of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366168/measuring-the-physical-and-economic-impact-of-filarial-lymphoedema-in-chikwawa-district-malawi-a-case-control-study
#9
Michelle C Stanton, Masato Yamauchi, Square Z Mkwanda, Paul Ndhlovu, Dorothy Emmie Matipula, Charles Mackenzie, Louise A Kelly-Hope
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the primary causes of lymphoedema in sub-Saharan Africa, and has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of those affected. In this paper we assess the relative impact of lymphoedema on mobility and income in Chikwawa district, Malawi. METHODS: A random sample of 31 people with lymphoedema and 31 matched controls completed a QoL questionnaire from which both an overall and a mobility-specific score were calculated...
April 3, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363039/granulomatous-filarial-encephalomyelitis-caused-by-chandlerella-quiscali-in-a-northern-crested-caracara-caracara-cheriway
#10
Erin E Edwards, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam, Sharman M Hoppes, Brian F Porter
A northern crested caracara (Caracara cheriway) was presented after being found nonambulatory in a field. On physical examination, the bird had severe hind-limb paresis. The bird did not improve after 10 days of hospitalization and was euthanized. Histologic examination of the cerebrum and spinal cord revealed multiple adult filarial nematodes surrounded by granulomatous inflammation with several multinucleated giant cells. These parasites were confirmed to be Chandlerella quiscali with polymerase chain reaction...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358880/defining-brugia-malayi-and-wolbachia-symbiosis-by-stage-specific-dual-rna-seq
#11
Alexandra Grote, Denis Voronin, Tao Ding, Alan Twaddle, Thomas R Unnasch, Sara Lustigman, Elodie Ghedin
BACKGROUND: Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be maintained in small laboratory animals. Many filarial nematode species, including B. malayi, carry an obligate endosymbiont, the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia, which can be eliminated through antibiotic treatment...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351683/oleanolic-acid-from-antifilarial-triterpene-saponins-of-dipterocarpus-zeylanicus-induces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-filarial-parasite-setaria-digitata-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
K S Senathilake, E H Karunanayake, S R Samarakoon, K H Tennekoon, E D de Silva, A Adhikari
Absence of a drug that kills adult filarial parasites remains the major challenge in eliminating human lymphatic filariasis (LF); the second leading cause of long-term and permanent disability. Thus, the discovery of novel antifilarial natural products with potent adulticidal activity is an urgent need. In the present study, methanol extracts of leaves, bark and winged seeds of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarpaceae) were investigated for macro and microfilaricidal activity. Two antifilarial triterpene saponins were isolated from winged seed extracts by bioactivity guided chromatographic separation and identified using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and mass spectroscopic analysis as oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1) (IC50 = 20...
March 27, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344097/whence-river-blindness-the-domestication-of-mammals-and-host-parasite-co-evolution-in-the-nematode-genus-onchocerca
#13
Emilie Lefoulon, Alessio Giannelli, Benjamin L Makepeace, Yasen Mutafchiev, Simon Townson, Shigehiko Uni, Guilherme G Verocai, Domenico Otranto, Coralie Martin
The genus Onchocerca includes 34 described species and represents one of the largest genera of the filarial nematodes within the family Onchocercidae. Representative members of this genus are mainly parasites of ungulates, with some exceptions such as Onchocerca lupi and Onchocerca volvulus, infecting carnivores and/or humans. For a long time, the evolutionary relationships amongst onchocercids remained poorly studied, as the systematics of this genus was impaired by the high morphological variability of species included in the taxon...
March 24, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303006/short-course-high-dose-rifampicin-achieves-wolbachia-depletion-predictive-of-curative-outcomes-in-preclinical-models-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis
#14
Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Hayley E Tyrer, Louise Ford, Hanna Sjoberg, Nicolas Pionnier, David Waterhouse, Jill Davies, Joanne Gamble, Haelly Metugene, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Raman Sharma, Ana F Guimaraes, Rachel H Clare, Andrew Cassidy, Kelly L Johnston, Laura Myhill, Laura Hayward, Samuel Wanji, Joseph D Turner, Mark J Taylor, Stephen A Ward
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are priority neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination. The only safe drug treatment with substantial curative activity against the filarial nematodes responsible for LF (Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus) is doxycycline. The target of doxycycline is the essential endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Four to six weeks doxycycline therapy achieves >90% depletion of Wolbachia in worm tissues leading to blockade of embryogenesis, adult sterility and premature death 18-24 months post-treatment...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291780/removing-the-needle-from-the-haystack-enrichment-of-wolbachia-endosymbiont-transcripts-from-host-nematode-rna-by-cappable-seq%C3%A2
#15
Ashley N Luck, Barton E Slatko, Jeremy M Foster
Efficient transcriptomic sequencing of microbial mRNA derived from host-microbe associations is often compromised by the much lower relative abundance of microbial RNA in the mixed total RNA sample. One solution to this problem is to perform extensive sequencing until an acceptable level of transcriptome coverage is obtained. More cost-effective methods include use of prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic rRNA depletion strategies, sometimes in conjunction with depletion of polyadenylated eukaryotic mRNA. Here, we report use of Cappable-seq™ to specifically enrich, in a single step, Wolbachia endobacterial mRNA transcripts from total RNA prepared from the parasitic filarial nematode, Brugia malayi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285268/cardiac-manifestations-of-parasitic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Maria Carmo P Nunes, Milton Henriques Guimarães Júnior, Adriana Costa Diamantino, Claudio Leo Gelape, Teresa Cristina Abreu Ferrari
The heart may be affected directly or indirectly by a variety of protozoa and helminths. This involvement may manifest in different ways, but the syndromes resulting from impairment of the myocardium and pericardium are the most frequent. The myocardium may be invaded by parasites that trigger local inflammatory response with subsequent myocarditis or cardiomyopathy, as occurs in Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and infection with free-living amoebae. In amoebiasis and echinococcosis, the pericardium is the structure most frequently involved with consequent pericardial effusion, acute pericarditis, cardiac tamponade or constrictive pericarditis...
May 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273977/amelanotic-melanoma-arising-in-filarial-leg-a-report-of-a-rare-case
#17
Mamita Nayak, Susama Patra, Susanta Meher, Prakash Kumar Sasmal
Amelanotic melanoma arising on chronic lymphoedema has not been reported earlier. We reported a case of amelanotic melanoma of right leg developing in a background of chronic lymphoedema of filarial origin in an elderly male of 60 years, who underwent wide local excision of the lesion followed by skin grafting for the same. A histopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was made. The patient was on follow up when he developed brain metastasis within a period of nine months for which he was operated and is on regular follow up now...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229043/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-mosquito-borne-filarial-nematode-setaria-tundra-in-danish-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#18
Heidi Larsen Enemark, Antti Oksanen, Mariann Chriél, Jakob le Fèvre Harslund, Ian David Woolsey, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi
Setaria tundra is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode of cervids in Europe. It has recently been associated with an emerging epidemic disease causing severe morbidity and mortality in reindeer and moose in Finland. Here, we present the first report of S. tundra in six roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) collected between October 2010 and March 2014 in Denmark. The deer originated from various localities across the country: the eastern part of the Jutland peninsular and four locations on the island Zealand. With the exception of one deer, with parasites residing in a transparent cyst just under the liver capsule, worms (ranging from 2 to >20/deer) were found free in the peritoneal cavity...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228160/assessment-of-lymphatic-filariasis-prior-to-re-starting-mass-drug-administration-campaigns-in-coastal-kenya
#19
Sammy M Njenga, Henry M Kanyi, Faith M Mutungi, Collins Okoyo, Hadley S Matendechero, Rachel L Pullan, Katherine E Halliday, Simon J Brooker, C Njeri Wamae, Joyce K Onsongo, Kimberly Y Won
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease associated with extensive disfigurement and is one of a diverse group of diseases referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) which mainly occur among the poorest populations. In line with global recommendations to eliminate LF, Kenya launched its LF elimination programme in 2002 with the aim to implement annual mass drug administration (MDA) in order to interrupt LF transmission. However, the programme faced financial and administrative challenges over the years such that sustained annual MDA was not possible...
February 22, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219407/development-of-dirofilaria-immitis-and-dirofilaria-repens-in-aedes-japonicus-and-aedes-geniculatus
#20
Cornelia Silaghi, Relja Beck, Gioia Capelli, Fabrizio Montarsi, Alexander Mathis
BACKGROUND: The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D...
February 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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