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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349797/efficacy-and-toxicity-of-praziquantel-in-helminth-infected-barbel-barbus-barbus-l
#1
E Zuskova, V Piackova, J Machova, L Chupani, C Steinbach, A Stara, J Velisek
This study evaluated efficacy and toxicity of the pyrazinoisoquinoline anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) in barbel infected with metacercariae of Diplostomum spathaceum and adult Pomphorhynchus laevis, and assessed antioxidant biomarkers and the lipid peroxidation response in juvenile barbel post-treatment. The estimated 96-hr LC50 of PZQ was 28.6 mg/L. For evaluation of efficacy, barbel naturally infected with D. spathaceum were exposed to a 10 and 20 mg/L PZQ 4-day bath treatment. Both concentrations were 100% effective against D...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348098/safety-of-fenbendazole-in-common-peafowl-pavo-cristatus
#2
Sajid Umar, Seema Abbas, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Qamarun Nisa, Muhammad Younus, Kiran Aqil, Rizwan Qayyum, Muhammad Yaqoob, Asif Ali, Muhammad Asif Yaseen, Muhammad Ali Shah
The present study was undertaken to find out the safety levels of fenbendazole in common peafowl. This bird, raised on aviaries and zoos, can be severely parasitized with Ascaridia galli (enteric worms) and Syngamus trachea (gapeworm) along with other parasitic worms. Fenbendazole is a highly effective benzimidazole-class anthelmintic in animals. The objective of this work was to provide target animal safety data in young peafowl and to demonstrate reproductive safety in adult birds. During the experimental study, diets containing fenbendazole at 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm were fed for 21 days (three times the normal treatment duration)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346437/tissue-specific-transcriptome-analyses-provide-new-insights-into-gpcr-signalling-in-adult-schistosoma-mansoni
#3
REVIEW
Steffen Hahnel, Nic Wheeler, Zhigang Lu, Arporn Wangwiwatsin, Paul McVeigh, Aaron Maule, Matthew Berriman, Timothy Day, Paula Ribeiro, Christoph G Grevelding
Schistosomes are blood-dwelling trematodes with global impact on human and animal health. Because medical treatment is currently based on a single drug, praziquantel, there is urgent need for the development of alternative control strategies. The Schistosoma mansoni genome project provides a platform to study and connect the genetic repertoire of schistosomes to specific biological functions essential for successful parasitism. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors throughout the Eumetazoan phyla, including platyhelminths...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346385/combined-effectiveness-of-anthelmintic-chemotherapy-and-wash-among-hiv-infected-adults
#4
Arianna R Means, Lisette van Lieshout, Eric Brienen, Krista Yuhas, James P Hughes, Paul Ndungu, Benson Singa, Judd L Walson
INTRODUCTION: Current global helminth control guidelines focus on regular deworming of targeted populations for morbidity control. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions may also be important for reducing helminth transmission. We evaluated the impact of different potential helminth protective packages on infection prevalence, including repeated treatment with albendazole and praziquantel with and without WASH access. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study nested within a randomized trial of empiric deworming of HIV-infected adults in Kenya...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343694/sertraline-paroxetine-and-chlorpromazine-are-rapidly-acting-anthelmintic-drugs-capable-of-clinical-repurposing
#5
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, Heather Currey, Phurpa Wangchuk, Ramon M Eichenberger, Aleen D Saxton, Thomas D Bird, Brian C Kraemer, Alex Loukas, John M Hawdon, Conor R Caffrey, Nicole F Liachko
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342967/structural-diversity-and-biological-activities-of-cyclic-depsipeptides-from-fungi
#6
REVIEW
Xiaohan Wang, Xiao Gong, Peng Li, Daowan Lai, Ligang Zhou
Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, and tridecadepsipeptides have been isolated from fungi...
January 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335213/jietacins-azoxy-antibiotics-with-potent-nematocidal-activity-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-against-parasitic-nematodes
#7
Akihiro Sugawara, Masahiko Kubo, Tomoyasu Hirose, Kyoichi Yahagi, Noriaki Tsunoda, Yoshihiko Noguchi, Takuji Nakashima, Yoko Takahashi, Claudia Welz, Dennis Mueller, Christina Mertens, Johannes Koebberling, Satoshi Ōmura, Toshiaki Sunazuka
Jietacins, an azoxy antibiotic class of chemicals, were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KP-197. They have a unique structural motif, including a vinyl azoxy group and a long acyclic aliphatic chain, which is usually branched but non-branched in the case of jietacin C. During a drug discovery program, we found that jietacins display potent anthelmintic activity against parasitic nematodes and that jietacin A has a moderate or low acute toxicity (LD50 > 300 mg/kg) and no mutagenic potential in a mini Ames screen...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329623/parasite-control-strategies-used-by-equine-owners-in-the-united-states-a-national-survey
#8
M K Nielsen, M A Branan, A M Wiedenheft, R Digianantonio, L P Garber, C A Kopral, A M Phillippi-Taylor, J L Traub-Dargatz
The widespread occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites across the world has led to recommendations of fecal egg count-based parasite programs to reduce treatment intensity and thereby delay further development of resistance as much as possible. The most recent study describing equine parasite control in the United States was conducted 20 years ago, and little is known about current strategies employed. This study was part of the National Animal Health Monitoring Systems (NAHMS) Equine 2015 Study, and aimed to describe equine parasite control strategies in the U...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329561/strongyloides-stercoralis-and-hookworm-co-infection-spatial-distribution-and-determinants-in-preah-vihear-province-cambodia
#9
Armelle Forrer, Virak Khieu, Fabian Schär, Penelope Vounatsou, Frédérique Chammartin, Hanspeter Marti, Sinuon Muth, Peter Odermatt
BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm are two soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that are highly prevalent in Cambodia. Strongyloides stercoralis causes long-lasting infections and significant morbidity but is largely neglected, while hookworm causes the highest public health burden among STH. The two parasites have the same infection route, i.e. skin penetration. The extent of co-distribution, which could result in potential high co-morbidities, is unknown in highly endemic settings like Cambodia...
January 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329012/oxidative-transformation-kinetics-and-pathways-of-albendazole-from-reactions-with-manganese-dioxide
#10
Sin-Yi Liou, Wan-Ru Chen
Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole-based veterinary anthelmintic used extensively in the treatment of intestinal parasites. Due to its high hydrophobicity, ABZ tends to accumulate in soils and sediments in the environment. This study aims to investigate ABZ's possible degradation by manganese oxides. Minor effects from ionic strength and metal cations on ABZ degradation were observed. By contrast, decrease of pH greatly enhanced the reaction rate. Surface complexation between ABZ and MnO2 was indicated to be the dominant control in the reaction kinetics...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328982/systematic-identification-of-suspected-anthelmintic-benzimidazole-metabolites-using-lc-ms-ms
#11
Marius Majewsky, David Castel, Ludivine Le Dret, Pascal Johann, David T Jones, Stefan M Pfister, Walter E Haefeli, Jürgen Burhenne
Metabolite reference standards are often not available, which results in a lack of MS/MS spectra for library matching. Consequently, the identification of suspected metabolites proves to be challenging. The present study aims at structurally elucidating the MS/MS fragmentation behavior of selected benzimidazole anthelmintics to theoretically predict characteristic product ions for rapid and systematic tentative metabolite identification. A set of common characteristic product ions was identified from accurate mass MS/MS experiments for five parent compounds...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327323/inclusion-complex-and-nanoclusters-of-cyclodextrin-to-increase-the-solubility-and-efficacy-of-albendazole
#12
P A Pacheco, L N C Rodrigues, J F S Ferreira, A C P Gomes, C J Veríssimo, H Louvandini, R L D Costa, L M Katiki
Albendazole (ABZ), a benzimidazole widely used to control gastrointestinal parasites, is poorly soluble in water, resulting in variable and incomplete bioavailability. This has favored the appearance ABZ-resistant nematodes and, consequently, an increase in its clinical ineffectiveness. Among the pharmaceutical techniques developed to increase drug efficacy, cyclodextrins (CDs) and other polymers have been extensively used with water-insoluble pharmaceutical drugs to increase their solubility and availability...
January 11, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324854/characterization-of-the-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-for-cryptic-phthoxazolin-a-in-streptomyces-avermitilis
#13
Dian Anggraini Suroto, Shigeru Kitani, Masayoshi Arai, Haruo Ikeda, Takuya Nihira
Phthoxazolin A, an oxazole-containing polyketide, has a broad spectrum of anti-oomycete activity and herbicidal activity. We recently identified phthoxazolin A as a cryptic metabolite of Streptomyces avermitilis that produces the important anthelmintic agent avermectin. Even though genome data of S. avermitilis is publicly available, no plausible biosynthetic gene cluster for phthoxazolin A is apparent in the sequence data. Here, we identified and characterized the phthoxazolin A (ptx) biosynthetic gene cluster through genome sequencing, comparative genomic analysis, and gene disruption...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304858/the-recovery-of-added-nematode-eggs-from-horse-and-sheep-faeces-by-three-methods
#14
Antonio Bosco, Maria Paola Maurelli, Davide Ianniello, Maria Elena Morgoglione, Alessandra Amadesi, Gerald C Coles, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Nematode infections in horses are widespread across the world. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance, reported worldwide in equine parasites, have led to the creation of programs for the control of nematodes based on faecal egg counts (FEC). To improve nematode egg counting in equine faecal samples and establish whether the matrix of equine faeces or the eggs affect the counts, the analytical sensitivity, accuracy and precision of Mini-FLOTAC (combined with Fill-FLOTAC), McMaster and Cornell-Wisconsin techniques were compared...
January 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291202/taeniasis-a-possible-cause-of-ileal-bleeding
#15
Alessia Settesoldi, Alessandro Tozzi, Ottaviano Tarantino
Taenia spp. are flatworms of the class Cestoda, whose definitive hosts are humans and primates. Human infestation (taeniasis) results from the ingestion of raw meat contaminated with encysted larval tapeworms and is considered relatively harmless and mostly asymptomatic. Anemia is not recognized as a possible sign of taeniasis and taeniasis-induced hemorrhage is not described in medical books. Its therapy is based on anthelmintics such praziquantel, niclosamide or albendazole. Here we describe a case of acute ileal bleeding in an Italian man affected with both Taenia spp...
December 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279088/procyanidin-a2-in-the-australian-plant-alectryon-oleifolius-has-anthelmintic-activity-against-equine-cyathostomins-in-vitro
#16
S E Payne, G R Flematti, A Reeder, A C Kotze, Z Durmic, P E Vercoe
There is a need to investigate new methods of controlling cyathostomins in horses due to increasing anthelmintic resistance amongst these parasites. In a previous study we identified the Australian plant Alectryon oleifolius as having anthelmintic activity towards cyathostomins. This study aimed to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for all or part of this anthelmintic activity and quantify its activity in vitro. The condensed tannin procyanidin A2 was isolated from the plant through a process of bioassay guided fractionation and identified using 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279087/response-of-drug-susceptible-and-resistant-haemonchus-contortus-larvae-to-monepantel-and-abamectin-alone-or-in-combination-in-vitro
#17
Andrew C Kotze, Angela Ruffell, Jane Lamb, Tim P Elliott
There is an increasing interest in the use of combination anthelmintic products for the control of intestinal nematode parasites of livestock. These products are seen as attractive options for parasite control in the face of increasing levels of resistance to the different anthelmintic drug classes, as well as a means to slow the rate at which resistance develops to the individual components of the combination. With the recent introduction of an anthelmintic combination product containing abamectin and monepantel (at 1:12...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274827/motility-in-the-l3-stage-is-a-poor-phenotype-for-detecting-and-measuring-resistance-to-avermectin-milbemycin-drugs-in-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-livestock
#18
Melissa M George, Lorraine Lopez-Soberal, Bob E Storey, Sue B Howell, Ray M Kaplan
Motility is a commonly used in vitro phenotype for assessing anthelmintic activity of candidate compounds, and for detecting anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. Third-stage larvae (L3) of parasitic nematodes are commonly used in motility-based assays because L3 are simple to obtain and can remain viable in storage for extended periods. To improve the measurement of motility of microscopic stages of nematodes, our laboratory developed the Worminator, which quantitatively measures motility of parasites. Using the Worminator, we compared the dose-response characteristics of several avermectin/milbemycin (AM) compounds using L3 from both AM-susceptible and AM-resistant Cooperia spp...
December 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244856/in-vitro-anthelmintic-effects-of-spigelia-anthelmia-protein-fractions-against-haemonchus-contortus
#19
Sandra Alves Araújo, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos Soares, Carolina Rocha Silva, Eduardo Bezerra Almeida Júnior, Cláudia Quintino Rocha, André Teixeira da Silva Ferreira, Jonas Perales, Livio M Costa-Júnior
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235047/anthelmintic-effects-of-indigenous-multipurpose-fodder-tree-extracts-against-haemonchus-contortus
#20
Ashenafi Assefa, Yisehak Kechero, Taye Tolemariam, Assefa Kebede, Eshetu Shumi
Condensed tannins (CT) extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, and Celtis toka browses were used to evaluate their anthelmintic effect on different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus. To achieve this objective, various serial concentrations of each CT extract of the foliages were used to test adult motility, inhibition of egg hatchability, and larval development. The fodders were selected based on their multipurpose advantage and accessibility to use as fodder for livestock in the low lands of the Gambella region...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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