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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647509/a-review-of-acalypha-indica-l-euphorbiaceae-as-traditional-medicinal-plant-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#1
REVIEW
Nor Syahiran Zahidin, Syafiqah Saidin, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli, Ida Idayu Muhamad, Harisun Ya'akob, Hadi Nur
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acalypha indica is an herbal plant that grows in wet, temperate and tropical region, primarily along the earth's equator line. This plant is considered by most people as a weed and can easily be found in these regions. Although this plant is a weed, Acalypha indica has been acknowledged by local people as a useful source of medicine for several therapeutic treatments. They consume parts of the plant for many therapeutics purposes such as anthelmintic, anti-ulcer, bronchitis, asthma, wound healing, anti-bacterial and other applications...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647171/worm-control-in-livestock-bringing-science-to-the-field
#2
REVIEW
Fiona Kenyon, Fiona Hutchings, Claire Morgan-Davies, Jan van Dijk, Dave J Bartley
Parasitic roundworm infections are ubiquitous in grazing livestock. Chemical control through the frequent 'blanket' administration of anthelmintics (wormers) has been, and remains, the cornerstone in controlling these infections, but this practice is unsustainable. Alternative strategies are available but, even with the plethora of best practice advice available, have yet to be integrated into routine farming practice. This is probably due to a range of factors, including contradictory advice from different sources, changes to advice following increased scientific understanding, and top-down knowledge exchange patterns...
June 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644839/genomic-introgression-mapping-of-field-derived-multiple-anthelmintic-resistance-in-teladorsagia-circumcincta
#3
Young-Jun Choi, Stewart A Bisset, Stephen R Doyle, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, John Martin, Warwick N Grant, Makedonka Mitreva
Preventive chemotherapy has long been practiced against nematode parasites of livestock, leading to widespread drug resistance, and is increasingly being adopted for eradication of human parasitic nematodes even though it is similarly likely to lead to drug resistance. Given that the genetic architecture of resistance is poorly understood for any nematode, we have analyzed multidrug resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta, a major parasite of sheep, as a model for analysis of resistance selection. We introgressed a field-derived multiresistant genotype into a partially inbred susceptible genetic background (through repeated backcrossing and drug selection) and performed genome-wide scans in the backcross progeny and drug-selected F2 populations to identify the major genes responsible for the multidrug resistance...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632749/using-a-health-rating-system-to-evaluate-the-usefulness-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-anthelmintic-study
#4
Kathryn J Weaver, Cassandra J May, Brian L Ellis
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are intestinal parasitic nematodes that infect humans, and are transmitted through contaminated soil. These nematodes include the large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus). Nearly 1.5 billion people (~24% of the population) worldwide are infected with at least one species of these parasites, burdening the poor, in particular, children and pregnant women. To combat these diseases, the WHO only recognizes four anthelmintic drugs, including the preferred drug, albendazole, for mass drug administration (MDA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627643/niclosamide-attenuates-inflammatory-cytokines-via-the-autophagy-pathway-leading-to-improved-outcomes-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Lin-Xia Zhang, Hui-Juan Zhao, Dong-Li Sun, Shan-Lin Gao, Hong-Mei Zhang, Xin-Guo Ding
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a debilitating condition that leads to loss renal function and damage to kidney tissue in the majority of patients with acute kidney disease. Previous studies have indicated that autophagy serves a protective function in renal I/R injury. In the present study, the effect of the anthelmintic niclosamide in the regulation of inflammatory responses in kidney I/R was investigated. A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups (n=8 in each group): Sham group; renal I/R injury; renal I/R injury plus 3‑methyladenine (3‑MA) treatment (15 mg/kg); renal I/R injury plus niclosamide (25 mg/kg); and renal I/R injury plus rapamycin (10 mg/kg)...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615981/human-taeniasis-current-insights-into-prevention-and-management-strategies-in-endemic-countries
#6
REVIEW
Anna L Okello, Lian Francesca Thomas
Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata ("beef tapeworm"), Taenia solium ("pork tapeworm") or Taenia asiatica ("Asian tapeworm"). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings...
2017: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615860/detection-of-anthelmintic-resistance-in-sheep-and-goat-against-fenbendazole-by-faecal-egg-count-reduction-test
#7
Ramandeep Singh, M S Bal, L D Singla, Paramjit Kaur
Anthelmintic resistance against commonly used anthelmintic fenbendazole was evaluated by employing faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in naturally occurring gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in the semi organized sheep and goat farms of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. A total of 80 animals (20 each for sheep and goat in both districts) were randomly selected and their faecal samples were examined by qualitative and quantitative parasitological techniques. Results indicate presence of high level of resistance against fenbendazole in both sheep and goat population of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615852/therapecutic-efficacy-of-the-leaf-extract-of-croton-joufra-roxb-against-experimental-cestodiasis-in-rats
#8
Shyamalima Gogoi, Arun K Yadav
The leaves of Croton joufra have been used as a traditional medicine in Assam (Northeast India) to treat the intestinal helminthic infections. The aim of this study was to establish the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of the leaf extract of this plant on Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic tapeworm. The plant extract was also screened for its chemical constituents. The in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of the plant was evaluated by physical motility test on adult cestodes, following their exposure to 10, 20, 30 mg/ml concentrations of the crude leaf extract, while the in vivo effect was determined based on the eggs per gram (EPG) counts and worm recovery rates, using an experimentally induced model of H...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606189/therapeutic-efficacy-of-artemisia-absinthium-against-hymenolepis-nana-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-in-comparison-with-the-anthelmintic-praziquantel
#9
E V N Beshay
Hymenolepis nana is a common intestinal tapeworm that affects humans. Drugs are available for the treatment of this infection, including praziquantel (PZQ), nitazoxanide and niclosamide. Although the drug of choice is praziquantel, due to its high cure rates, indicators of the development of PZQ resistance by different parasites have begun to appear over recent decades. Therefore, this study was a trial to find an alternative to PZQ by assessing the activity of the crude aqueous extract of the medicinal herb Artemisia absinthium against H...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597435/micro-morphological-study-of-evolvulus-spp-convolvulaceae-the-old-world-medicinal-plants
#10
Kanapol Ketjarun, George W Staples, Sasivimon C Swangpol, Paweena Traiperm
BACKGROUND: Several medicinal properties have been reported for plants in the genus Evolvulus, such as a brain tonic and antifungal from Evolvulus alsinoides, and a sedative and an anthelmintic from Evolvulus nummularius. Therefore, the correct identification of the source plants is critically important. The aim of this research was to investigate the micromorphology of two Evolvulus taxa used for herbal medicines compared with one worldwide ornamental species by using peeling, paraffin embedding, acetolysis, and SEM methods in order to support species identification...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596826/field-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-common-anthelmintics-used-in-the-control-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-sheep-in-dabat-district-northwest-ethiopia
#11
Zewdu Seyoum, Yitayew Demessie, Basazinew Bogale, Achenef Melaku
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections are the main impediments that restrict the welfare and productivity of small ruminant in the world. Effective management of GINs in grazing sheep relies heavily on the use of highly efficacious anthelmintic drugs. However, anthelmintic resistance is becoming a significant concern in the world, and this phenomenon severely threatens the potential utilisation of this control strategy. Therefore, this study was conducted 1) to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintic on GINs in naturally infected sheep and 2) to assess the farmers' perception on anthelmintics utilisation practices in Dabat district, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595822/a-multiplex-restriction-enzyme-pcr-for-unequivocal-identification-and-differentiation-of-trichostrongylus-species-in-human-samples
#12
Azadeh Mizani, Pooria Gill, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Afsaneh Amouei, Ali Bakooie Katrimi, Eissa Soleymani, Siavash Mirshafiee, Sara Gholami, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Shirzad Gholami, Mohammad-Taghi Rahimi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh, Mehdi Sharif
Trichostrongylus species remain one of the major health challenges in the tropical and summer rainfall regions worldwide. Identification of strongylid species diagnostic methods is vital for obtaining a deep understanding of the epidemiology, population biology, anthelmintic treatment efficacy, and drug resistance in order to design effective parasite control strategies. We evaluated a multiplex RE-PCR for the diagnosis of key Trichostrongylus spp. Genomic DNA amplification of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus was achieved as standard sample using specific primers located in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITSII) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA)...
June 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595672/in-vitro-larvicidal-and-in-vivo-anthelmintic-effects-of-oxalis-tetraphylla-oxalidaceae-hydroalcoholic-extract-against-haemonchus-contortus-in-lambs
#13
B J González-Cruz, M Rodríguez-Labastida, M González-Cortázar, A Zamilpa, M E López-Arellano, L Aguilar-Marcelino, R González-Garduño, J F J Torres-Acosta, A Olmedo-Juárez, P Mendoza-de Gives
The in vitro larvicidal and in vivo anthelmintic effects of Oxalis tetraphylla hydroalcoholic extract (HE), against Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected lambs, were assessed. We used a microtitration plate method, comprising the following two stages. Stage 1: 20 μl of water containing 200 sheathed H. contortus infective larvae (ShHcl) were deposited in every well of three series; then, the series 2 and 3 wells were treated with 80 μl 1% ivermectin and O. tetraphylla HE at 20 mg/ml, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590167/effects-of-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-treatment-of-ascaris-suum-eggs-with-anthelmintic-agents-on-embryonation-and-infectivity-for-mice
#14
Jianguo Zhao, Qian Han, Chenghong Liao, Jinhua Wang, Lili Wu, Qun Liu, David S Lindsay
Ascaris suum is an important intestinal nematode causing economic losses in the swine production industry. Anthelminthic treatment is used to control A. suum infections and is part of normal production practices. Treatment with anthelminthic agents results in expulsion of adult worms from the intestinal tract and ends further contamination of the environment with eggs. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of drug treatment on the embryonation of A. suum eggs collected from worms obtained from pigs treated with 4 different commercially available anthelmintics...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588763/proof-of-concept-of-faecal-egg-nematode-counting-as-a-practical-means-of-veterinary-engagement-with-planned-livestock-health-management-in-a-lower-income-country
#15
Eithne Leahy, Barend Bronsvoort, Luke Gamble, Andrew Gibson, Henderson Kaponda, Dagmar Mayer, Stella Mazeri, Kate Shervell, Neil Sargison
BACKGROUND: The wellbeing and livelihood of farmers in impoverished regions of the world is intrinsically linked to the health and welfare of their livestock; hence improved animal health is a pragmatic component of poverty alleviation. Prerequisite knowledge and understanding of the animal health challenges facing cattle keepers in Malawi is constrained by the lack of veterinary infrastructure, which inevitably accompanies under-resourced rural development in a poor country. METHODS: We collaborated with public and private paraveterinary services to locate 62 village Zebu calves and 60 dairy co-operative calves dispersed over a wide geographical area...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588639/elephantorrhiza-elephantina-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-an-important-medicinal-plant-species-in-southern-africa
#16
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. The rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for cattle, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep. Several classes of phytochemical compounds including anthocyanidins, anthraquinones, esters, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, glycosides, polysterols, saponins, sugars, tannins, and triterpenoids have been isolated from E...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585078/associations-between-fasciolosis-and-milk-production-and-the-impact-of-anthelmintic-treatment-in-dairy-herds
#17
Kerstin Köstenberger, Alexander Tichy, Karl Bauer, Peter Pless, Thomas Wittek
Liver fluke is a ubiquitous parasite that causes extensive production losses in cattle and is a zoonosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in 178 dairy cattle herds in Styria (federal state of Austria) and its influence on production, to detect the risk factors for infection, and to explore effective strategies in management and control. A questionnaire on farm management, prophylaxis, and therapy was developed and applied. Furthermore, production parameters (milk yield, milk protein content, butter fat content, non-return rate 90, calving to conception interval, service period) were recorded for 2014 and 2015, and a commercial ELISA for detection of Fasciola hepatica antibodies was applied in bulk tank milk in March 2014 and March 2015...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581290/neoclerodane-diterpenoids-from-reehal-fatima-teucrium-yemense
#18
Mohammad Nur-E-Alam, Muhammad Yousaf, Sarfaraz Ahmed, Ebtesam S Al-Sheddi, Ifat Parveen, David M Fazakerley, Ahmed Bari, Hazem A Ghabbour, Michael D Threadgill, Kezia C L Whatley, Karl F Hoffmann, Adnan J Al-Rehaily
Teucrium yemense (Defl), locally known as Reehal Fatima, is a medicinal plant commonly grown in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of T. yemense yielded six new neoclerodane diterpenoids, namely fatimanol A-E (1, 2, 3, 5, and 6) and fatimanone (4), and the known teulepicephin (7). As both the Teucrium genus and the related Lamiaceae family have previously been widely reported to possess anthelmintic and antimicrobial activities, the structural and biological characterization of the seven diterpenoids was pursued...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579030/broad-spectrum-anthelmintic-resistance-of-haemonchus-contortus-in-northern-nsw-of-australia
#19
Jane Lamb, Tim Elliott, Michael Chambers, Bruce Chick
On a sheep farm in Northern New South Wales (NSW) of Australia a degree of anthelmintic resistance was suspected. With noticeable clinical signs of infection and sheep not responding to treatment, a faecal egg count reduction test was conducted to ascertain the broad spectrum of anthelmintic resistance at this farm. A number of classes of anthelmintics were assessed including organophosphate, macrocyclic lactone (ML) and in combination an ML, benzimidazole, levamisole and salicylanilide. In addition, the more recently registered classes of anthelmintics, monepantel (amino-acetonitrile derivative) and derquantel/abamectin combination (spiroindole+ML) were included...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579029/pharmacokinetics-and-anthelmintic-efficacy-of-injectable-eprinomectin-in-goats
#20
C Briqué-Pellet, N Ravinet, Y Quenet, M Alvinerie, C Chartier
The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and the anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin (Eprecis(®) 20mg/mL) following subcutaneous administration to goats. Forty non-lactating female Alpine goats aged between one and three years and weighing between 32.7 and 59.5kg, were randomly allocated to one of the following groups (8 animals per group): two groups were not infected and were treated at a dose of either 0.2 or 0.4mg/kg BW of eprinomectin, two groups were experimentally infected with nematodes and treated at 0...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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