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Fang Xu, Yingjie Zhu, Yuhong Lu, Zhi Yu, Jun Zhong, Yangqiu Li, Jingxuan Pan
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of the bone marrow. The median survival time of patients with MM is only 5 years, with patients frequently experiencing relapse. Currently, there is no effective therapy for recurrent MM. The results of the present study indicated that pyrvinium pamoate (PP), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved oral anthelmintic drug, exhibited potent antitumor activity in MM cells in vitro . It is demonstrated that PP inhibited MM cell proliferation and mediated apoptosis. Notably, PP markedly promoted the degradation of β-catenin and abrogated its phosphorylation...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yu Meng, FangGen Lu, Lin Shi, MeiChu Cheng, Jie Zhang
RATIONALE: The use of anticoagulants is a contributor to gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Most bleeding patients on anticoagulant therapy such as warfarin commonly have basic lesions existing in their GI mucosa. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of major GI bleeding following the use of anticoagulants in a patient with hookworm infection. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with pulmonary embolism. INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with anticoagulants and suffered from acute major GI bleeding during the treatment...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Guillaume Sallé, Roz Laing, James A Cotton, Kirsty Maitland, Axel Martinelli, Nancy Holroyd, Alan Tracey, Matthew Berriman, W David Smith, George F J Newlands, Eve Hanks, Eileen Devaney, Collette Britton
Some nematode species are economically important parasites of livestock, while others are important human pathogens causing some of the most important neglected tropical diseases. In both humans and animals, anthelmintic drug administration is the main control strategy, but the emergence of drug-resistant worms has stimulated the development of alternative control approaches. Among these, vaccination is considered to be a sustainable and cost effective strategy. Currently, Barbervax® for the ruminant strongylid Haemonchus contortus is the only registered subunit vaccine for a nematode parasite, although a vaccine for the human hookworm Necator americanus is undergoing clinical trials (HOOKVAC consortium)...
March 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Xumin Zhou, Jumei Liu, Jinming Zhang, Yong Wei, Hua Li
Flubendazole, FDA-approved anthelmintic, has been widely used in treating testinal parasites. In the recent years, Flubendazole has been reported to exert anticancer activities. On the other hand, little was known about the effects of Flubendazole on gliomas. Here we demonstrated a novel effect of flubendazole on glioma cells. We found that Flubendazole inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis of glioma cell lines in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in xenograft models by intraperitoneal injection...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Louise Elizabeth Bird, Graham Bilbrough, Ronan Fitzgerald, David John Walker
Objectives: To determine the time from treatment with a product containing imidacloprid 10 per cent/moxidectin 2.5 per cent spot-on (Advocate™), to dogs becoming negative for Angiostrongylus vasorum (A. vasorum). The authors hypothesised that most dogs would have resolution of A. vasorum within four weeks of treatment with Advocate™. Design: Prospective, non-randomised, prepost treatment study. Setting: Cases were enrolled from general practices along the southern coast of the United Kingdom...
2018: Veterinary Record Open
Rohit A Gupta, Meha N Motiwala, Ujawala N Mahajan, Sapna S Sabare
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) belonging to the family Fabaceae is commonly known as sesbania, agathi, and katurai. The plant is accredited for alleviating a spectrum of ailments including inflammation, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, gout, rheumatism, jaundice, bronchitis, convulsion and anxiety. It is also used as antitumour, anthelmintic, and laxatives in Ayurveda and Siddha system of Indian traditional medicine. AIM: To reveal protective effect of Sesbania grandiflora in acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Thai Ha Tran, Jérôme Labanowski, Hervé Gallard
The manganese oxide birnessite adsorbed and catalyzed the transformation of the anthelminthic drug niclosamide (NIS) into 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (CNA) and 5-chlorosalicylic acid (CSA) at acidic pH. The adsorption of NIS was fitted using a linear isotherm for all conditions and reaction times. Linear adsorption constant Kd was 103 000 L kg-1 at pH 5.0. The rate of transformation was first order with respect to both MnO2 and NIS. At pH 5.0, the second order rate constant was 3.3 (±0.3) × 10-1  M-1  s-1 ...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Ricardo A Orbegozo-Medina, Victoria Martínez-Sernández, Marta González-Warleta, José Antonio Castro-Hermida, Mercedes Mezo, Florencio M Ubeira
Fasciolosis continues to be a major cause of economic losses in the livestock industry and a growing threat to humans. The limited spectrum of effective anthelmintics and the appearance of resistances urge the need for developing an effective vaccine. Most studies have been focused on the use of TH1 -polarizing adjuvants and the use of recombinant Fasciola critical molecules and, despite the efforts, no reproducible protections have been achieved. The F. hepatica MF6p/FhHDM-1 protein is a heme-binding protein also reported to have immunomodulatory properties, constituting a promising target for vaccination and/or as target for the development of new flukicides...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
Zora Váradyová, Dominika Mravčáková, Michal Babják, Magdalena Bryszak, Ľubomíra Grešáková, Klaudia Čobanová, Svetlana Kišidayová, Iveta Plachá, Alžbeta Königová, Adam Cieslak, Sylwester Slusarczyk, Lukasz Pecio, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Marián Várady
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus is a pathogenic organism resistant to several anthelmintics. This study assessed the efficacy of a medicinal herbal mixture (Herbmix) and organic zinc, as an essential trace element for the proper functioning of both unspecific and specific immune defensive mechanisms, against experimental infections with H. contortus in lambs. All lambs were infected orally with approximately 5000 third-stage larvae of a strain of H...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Simon Boecker, Stefan Grätz, Dennis Kerwat, Lutz Adam, David Schirmer, Lennart Richter, Tabea Schütze, Daniel Petras, Roderich D Süssmuth, Vera Meyer
Background: Fungal cyclodepsipeptides (CDPs) are non-ribosomally synthesized peptides produced by a variety of filamentous fungi and are of interest to the pharmaceutical industry due to their anticancer, antimicrobial and anthelmintic bioactivities. However, both chemical synthesis and isolation of CDPs from their natural producers are limited due to high costs and comparatively low yields. These challenges might be overcome by heterologous expression of the respective CDP-synthesizing genes in a suitable fungal host...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
Hae Seong Song, Sunphil Jang, Se Chan Kang
BACKGROUND: Cullen corylifolium is a plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for its stomachic, anthelmintic, and diuretic properties. Bavachalcone, which is known as a component of C. corylifolium has been reported to inhibit osteoclast differentiation. However, the anticancer efficacy and mechanism of C. corylifolium and bavachalcone have not been studied. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Our aim is to determine whether C. corylifolium has an anticancer effect and to identify the apoptosis and autophagy mechanism of bavachalcone...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Vijaya, Arun K Yadav, S Gogoi
Pinworm infections are one of the common problems in laboratory rodents and man. At present there are only few drugs against intestinal helminths, and new drugs are urgently needed to cope up any future risk of drug resistance. Interest in plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) has risen considerably in the recent years for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the present study, we explored the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic potentials of two pentacyclic triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA), the important PSMs of many medicinal plants, against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), a common pinworm of mice...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Nagendran Tharmalingam, Jenna Port, Dawilmer Castillo, Eleftherios Mylonakis
There is an urgent need to discover novel antimicrobial therapies. Drug repurposing can reduce the time and cost risk associated with drug development. We report the inhibitory effects of anthelmintic drugs (niclosamide, oxyclozanide, closantel, rafoxanide) against Helicobacter pylori strain 60190 and pursued further characterization of niclosamide against H. pylori. The MIC of niclosamide against H. pylori was 0.25 μg/mL. Niclosamide was stable in acidic pH and demonstrated partial synergy with metronidazole and proton pump inhibitors, such as omeprazole and pantoprazole...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei Tang, Zhengyan Guo, Zhenju Cao, Min Wang, Pengwei Li, Xiangxi Meng, Xuejin Zhao, Zhoujie Xie, Wenzhao Wang, Aihua Zhou, Chunbo Lou, Yihua Chen
Seven-carbon-chain-containing sugars exist in several groups of important bacterial natural products. Septacidin represents a group of l-heptopyranoses containing nucleoside antibiotics with antitumor, antifungal, and pain-relief activities. Hygromycin B, an aminoglycoside anthelmintic agent used in swine and poultry farming, represents a group of d-heptopyranoses-containing antibiotics. To date, very little is known about the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here we sequenced the genome of the septacidin producer and identified the septacidin gene cluster by heterologous expression...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Anuradha Rajamanickam, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Chandra Kumar Dolla, Thomas B Nutman, Subash Babu
Infection with the helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis ( Ss ) is commonly clinically asymptomatic that is often accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Granulocytes are activated during helminth infection and can act as immune effector cells. Plasma levels of eosinophil and neutrophil granular proteins convey an indirect measure of granulocyte degranulation and are prominently augmented in numerous helminth-infected patients. In this study, we sought to examine the levels of eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell activation-associated granule proteins in asymptomatic Ss infection and to understand their kinetics following anthelmintic therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Priyo Sambodo, Joko Prastowo, Kurniasih Kurniasih, Sudarmanto Indarjulianto
Aim: Haemonchus contortus is a major problem in small ruminants in Indonesia. The frequent use of the anthelmintic drugs has given rise to drug-resistant populations which increase the need for new anthelminthic compounds, particularly from endemic plants. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of Biophytum petersianum crude aqueous extract (BAE) as an anthelmintic compound against H. contortus adult worm isolated from goats. Materials and Methods: Adult worm collected from naturally infected abomasums were obtained from slaughtered goats on the day of slaughter...
January 2018: Veterinary World
Paul McVeigh, Erin McCammick, Paul McCusker, Duncan Wells, Jane Hodgkinson, Steve Paterson, Angela Mousley, Nikki J Marks, Aaron G Maule
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth...
February 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Luiza Almeida Figueiredo, Thais Fuscaldi Rebouças, Sebastião Rodrigo Ferreira, Gabriela Flavia Rodrigues-Luiz, Rodrigo Cambraia Miranda, Ricardo Nascimento Araujo, Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara
While diseases caused by nematodes remains a considerable drawback for the livestock, agriculture and public health, anthelmintics drug resistance has been observed over the past years and is a major concern for parasite control. Ivermectin, initially considered as a highly potent drug, currently presents a reduced anti-helminthic efficacy, which is influenced by expression of several ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), among them the P-glycoproteins (Pgps). Here we present some evidences of Pgps dominance during Ivermectin resistance/susceptibility using Pgps double silencing in C...
2018: PloS One
Sofia S Sánchez, Hector H García, Alessandra Nicoletti
Human toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent helminthiases worldwide. Toxocara canis larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier leading to the neurotoxocariasis. The clinical presentation consists of a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, but asymptomatic infection is probably common. Neurotoxocariasis is not a frequent diagnosis probably due to the non-specific nature of its symptoms as well as the lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Diagnosis of neurotoxocariasis is based on the presence of a high titer of anti- Toxocara antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid or in the serum, presence of eosinophilia in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid, and clinical and radiological improvement after anthelmintic therapy; however, universally accepted diagnostic criteria are lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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