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anthelmintic, parasite, helminth, nematode

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128225/a-longitudinal-study-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-english-dairy-farms-practices-and-factors-associated-with-first-lactation-heifer-exposure-to-ostertagia-ostertagi-on-pasture
#1
C Bellet, M J Green, A J Bradley, J Kaler
The gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi is an important cause of lost production, health, and welfare in cattle. Detailed records were obtained over a 5-yr period (2010-2015) by questionnaires and qualitative interviews to investigate the practices adopted by dairy farmers to control cattle helminth infections and the factors associated with heifer exposure to O. ostertagi on pasture. In total, 1,454 heifers' individual milk samples were collected over a 1-yr period (2014-2015) in 43 dairy farms in England and tested for O...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124904/mind-the-gaps-in-research-on-the-control-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-farmed-ruminants-and-pigs
#2
J Charlier, S M Thamsborg, D J Bartley, P J Skuce, F Kenyon, T Geurden, H Hoste, A R Williams, S Sotiraki, J Höglund, C Chartier, P Geldhof, J van Dijk, L Rinaldi, E R Morgan, G von Samson-Himmelstjerna, J Vercruysse, E Claerebout
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode control has an important role to play in increasing livestock production from a limited natural resource base and to improve animal health and welfare. In this synthetic review, we identify key research priorities for GI nematode control in farmed ruminants and pigs, to support the development of roadmaps and strategic research agendas by governments, industry and policymakers. These priorities were derived from the DISCONTOOLS gap analysis for nematodes and follow-up discussions within the recently formed Livestock Helminth Research Alliance (LiHRA)...
November 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100544/effects-of-selected-palestinian-plants-on-the-in-vitro-exsheathment-of-the-third-stage-larvae-of-gastrointestinal-nematodes
#3
Rana Majed Jamous, Mohammed Saleem Ali-Shtayeh, Salam Yousef Abu-Zaitoun, Alex Markovics, Hassan Azaizeh
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the main restrictions to small ruminant production. Their pathological importance is primarily related to the major production losses, in quantity or quality, induced by the direct action of worms. Control of these parasites is based exclusively on the frequent use of anthelmintic drugs. However, the resistance to anthelmintics in worm populations after commercialisation of chemical drugs is now widespread. Therefore, there is a need to find new natural resources to ensure sustainable and effective treatment and control of these parasites...
November 3, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075480/control-of-nematodirus-spp-infection-by-sheep-flock-owners-in-northern-ireland
#4
Connor McMahon, Hillary W J Edgar, Jason P Barley, Robert E B Hanna, Gerard P Brennan, Ian Fairweather
BACKGROUND: To address a lack of information on the control of ovine helminth parasites in Northern Ireland (NI), a number of research projects have been undertaken, dealing with gastrointestinal nematodes, tapeworms and liver fluke. This investigation concerns Nematodirus and concentrates on three aspects of disease: farm management strategies for its control, derived from the results of a Questionnaire; the efficacy of treatment used by farmers, as determined by a coprological survey; and the hatching requirements of Nematodirus eggs, that is, whether prolonged chilling is a pre-requisite for hatching...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028844/a-polyphenol-enriched-diet-and-ascaris-suum-infection-modulate-mucosal-immune-responses-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pigs
#5
Andrew R Williams, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad, Peter Nejsum, Kerstin Skovgaard, Dennis S Nielsen, Stig M Thamsborg
Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942049/purification-of-native-m-%C3%A2-vogae-and-h-%C3%A2-contortus-tubulin-by-tog-affinity-chromatography
#6
Beatriz Munguía, Ramiro Teixeira, Victoria Veroli, Elisa Melian, Jenny Saldaña, Mahia Minteguiaga, Mario Señorale, Mónica Marín, Laura Domínguez
Microtubules are non-covalent cylindrical polymers formed by alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimer units, crucial for cell division, intracellular transport, motility and differentiation. This makes them very attractive pharmacological targets exploited to develop different drugs such as anthelmintics, antifungals, and antineoplastics. In this work, in order to establish an in vitro target-based screen to integrate to the search for new anthelmintics, we explored the extraction of native assembly-competent tubulin from two helminth parasites: Mesocestoides vogae tetrathyridia (syn...
November 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892494/infections-by-human-gastrointestinal-helminths-are-associated-with-changes-in-faecal-microbiota-diversity-and-composition
#7
Timothy P Jenkins, Yasara Rathnayaka, Piyumali K Perera, Laura E Peachey, Matthew J Nolan, Lutz Krause, Rupika S Rajakaruna, Cinzia Cantacessi
Investigations of the impact that patent infections by soil-transmitted gastrointestinal nematode parasites exert on the composition of the host gut commensal flora are attracting growing interest by the scientific community. However, information collected to date varies across experiments, and further studies are needed to identify consistent relationships between parasites and commensal microbial species. Here, we explore the qualitative and quantitative differences between the microbial community profiles of cohorts of human volunteers from Sri Lanka with patent infection by one or more parasitic nematode species (H+), as well as that of uninfected subjects (H-) and of volunteers who had been subjected to regular prophylactic anthelmintic treatment (Ht)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797791/the-use-of-nemabiome-metabarcoding-to-explore-gastro-intestinal-nematode-species-diversity-and-anthelmintic-treatment-effectiveness-in-beef-calves
#8
Russell W Avramenko, Elizabeth M Redman, Roy Lewis, Murilo A Bichuette, Bruna M Palmeira, Thomas A Yazwinski, John S Gilleard
Next-generation deep amplicon sequencing, or metabarcoding, has revolutionized the study of microbial communities in humans, animals and the environment. However, such approaches have yet to be applied to parasitic helminth communities. We recently described the first example of such a method - nemabiome sequencing - based on deep-amplicon sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA, and validated its ability to quantitatively assess the species composition of cattle gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) communities...
November 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770689/recombinant-subunit-vaccines-for-soil-transmitted-helminths
#9
Jason B Noon, Raffi V Aroian
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) collectively infect one fourth of all human beings, and the majority of livestock in the developing world. These gastrointestinal nematodes are the most important parasites on earth with regard to their prevalence in humans and livestock. Current anthelmintic drugs are losing their efficacies due to increasing drug resistance, particularly in STHs of livestock and drug treatment is often followed by rapid reinfection due to failure of the immune system to develop a protective response...
August 3, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732158/deleterious-consequences-of-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-inhibition-for-nematodes
#10
Valerie J Winton, Alexander M Justen, Helen Deng, Laura L Kiessling
Parasitic nematodes pose a serious threat to agriculture, livestock, and human health. Increasing resistance to antiparasitic agents underscores the need to replenish our anthelmintic arsenal. The nonpathogenic Caenorhabditis elegans, which serves as an effective model of parasitic helminths, has been used to search for new anthelmintic leads. We previously reported small-molecule inhibitors of the essential C. elegans protein UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM or Glf). This enzyme is required for the generation of galactofuranose (Galf)-containing glycans and is needed in nematodes for proper cuticle formation...
September 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702376/nematode-species-identification-current-status-challenges-and-future-perspectives-for-cyathostomins
#11
Christina M Bredtmann, Jürgen Krücken, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Tetiana Kuzmina, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Human and animal health is globally affected by a variety of parasitic helminths. The impact of co-infections and development of anthelmintic resistance requires improved diagnostic tools, especially for parasitic nematodes e.g., to identify resistant species or attribute pathological effects to individual species or particular species combinations. In horses, co-infection with cyathostomins is rather a rule than an exception with typically 5 to 15 species (out of more than 40 described) per individual host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632749/using-a-health-rating-system-to-evaluate-the-usefulness-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-anthelmintic-study
#12
Kathryn J Weaver, Cassandra J May, Brian L Ellis
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are intestinal parasitic nematodes that infect humans, and are transmitted through contaminated soil. These nematodes include the large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus). Nearly 1.5 billion people (~24% of the population) worldwide are infected with at least one species of these parasites, burdening the poor, in particular, children and pregnant women. To combat these diseases, the WHO only recognizes four anthelmintic drugs, including the preferred drug, albendazole, for mass drug administration (MDA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415922/host-pharmacokinetics-and-drug-accumulation-of-anthelmintics-within-target-helminth-parasites-of-ruminants
#13
REVIEW
A Lifschitz, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
Anthelmintic drugs require effective concentrations to be attained at the site of parasite location for a certain period to assure their efficacy. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetic phase) directly influence drug concentrations attained at the site of action and the resultant pharmacological effect. The aim of the current review article was to provide an overview of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic features of different anthelmintic drugs, their availability in host tissues, accumulation within target helminths and resulting therapeutic efficacy...
July 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316380/integrated-parasite-management-with-special-reference-to-gastro-intestinal-nematodes
#14
REVIEW
I Maqbool, Z A Wani, R A Shahardar, I M Allaie, M M Shah
Domestic animals are susceptible to a large number of parasitic diseases, which lead to severe economic losses to livestock industry. So, it is necessary to control parasitic infections in these animals. Control of these helminths is undertaken mostly by anthelmintics, but because of their widespread use there is development of resistance across the globe. However, total dependence on a single method of control has proved to be non-sustainable and cost ineffective in the long term. A combination of treatment and management is necessary to control parasitism so that it will not cause further economic losses to producer as well as to livestock industry...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692327/papaya-latex-supernatant-has-a-potent-effect-on-the-free-living-stages-of-equid-cyathostomins-in-vitro
#15
L E Peachey, G L Pinchbeck, J B Matthews, F A Burden, J M Behnke, J E Hodgkinson
The control of equid gastrointestinal nematodes in developed countries, in particular the cyathostomins, is threatened by high levels of anthelmintic resistance. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the evaluation of traditional 'ethnoveterinary' medicines as alternatives to chemical anthelmintics. The cysteine proteinases (CPs), a group of enzymes derived from fruits such as papaya (Carica papaya), pineapple (Ananas comosus) and figs (Ficus spp.), have shown good efficacy against adult stages of a range of parasitic nematodes, in vitro and in vivo...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490394/compounds-derived-from-the-bhutanese-daisy-ajania-nubigena-demonstrate-dual-anthelmintic-activity-against-schistosoma-mansoni-and-trichuris-muris
#16
Phurpa Wangchuk, Mark S Pearson, Paul R Giacomin, Luke Becker, Javier Sotillo, Darren Pickering, Michael J Smout, Alex Loukas
BACKGROUND: Whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides. Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27415016/recent-duplication-and-functional-divergence-in-parasitic-nematode-levamisole-sensitive-acetylcholine-receptors
#17
Thomas B Duguet, Claude L Charvet, Sean G Forrester, Claudia M Wever, Joseph A Dent, Cedric Neveu, Robin N Beech
Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363703/evaluation-of-an-fda-approved-library-against-laboratory-models-of-human-intestinal-nematode-infections
#18
Jennifer Keiser, Gordana Panic, Roberto Adelfio, Noemi Cowan, Mireille Vargas, Ivan Scandale
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. METHODS: All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3)...
July 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27286336/a-hydroalcoholic-extract-from-paullinia-pinnata-l-roots-exerts-anthelmintic-activity-against-free-living-and-parasitic-nematodes
#19
Verena Spiegler, Eva Liebau, Carolin Peppler, Katharina Raue, Steffen Werne, Christina Strube, Felix Heckendorn, Christian Agyare, Timo Stark, Thomas Hofmann, Andreas Hensel
Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds...
August 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266697/the-impact-of-albendazole-treatment-on-the-incidence-of-viral-and-bacterial-induced-diarrhea-in-school-children-in-southern-vietnam-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Jacqueline M Leung, Chau Tran Thi Hong, Nghia Ho Dang Trung, Hoa Nhu Thi, Chau Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Thuy Vu Thi, Dinh Thanh Hong, Dinh Nguyen Huy Man, Sarah C L Knowles, Marcel Wolbers, Nhat Le Thanh Hoang, Guy Thwaites, Andrea L Graham, Stephen Baker
BACKGROUND: Anthelmintics are one of the more commonly available classes of drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (especially nematodes) in the human intestinal tract. As a result of their cost-effectiveness, mass school-based deworming programs are becoming routine practice in developing countries. However, experimental and clinical evidence suggests that anthelmintic treatments may increase susceptibility to other gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoa...
June 6, 2016: Trials
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