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anthelmintic, parasite, helminth, nematode

A Lifschitz, C Lanusse, L Alvarez
Anthelmintic drugs require effective concentrations to be attained at the site of parasite location for a certain period to assure their efficacy. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetic phase) directly influence drug concentrations attained at the site of action and the resultant pharmacological effect. The aim of the current review article was to provide an overview of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic features of different anthelmintic drugs, their availability in host tissues, accumulation within target helminths and resulting therapeutic efficacy...
April 17, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
I Maqbool, Z A Wani, R A Shahardar, I M Allaie, M M Shah
Domestic animals are susceptible to a large number of parasitic diseases, which lead to severe economic losses to livestock industry. So, it is necessary to control parasitic infections in these animals. Control of these helminths is undertaken mostly by anthelmintics, but because of their widespread use there is development of resistance across the globe. However, total dependence on a single method of control has proved to be non-sustainable and cost ineffective in the long term. A combination of treatment and management is necessary to control parasitism so that it will not cause further economic losses to producer as well as to livestock industry...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
L E Peachey, G L Pinchbeck, J B Matthews, F A Burden, J M Behnke, J E Hodgkinson
The control of equid gastrointestinal nematodes in developed countries, in particular the cyathostomins, is threatened by high levels of anthelmintic resistance. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the evaluation of traditional 'ethnoveterinary' medicines as alternatives to chemical anthelmintics. The cysteine proteinases (CPs), a group of enzymes derived from fruits such as papaya (Carica papaya), pineapple (Ananas comosus) and figs (Ficus spp.), have shown good efficacy against adult stages of a range of parasitic nematodes, in vitro and in vivo...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Phurpa Wangchuk, Mark S Pearson, Paul R Giacomin, Luke Becker, Javier Sotillo, Darren Pickering, Michael J Smout, Alex Loukas
BACKGROUND: Whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides. Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thomas B Duguet, Claude L Charvet, Sean G Forrester, Claudia M Wever, Joseph A Dent, Cedric Neveu, Robin N Beech
Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jennifer Keiser, Gordana Panic, Roberto Adelfio, Noemi Cowan, Mireille Vargas, Ivan Scandale
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. METHODS: All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3)...
July 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Verena Spiegler, Eva Liebau, Carolin Peppler, Katharina Raue, Steffen Werne, Christina Strube, Felix Heckendorn, Christian Agyare, Timo Stark, Thomas Hofmann, Andreas Hensel
Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds...
August 2016: Planta Medica
Jacqueline M Leung, Chau Tran Thi Hong, Nghia Ho Dang Trung, Hoa Nhu Thi, Chau Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Thuy Vu Thi, Dinh Thanh Hong, Dinh Nguyen Huy Man, Sarah C L Knowles, Marcel Wolbers, Nhat Le Thanh Hoang, Guy Thwaites, Andrea L Graham, Stephen Baker
BACKGROUND: Anthelmintics are one of the more commonly available classes of drugs to treat infections by parasitic helminths (especially nematodes) in the human intestinal tract. As a result of their cost-effectiveness, mass school-based deworming programs are becoming routine practice in developing countries. However, experimental and clinical evidence suggests that anthelmintic treatments may increase susceptibility to other gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoa...
June 6, 2016: Trials
Sien H Verschave, Johannes Charlier, Hannah Rose, Edwin Claerebout, Eric R Morgan
Nematode infections are an important economic constraint to cattle farming. Future risk levels and transmission dynamics will be affected by changes in climate and farm management. The prospect of altered parasite epidemiology in combination with anthelmintic resistance requires the adaptation of current control approaches. Mathematical models that simulate disease dynamics under changing climate and farm management can help to guide the optimization of helminth control strategies. Recent efforts have increasingly employed such models to assess the impact of predicted climate scenarios on future infection pressure for gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in cattle, and to evaluate possible adaptive control measures...
September 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
Bioactive compounds from marine and terrestrial organisms have been used extensively in the treatment of many diseases in both their natural form and as templates for synthetic modifications. This review summarizes present knowledge about anthelmintic effects of the extracts of bioactive plants in Nigeria against helminth parasites of ruminants. Plants traditionally used in livestock production are discussed. The main focus is hinged on in vitro and in vivo activities of secondary plant metabolites against nematodes of livestock...
June 1, 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
Hope Moore, Fanny Pandolfi, Ilias Kyriazakis
A questionnaire was distributed electronically amongst sheep farmers in England; it aimed to provide a quantification of current anthelmintic practices, farmer awareness of the issue of anthelmintic resistance (AR) and the uptake, awareness and opinions surrounding conventional and alternative methods of nematode control. The majority of farmers relied on several anthelmintics and used faecal egg counts to identify worm problems. Although farmers were aware of the issue of AR amongst helminth parasites in the UK, there was a disconnection between such awareness and on farm problems and practice of nematode control...
May 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Rasika Kumarasingha, Sarah Preston, Tiong-Chia Yeo, Diana S L Lim, Chu-Lee Tu, Enzo A Palombo, Jillian M Shaw, Robin B Gasser, Peter R Boag
BACKGROUND: Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in livestock animals globally, and considerable productivity losses to farmers. The control of these nematodes has relied largely on the use of a limited number of anthelmintics. However, resistance to many of these these anthelmintics is now widespread, and, therefore, there is a need to find new drugs to ensure sustained and effective treatment and control into the future. METHODS: Recently, we developed a screening assay to test natural, plant extracts with known inhibitory effects against the free-living worm Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Suzana G Lopes, Lilyan B G Barros, Helder Louvandini, Adibe L Abdalla, Livio M Costa Junior
BACKGROUND: Tannin-rich plants have been examined as an alternative for controlling the gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. In vivo assays typically examine the anthelmintic activity in female fecundity and/or the adult worm burden, without considering other life-cycle stages or the impact on pasture contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella in goats and the potential impact on pasture contamination with the infective larval stage of gastrointestinal nematodes...
February 24, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jemma K Cripps, Jennifer K Martin, Graeme Coulson
Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Heavily parasitised hosts are likely to have increased nutritional requirements and would be predicted to increase their food intake to compensate for costs of being parasitised, but experimental tests of the impacts of these parasites on the foraging efficiency of hosts are lacking, particularly in free-ranging wildlife. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) to test this prediction, removing nematodes from one group of adult females using an anthelmintic treatment...
2016: PloS One
Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas, Luciana Ferreira Domingues, Yousmel Alemán Gaínza, Waldomiro Barioni-Júnior, Sérgio Novita Esteves, Simone Cristina Méo Niciura
Levamisole phosphate, chosen based on its 100 % efficacy demonstrated by a previous fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), was used as the exclusive anthelmintic treatment in the Embrapa Southeast Livestock sheep flock from 2009 to 2014 in a target selected treatment scheme. In the present study, the effectiveness of this nematode control scheme was evaluated after 5 years by FECRT, larval development test (LDT), and a molecular test to assess the development of levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus...
March 2016: Parasitology Research
Enstela Shukullari, Dietmar Hamel, Dhimitër Rapti, Kurt Pfister, Martin Visser, Renate Winter, Steffen Rehbein
From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18...
December 2015: Parasitology Research
F Mansur, W Luoga, D J Buttle, I R Duce, A E Lowe, J M Behnke
Papaya latex has been demonstrated to be an efficacious anthelmintic against murine, porcine, ovine and canine nematode parasites, and even those infecting poultry, and it has some efficacy against rodent cestodes. The active ingredients of papaya latex are known to be cysteine proteinases (CPs). The experiments described in this paper indicate that CPs in papaya latex, and also those in pineapples, are highly efficacious against the equine cestode Anoplocephala perfoliata in vitro, by causing a significant reduction in motility leading to death of the worms...
September 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Ellen Mueller Fox, Christopher P Morris, Marc P Hübner, Edward Mitre
Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks-one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thomas A Yazwinski, Chris A Tucker, Jeremy Powell, Paul Beck, Eva Wray, Christine Weingartz
Fly and louse infestations are readily discerned and remedied in feedlot cattle. Tapeworm and fluke infections are accepted as probable but, given the lack of anthelmintics with realistic efficacy against these infections, these helminths are allowed to persist without treatment. Nematode infections are considered ubiquitous with cattle coming from pasture and are targeted with a macrocyclic lactone, usually in combination with a benzimidazole. Populations of nematodes seem to be effectively controlled by a combination of anthelmintic treatment, animal resistance and resilience, lack of reinfection, and diet...
July 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
N G C Vasileiou, G C Fthenakis, E Papadopoulos
The present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. Systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respiratory system, although dissemination of the various parasitic forms in the environment would not always result to subsequent infection; external parasites may also be disseminated during movements, e...
September 30, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
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