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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330321/osteopontin-promotes-protective-antigenic-tolerance-against-experimental-allergic-airway-disease
#1
Themis Alissafi, Evangelia Kourepini, Davina C M Simoes, Nikolaos Paschalidis, Maria Aggelakopoulou, Tim Sparwasser, Louis Boon, Hamida Hammad, Bart N Lambrecht, Vily Panoutsakopoulou
In the context of inflammation, osteopontin (Opn) is known to promote effector responses, facilitating a proinflammatory environment; however, its role during antigenic tolerance induction is unknown. Using a mouse model of asthma, we investigated the role of Opn during antigenic tolerance induction and its effects on associated regulatory cellular populations prior to disease initiation. Our experiments demonstrate that Opn drives protective antigenic tolerance by inducing accumulation of IFN-β-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as regulatory T cells, in mediastinal lymph nodes...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326123/tnf-receptor-signaling-is-a-driver-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-that-can-be-therapeutically-targeted-by-the-flavonoid-wogonin
#2
Claudia Dürr, Bola S Hanna, Angela Schulz, Fabienne Lucas, Manuela Zucknick, Axel Benner, Andrew Clear, Sibylle Ohl, Selcen Öztürk, Thorsten Zenz, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Min Li-Weber, Peter H Krammer, John G Gribben, Peter Lichter, Martina Seiffert
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy of mature B cells that strongly depend on microenvironmental factors and their deprivation has been identified as promising treatment approach for this incurable disease. Cytokine array screening of 247 chronic lymphocytic leukemia serum samples revealed elevated levels of TNF receptor-1 which were associated with poor clinical outcome. We detected a microenvironment-induced expression of TNF receptor-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro and aberrantly high expression of this receptor in proliferation centers of patients' lymph nodes...
January 11, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319881/systemic-il-2-anti-il-2ab-complex-combined-with-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-experimental-food-allergy-in-mice-through-induction-of-mucosal-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Paola L Smaldini, Fernando Trejo, José L Cohen, Eliane Piaggio, Guillermo H Docena
Therapeutic tolerance restoration has been proven to modify food allergy in patients and animal models and although sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has showed promise, combined therapy may be necessary to achieve a strong and long-term tolerance. In this work, we combined SLIT with systemic administration of IL-2 associated with an anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2/anti-IL-2Ab complex or IL-2C) to reverse the IgE-mediated experimental allergy. Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and milk proteins and orally challenged with allergen to elicit hypersensitivity reactions...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316256/immunosuppressive-effect-of-the-gut-microbiome-altered-by-high-dose-tacrolimus-in-mice
#4
Z Zhang, L Liu, H Tang, W Jiao, S Zeng, Y Xu, Q Zhang, Z Sun, A Mukherjee, X Zhang, X Hu
The alterations induced in gut microbiota by tacrolimus may affect immune function and organ transplantation. Mice were treated with a high-dose of tacrolimus for 14 days. The fecal microbiota were analyzed by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA genes, and the effect on metabolism was predicted using the sequence data. The subgroups of T cells in the serum, gut-associated lymphoid tissue and draining lymph nodes were determined by flow cytometry. Tacrolimus treatment significantly altered the relative abundance of Allobaculum, Bacteroides and Lactobacillus and CD4+ CD25hi FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells in the colonic mucosa and the circulation...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311385/immune-cell-infiltration-and-tertiary-lymphoid-structures-as-determinants-of-antitumor-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Victor H Engelhard, Anthony B Rodriguez, Ileana S Mauldin, Amber N Woods, J David Peske, Craig L Slingluff
Limited representation of intratumoral immune cells is a major barrier to tumor control. However, simply enhancing immune responses in tumor-draining lymph nodes or through adoptive transfer may not overcome the limited ability of tumor vasculature to support effector infiltration. An alternative is to promote a sustained immune response intratumorally. This idea has gained traction with the observation that many tumors are associated with tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), which organizationally resemble lymph nodes...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296848/enhanced-liver-gene-transfer-and-evasion-of-preexisting-humoral-immunity-with-exosome-enveloped-aav-vectors
#6
Amine Meliani, Florence Boisgerault, Zachary Fitzpatrick, Solenne Marmier, Christian Leborgne, Fanny Collaud, Marcelo Simon Sola, Severine Charles, Giuseppe Ronzitti, Alban Vignaud, Laetitia van Wittenberghe, Beatrice Marolleau, Fabienne Jouen, Sisareuth Tan, Olivier Boyer, Olivier Christophe, Alain R Brisson, Casey A Maguire, Federico Mingozzi
Results from clinical trials of liver gene transfer for hemophilia demonstrate the potential of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector platform. However, to achieve therapeutic transgene expression, in some cases high vector doses are required, which are associated with a higher risk of triggering anti-capsid cytotoxic T-cell responses. Additionally, anti-AAV preexisting immunity can prevent liver transduction even at low neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers. Here, we describe the use of exosome-associated AAV (exo-AAV) vectors as a robust liver gene delivery system that allows the therapeutic vector dose to be decreased while protecting from preexisting humoral immunity to the capsid...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288202/gm-csf-promotes-chronic-disability-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-altering-the-composition-of-central-nervous-system-infiltrating-cells-but-is-dispensable-for-disease-induction
#7
Patrick C Duncker, Joshua S Stoolman, Amanda K Huber, Benjamin M Segal
GM-CSF has been portrayed as a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, ostensibly, in multiple sclerosis. C57BL/6 mice deficient in GM-CSF are resistant to EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 The mechanism of action of GM-CSF in EAE is poorly understood. In this study, we show that GM-CSF augments the accumulation of MOG35-55-specific T cells in the skin draining lymph nodes of primed mice, but it is not required for the development of encephalitogenic T cells...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284034/development-of-a-novel-francisella-tularensis-live-vaccine-strain-expressing-ovalbumin-provides-insight-into-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-responses
#8
David E Place, David R Williamson, Yevgeniy Yuzefpolskiy, Bhuvana Katkere, Surojit Sarkar, Vandana Kalia, Girish S Kirimanjeswara
Progress towards a safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of tularemia has been hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding the correlates of protective adaptive immunity and a lack of tools to generate this knowledge. CD8+ T cells are essential for protective immunity against virulent strains of Francisella tularensis, but to-date, it has not been possible to study these cells in an antigen-specific manner. Here, we report the development of a tool for expression of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) in F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259102/altered-homeostasis-and-development-of-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-represent-an-il-2r-dependent-risk-for-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#9
Connor J Dwyer, Allison L Bayer, Carmen Fotino, Liping Yu, Cecilia Cabello-Kindelan, Natasha C Ward, Kevin H Toomer, Zhibin Chen, Thomas R Malek
The cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is critical for the functions of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The contribution of polymorphisms in the gene encoding the IL-2 receptor α subunit (IL2RA), which are associated with type 1 diabetes, is difficult to determine because autoimmunity depends on variations in multiple genes, where the contribution of any one gene product is small. We investigated the mechanisms whereby a modest reduction in IL-2R signaling selectively in T lymphocytes influenced the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse model...
December 19, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247716/airway-exposure-initiates-peanut-allergy-by-involving-the-il-1-pathway-and-t-follicular-helper-cells-in-mice
#10
Joseph J Dolence, Takao Kobayashi, Koji Iijima, James Krempski, Li Y Drake, Alexander L Dent, Hirohito Kita
BACKGROUND: Little is currently known regarding the immunological mechanism(s) that initiate peanut allergy. Notably, peanut proteins have been detected in house dust, and their levels correlate with peanut allergy prevalence. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a new mouse model for peanut allergy and to investigate the immunological mechanisms involved in peanut allergen sensitization. METHODS: To mimic environmental exposure, naïve mice were exposed to peanut flour by inhalation for up to 4 weeks...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236683/effector-cd8-t-cells-dedifferentiate-into-long-lived-memory-cells
#11
Ben Youngblood, J Scott Hale, Haydn T Kissick, Eunseon Ahn, Xiaojin Xu, Andreas Wieland, Koichi Araki, Erin E West, Hazem E Ghoneim, Yiping Fan, Pranay Dogra, Carl W Davis, Bogumila T Konieczny, Rustom Antia, Xiaodong Cheng, Rafi Ahmed
Memory CD8 T cells that circulate in the blood and are present in lymphoid organs are an essential component of long-lived T cell immunity. These memory CD8 T cells remain poised to rapidly elaborate effector functions upon re-exposure to pathogens, but also have many properties in common with naive cells, including pluripotency and the ability to migrate to the lymph nodes and spleen. Thus, memory cells embody features of both naive and effector cells, fuelling a long-standing debate centred on whether memory T cells develop from effector cells or directly from naive cells...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234894/amputation-neuroma-mimicking-lymph-node-metastasis-of-remnant-gastric-cancer-a-case-report
#12
Kenichiro Furukawa, Yutaka Tanizawa, Kimihide Kusafuka, Noriyuki Nishiwaki, Keiichi Fujiya, Hayato Omori, Sanae Kaji, Makoto Hikage, Rie Makuuchi, Tomoyuki Irino, Masanori Tokunaga, Etsuro Bando, Taiichi Kawamura, Masanori Terashima
BACKGROUND: Amputation neuromas (ANs) are reactive hyperplasia of nerve tissues that occur after a trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerves. Only two previous reports of ANs occurring around the stomach and post gastrectomy have been reported. We report the case of a patient with AN near the remnant stomach who underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old man underwent distal gastrectomy, D1+ lymphadenectomy, and Billroth-I reconstruction for early gastric cancer in another hospital at 63 years of age...
December 12, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229919/migratory-dendritic-cells-acquire-and-present-lymphatic-endothelial-cell-archived-antigens-during-lymph-node-contraction
#13
Ross M Kedl, Robin S Lindsay, Jeffrey M Finlon, Erin D Lucas, Rachel S Friedman, Beth A Jirón Tamburini
Antigens derived from viral infection or vaccination can persist within a host for many weeks after resolution of the infection or vaccine responses. We previously identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) as the repository for this antigen archival, yet LECs are unable to present their archived antigens to CD8+ T cells, and instead transfer their antigens to CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APC). Here we show that the exchange of archived antigens between LECs and APCs is mediated by migratory dendritic cells (DC)...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199268/a-rare-case-of-giant-basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-abdominal-wall-excision-and-immediate-reconstruction-with-a-pedicled-deep-inferior-epigastric-artery-perforator-diep-flap
#14
Sara Di Lorenzo, Giovanni Zabbia, Bartolo Corradino, Massimiliano Tripoli, Roberto Pirrello, Adriana Cordova
BACKGROUND Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) greater than 5 cm in diameter is called giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC), or super giant basal cell carcinoma if it has a diameter larger than 20 cm. Giant BCC only accounts for 0.5% of BCCs and super giant BCC is exceedingly rare. On account of their rarity, there are no established guidelines for GBCC treatment. CASE REPORT We describe a peculiar case of an 82-year-old woman with a GBCC carcinoma of the lower abdominal wall. The tumor was surgically removed with ipsilateral inguinal lymph nodes and the abdominal wall was reconstructed immediately with a pedicled deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196097/the-influence-of-tumour-derived-extracellular-vesicles-on-local-and-distal-metastatic-dissemination
#15
REVIEW
Laura Nogués, Alberto Benito-Martin, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication that have been ignored for decades. Tumour cells benefit from the secretion of vesicles as they can influence the behaviour of neighbouring tumour cells within the tumour microenvironment. Several studies have shown that extracellular vesicles play an active role in pre-metastatic niche formation and importantly, they are involved in the metastatic organotropism of different tumour types. Tumour-derived EVs carry and transfer molecules to recipient cells, modifying their behaviour through a process known as "EV-driven education"...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189878/-quality-indicators-for-colon-cancer-surgery-evidence-based-development-of-a%C3%A2-set-of-indicators-for-the-outcome-quality
#16
REVIEW
J Hardt, H-J Buhr, C Klinger, S Benz, K Ludwig, J Kalff, S Post
BACKGROUND: Quality assessment in surgery is gaining in importance. Although sporadic recommendations for quality indicators (QI) in oncological colon surgery can be found in the literature, these are usually not systematically derived from a solid evidence base. Moreover, reference ranges for QI are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this initiative was the development of evidence-based QI for oncological colon resections by an expert panel invited by the German Society of General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV)...
November 30, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187689/-a-case-of-leptomeningeal-melanomatosis-with-acute-paraplegia-and-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies
#17
Kasumi Hattori, Nozomu Matsuda, Takenobu Murakami, Eiichi Ito, Yoshikazu Ugawa
A 62-year-old man with acute paraplegia was transferred to our hospital. He had flaccid paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies, such as mydriasis of the left pupil, abduction palsy of the left eye, hoarseness and dysphagia, but no meningeal irritation signs. MRI of the spinal canal showed swellings of the conus medullaris and the cauda equine, and also contrast enhancement of the spinal meninges. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis and protein increment. The lymph node was swollen in his right axilla...
November 28, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180880/identification-of-cox5b-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-high-grade-glioma-patients
#18
Tieyi Hu, Jiazhuang Xi
Background: Malignant glioma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and is known to exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity in its deregulation of different oncogenic pathways. The molecular subclasses of human glioma are not well known. Thus, it is crucial to identify vital oncogenic pathways in glioma with significant relationships to patient survival. Methods: In this study, we devised a bioinformatics strategy to map patterns of oncogenic pathway activation in glioma, from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163524/t-helper-17-promotes-induction-of-antigen-specific-gut-mucosal-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-following-adenovirus-vector-vaccination
#19
Masahisa Hemmi, Masashi Tachibana, Natsuki Fujimoto, Masaki Shoji, Fuminori Sakurai, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Few current vaccines can establish antigen (Ag)-specific immune responses in both mucosal and systemic compartments. Therefore, development of vaccines providing defense against diverse infectious agents in both compartments is of high priority in global health. Intramuscular vaccination of an adenovirus vector (Adv) has been shown to induce Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in both systemic and gut-mucosal compartments. We previously found that type I interferon (IFN) signaling is required for induction of gut-mucosal, but not systemic, CTLs following vaccination; however, the molecular mechanism involving type I IFN signaling remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163474/aged-gut-microbiota-contributes-to-systemical-inflammaging-after-transfer-to-germ-free-mice
#20
Floris Fransen, Adriaan A van Beek, Theo Borghuis, Sahar El Aidy, Floor Hugenholtz, Christa van der Gaast-de Jongh, Huub F J Savelkoul, Marien I De Jonge, Mark V Boekschoten, Hauke Smidt, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF) mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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