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Wan-Ju Lee, Todd A Lee, Gregory S Calip, Katie J Suda, Leslie Briars, Glen T Schumock
Background: Prior studies evaluating the relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFI) and infection were conducted in adults and had conflicting findings. We sought to examine the risk of serious infection associated with TNFIs compared with nonbiologic immunomodulators in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to compare the risk among individual TNFIs. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database of patients age <30 years with a diagnosis of IBD who initiated treatment with a TNFI or immunomodulator (thiopurines or methotrexate) between 2009 and 2013...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Tulshidas S Patil, Ashwini S Deshpande, Shirish Deshpande, Pravin Shende
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged administration of high dose antibiotics using oral and injectable routes and their associated side effects, show limitations to successful treatment outcome of TB. Nanocarrier-based dry powder inhalers (DPIs) may provide a breakthrough as an alternative therapeutic approach because of their stable, non-invasive nature and ability to target the drug at the site of infection. The current review focuses on the roadmap of the respiratory system, drug deposition and targeting at the site of infection via pulmonary route...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Kimberly N Means, Amanda E Gentry, Tammy T Nguyen
Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common diagnosis of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Intravenous (IV) diltiazem bolus is often the initial drug of choice for acute management of AF with rapid ventricular response (RVR). The route of diltiazem after the initial IV loading dose may influence the disposition of the patient from the ED. However, no studies exist comparing oral (PO) immediate release and IV continuous infusion diltiazem in the emergency setting...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Laura Hidalgo-Garcia, Julio Galvez, M Elena Rodriguez-Cabezas, Per O Anderson
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by an exacerbated mucosal immune response. Macrophages play pivotal roles in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. They are highly plastic cells and their activation state depends on the local environment. In the healthy intestine, resident macrophages display an M2 phenotype characterized by inflammatory energy, while inflammatory M1 macrophages dominate in the inflamed intestinal mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Asmah Hamid, Farah Wahida Ibrahim, Teoh Hooi Ming, Mohd Nazir Nasrom, Norelina Eusoff, Khairana Husain, Mazlyzam Abdul Latif
BACKGROUND: Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith belongs to the Zingiberaceae family that is widely distributed throughout the tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia. It is locally known as 'Lempoyang' and traditionally used to treat fever, constipation and to relieve pain. It is also known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on these antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of ethyl-acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes against ethanol-induced brain damage in male Wistar rats...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zachary R Smith, Bryan Kelly, Rana L Awdish, Sara Hegab
Treprostinil diolamine is the first oral dosage preparation of a prostacyclin analogue for use in treatment naive pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This case series and review of the available literature describes the experience of patients with PAH receiving treprostinil by intravenous (IV), subcutaneous (SQ), or inhalation route who were transitioned to treprostinil diolamine. At our institution, 3 patients were transitioned to treprostinil diolamine who received treprostinil administered by each of the alternative routes: IV, SQ, and inhalation...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Akifumi Kogame, Ronald Lee, Liping Pan, Miyako Sudo, Masami Nonaka, Yuu Moriya, Tomoaki Higuchi, Yoshihiko Tagawa
1. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of fasiglifam were investigated in rats, dogs, and humans. 2. The absolute oral bioavailability of fasiglifam was high in all species (> 76.0%). 3. After oral administration of [14 C]fasiglifam, the administered radioactivity was quantitatively recovered and the major route of excretion of radioactivity was via feces in all species. 4. Fasiglifam was a major component in the plasma and feces in all species. Its oxidative metabolite (M-I) was observed as a minor metabolite in rat and human plasma (< 10% of plasma radioactivity)...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Shruti Shambhavi, Rashmi Bagga, Pallavi Bansal, Jasvinder Kalra, Praveen Kumar
For prevention of a recurrent preterm birth (PTB), intramuscular 17-α-hydroxy progesterone caproate (IM 17 OHPC) weekly is recommended. Vaginal progesterone is preferred for women at risk for PTB due to a short cervical length, but may be useful in women with a prior PTB. However, there is no consensus about the optimal vaginal formulation or its efficacy as compared to 17 OHPC to prevent recurrent PTB. We randomised 100 women with a singleton pregnancy between 16 and 24 weeks of gestation and ≥ one prior spontaneous PTB, of a singleton (>16 to <37 weeks of gestation) to receive the 200 mg vaginal progesterone effervescent tablet daily (Group A) or IM 17-OHPC, 250 mg weekly (Group B) till 37 weeks of gestation or delivery...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Lisa A Santry, Thomas M McAusland, Leonardo Susta, Geoffrey A Wood, Pierre P Major, Jim J Petrik, Byram W Bridle, Sarah K Wootton
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although primarily an avian pathogen, NDV is a potent oncolytic virus that has been shown to be safe and effective in a variety of preclinical cancer models and human clinical trials. To produce virus for oncolytic trials, NDV is commonly amplified in embryonated chicken eggs and purified from the allantoic fluid. Conventional methods for purifying virus from allantoic fluid often result in relatively low-titer preparations containing high levels of impurities, including immunogenic chicken host cell proteins from allantoic fluid...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Anan S Jarab, Tareq L Mukattash, Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Maher Khdour
Background: Diabetes is increasingly becoming a major health problem in Jordan and glycemic goals are often not achieved. Objective: To explore the patients' perspectives regarding type 2 diabetes and its management in order to "fine-tune" future pharmaceutical care intervention programs. Method: Focus groups method was used to explore views from individuals with type 2 diabetes attending outpatient diabetes clinic at the Royal Medical Services Hospital...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Nahide Ekici Günay, Sabahattin Muhtaroğlu, Abdulkadir Bedirli
BACKGROUND: Free radical damage is known to occur during liver regeneration. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. FK506 has been widely used as an immunosuppressant that stimulates hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy. AIMS: To explore whether EGb761 enhances liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, we investigated the effects of EGb761 alone and in combination with FK506 on the liver regenerative process...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
John Spiliotis, Nikolaos Kopanakis, Anastasia Prodromidou, Alexis Terras, Anastasia Polichronaki, Christina Koutikova, Anna Gogou, Christina Sidera, Elias Efstathiou
PURPOSE: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) has been proposed as the treatment of choice in patients suffering from intestinal failure (IF) and has been claimed to improve survival and quality of life either in patients with benign disorders or even in those with malignancies. The purpose of the present analysis was to report characteristics and outcomes of adult patients with IF receiving HPN in Greece. METHODS: Patients that received HPN between 2011 and 2017 were included in this retrospective analysis...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Tae Hyun Ban, Ji-Won Min, Changhwan Seo, Da Rae Kim, Yu Ho Lee, Byung Ha Chung, Kyung-Hwan Jeong, Jae Wook Lee, Beom Seok Kim, Sang-Ho Lee, Bum Soon Choi, Jin Suk Han, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: The true incidence of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is thought to be underestimated because numerous ingredients known or suspected to contain aristolochic acid (AA) are used in traditional medicine in Korea. Methods: We collected data on cases of AAN since 1996 via a database in Korea. We evaluated the year of AAN development, route to obtaining AA-containing herbal medicine, gender, reason for taking AA-containing herbal medicine, clinical manifestations, histological findings, phytochemical analysis, and prognosis of patients with AAN...
March 20, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Ali Mohammad Shirzad, Mehri Habibi, Saeid Bouzari
Complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Proteus mirabilis are among the most common disorders. An effective vaccine could reduce the prevalence of such infections and antibiotic resistance in society. In the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different combinations of the MrpH adhesion and flagellin (FliC) of P. mirabilis was evaluated in a prime-boost strategy of vaccination. Applying the FliC as an adjuvant resulted in the stimulation of mixed Th1- and Th2-immune responses against the truncated form of MrpH with a shift toward Th1...
March 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Federica Porcaro, Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppe Crisafulli, Francesco Guglielmo, Giovanni Battista Pajno
Children who are highly sensitive to milk may also have severe allergic reactions after exposure to cow's milk proteins(CMP) through a different administration route than the oral one. We describe the case of a 16-year-old Caucasian boy with a clinical history of persistent cow's milk allergy (CMA), who developed one episode of anaphylaxis following cutaneous application of a bovine colostrum containing cream to a surgical wound. UniCAP testing showed a significant elevation in specific IgE antibodies to whey milk proteins...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Roberta Lanzillo, Luca Prosperini, Claudio Gasperini, Marcello Moccia, Roberta Fantozzi, Carla Tortorella, Viviana Nociti, Pietro Annovazzi, Paola Cavalla, Marta Radaelli, Simona Malucchi, Valentina Torri Clerici, Laura Boffa, Fabio Buttari, Paolo Ragonese, Giorgia Teresa Maniscalco, Massimiliano Di Filippo, Maria Chiara Buscarinu, Federica Pinardi, Antonio Gallo, Giancarlo Coghe, Ilaria Pesci, Alice Laroni, Alberto Gajofatto, Massimiliano Calabrese, Valentina Tomassini, Eleonora Cocco, Claudio Solaro
In this independent, multicenter, retrospective study, we investigated the short-term persistence to treatment with first-line self-injectable or oral disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Data of patients regularly attending 21 Italian MS Centres who started a self-injectable or an oral DMT in 2015 were collected to: (1) estimate the proportion of patients discontinuing the treatment; (3) explore reasons for discontinuation; (3) identify baseline predictors of treatment discontinuation over a follow-up period of 12 months...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Roberta Venturella, Alberto Vaiarelli, Laura Buffo, Pietro D'alessandro, Silvia Colamaria, Sara Pedri, Costantino Di Carlo, Erminia Alviggi, Marina Forte, Federica Faustini, Fulvio Zullo, Laura Rienzi, Flippo M Ubaldi
We aimed to evaluate patients' perspectives on a progesterone subcutaneous formulation for endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. In this prospective study, women with at least one experience with vaginal progesterone, undergone endometrial preparation with oral estradiol valerate and daily subcutaneous progesterone administered from the fifth day before the transfer until the day of the beta-hCG test. Patients completed three questionnaires, at enrollment (Q1), for gathering information on the experience with vaginal treatment and expectations about the subcutaneous route and then at the time of the transfer (Q2) and eight days later (Q3)...
March 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Bryce Chiang, Jaehwan Jung, Mark Prausnitz
The suprachoroidal space (SCS) is a potential space between the sclera and choroid that traverses the circumference of the posterior segment of the eye. The SCS is an attractive site for drug delivery because it targets the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium and retina with high bioavailability, while maintaining low levels elsewhere in the eye. Indeed, phase III clinical trials are investigating the safety and efficacy of SCS drug delivery. Here, we review the anatomy and physiology of the SCS; methods to access the SCS; kinetics of SCS drug delivery; strategies to target within the SCS; current and potential clinical indications; and the safety and efficacy of this approach in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Swetha Sangomla, Mohd Aslam Saifi, Amit Khurana, Chandraiah Godugu
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs but its use has been limited due to constraints of cardiotoxic side effects. The precise mechanism underlying cardiotoxicity is not yet fully understood but oxidative stress has been found to be a primary mechanism behind this. In addition, DOX induced cardiotoxicity also shows involvement of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Since oxidative stress plays major role in DOX induced cardiotoxicity, different antioxidants have been tried to prevent cardiotoxicity of DOX...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jared W Skinner, Dana M Otzel, Andrew Bowser, Daniel Nargi, Sanjay Agarwal, Mark D Peterson, Baiming Zou, Stephen E Borst, Joshua F Yarrow
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle strength responses have been reported in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) administering testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) to middle-aged and older men. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether TRT improves FFM and muscle strength in middle-aged and older men and whether the muscular responses vary by TRT administration route. METHODS: Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted from inception through 31 March 2017 to identify double-blind RCTs that compared intramuscular or transdermal TRT vs...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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