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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449321/a-review-of-associated-controversies-surrounding-glucocorticoid-use-in-veterinary-emergency-and-critical-care
#1
Maya A Aharon, Jennifer E Prittie, Kate Buriko
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature in human and veterinary medicine regarding the indications for, efficacy of, and controversies surrounding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in the emergency and critical care (ECC) setting, and to provide an overview of the most commonly used synthetic GC formulations. MEDICATIONS: Synthetic GCs vary in GC and mineralocorticoid potency, hypothalamic pituitary axis suppression, duration of action, route of administration, and clinical indication for use...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449086/a-coordinated-action-of-blood-borne-and-brain-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-in-the-response-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
A Santi, L Genis, I Torres Aleman
In response to injury, the brain produces different neuroprotective molecules, such as insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). However, IGF-I is also taken up by the brain from the circulation in response to physiological stimuli. Herein, we analyzed in mice the relative contribution of circulating and locally produced IGF-I to increased brain IGF-I levels after insult. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by a controlled impact resulted in increased IGF-I levels in the vicinity of the lesion, but mice with low serum IGF-I showed significantly lower increases...
April 26, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448237/regulatory-t-cell-therapy-for-uveitis-a-new-promising-challenge
#3
Arnaud Foussat, Sylvie Gregoire, Nathalie Clerget-Chossat, Celine Terrada, Hélène Asnagli, François M Lemoine, David Klatzmann, Phuc LeHoang, Miguel Forte, Bahram Bodaghi
Uveitis is a sight-threatening primary intraocular inflammation of various origins in mainly young and active patients. Due to the absence of biomarkers in most of the cases, the current treatment of noninfectious entities remains nonspecific, using corticosteroids, conventional immunosuppressors, and more recently biological agents. Identification of regulatory T cells in different models of autoimmune uveitis together with the evaluation of this important subpopulation in different entities paved the way for new therapeutic strategies, in addition to exclusive pharmaceutical approaches...
May 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447980/disposable-dosators-for-pulmonary-insufflation-of-therapeutic-agents-to-small-animals
#4
Phillip G Durham, Shumaila N Hanif, Lucia Garcia Contreras, Ellen F Young, Miriam S Braunstein, Anthony J Hickey
Development of new therapeutic products requires efficacy testing in an animal model. The pulmonary route of administration can be utilized to deliver drugs locally and systemically. Evaluation of dry powder aerosols necessitates an efficient dispersion mechanism to maintain high concentrations in an exposure chamber or for direct endotracheal administration. While solutions exist to expose animals by passive inhalation to dry powder aerosols, most require masses of powder in large excess of the dose delivered...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446826/a-systematic-and-mechanistic-review-on-the-phytopharmacological-properties-of-alhagi-species
#5
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Marjan Fallah, Milad Moloudizargari, Fatemeh Mehdikhani, Peyman Sepehrnia, Bigard Moradi
Alhagi species are well known in Iran (locally known as Khar Shotor) and other parts of Asia as a popular folk medicine. Recent research has shown extensive pharmacological effects of these species. This paper is a comprehensive review of the phytopharmacological effects and traditional uses of Alhagi species and their active constituents with special attention to the responsible mechanisms, effective dosages and routes of administration. The Alhagi species studied in this paper include: A. maurorum, A. camelorum, A...
October 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445900/central-and-peripheral-glucagon-reduces-hyperlipidemia-in-rats-and-hamsters
#6
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Hiren M Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Kiran Shah, Rajesh Bahekar, Gaurang B Shah, Mukul R Jain
Increased lipid levels in blood contribute to increasing the risk of diabetic complications. Glucagon exerts lipid lowering effects in diabetic state. However, the mechanism behind the lipid reduction by glucagon independent of glucose homeostasis is not well understood. We assessed the actions of glucagon on lipid modulation in blood and markers in liver in hyperlipidemic hamsters and rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Golden Syrian hamsters on a hyperlipidemic diet for 2 weeks were administered a single dose of glucagon by subcutaneous (SC, 150 and 300 µg/kg) or intracerebroventricular (ICV, 15 and 30 µg/animal) route...
April 26, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445778/the-impact-of-bilateral-vagotomy-on-the-physostigmine-induced-airway-constriction-in-ferrets
#7
Burim Neziri, Armond Daci, Shaip Krasniqi, Ramadan Sopi, Musa A Haxhiu
Vagal innervations have a great role in the respiratory function and are the main route of signal transmission from respiratory neural centers into the trachea and others conducting airways. We have investigated the role of central mechanisms related to vagal neural pathways and the cholinergic outflow in tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone and lung mechanics parameters. Parameters of lung mechanics such as lung resistance (RL), dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and pressure in bypassed tracheal segment (Ptseg) were measured before and after vagotomy and asphyxia test...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445495/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modelling-after-subcutaneous-intravenous-and-buccal-administration-of-a-high-concentration-formulation-of-buprenorphine-in-conscious-cats
#8
Graeme M Doodnaught, Beatriz P Monteiro, Javier Benito, Daniel Edge, Francis Beaudry, Ludovic Pelligand, Paulo Steagall
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the joint pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model and evaluate thermal antinociception of a high-concentration formulation of buprenorphine (Simbadol™) in cats. METHODS: Six healthy cats (4.9 ± 0.7 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover study. Simbadol™ (1.8 mg mL-1) was administered by the subcutaneous (SC; 0.24 mg kg-1), intravenous (IV; 0.12 mg kg-1) or buccal (OTM; 0.12 mg kg-1) route of administration and thermal thresholds (TT) were compared with a saline group (SAL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444753/examination-of-toxicity-and-collagen-linearity-after-the-administration-of-the-protein-cross-linker-genipin-in-equine-tendon-and-dermis-a-pilot-study
#9
M Bellefeuille, D F Peters, M Nolin, P Slusarewicz, D Telgenhoff
OBJECTIVE: Collagen cross-linking is an attractive therapeutic route aimed at supplementing natural collagen stabilisation. In this study the toxicity of the cross-linker genipin (GP) was examined in avascular (tendon) and vascular (dermis) tissue. METHODS: High doses of GP were injected intratendinously into three yearling horses and evaluated at various time points up to 30 days. A second group of three yearlings were injected into the dermis and evaluated at various time points up to 1 year...
May 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444082/ii-brazilian-consensus-on-the-use-of-human-immunoglobulin-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiencies
#10
Ekaterini Simões Goudouris, Almerinda Maria do Rego Silva, Aluce Loureiro Ouricuri, Anete Sevciovic Grumach, Antonio Condino-Neto, Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Carolina Cardoso de Mello Prando, Cristina Maria Kokron, Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos, Fabíola Scancetti Tavares, Gesmar Rodrigues Silva Segundo, Irma Cecília Douglas Paes Barreto, Mayra de Barros Dorna, Myrthes Anna Maragna Toledo Barros, Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte
In the last few years, new primary immunodeficiencies and genetic defects have been described. Recently, immunoglobulin products with improved compositions and for subcutaneous use have become available in Brazil. In order to guide physicians on the use of human immunoglobulin to treat primary immunodeficiencies, based on a narrative literature review and their professional experience, the members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Group of the Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunology prepared an updated document of the 1st Brazilian Consensus, published in 2010...
2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443509/pharmacokinetics-tissue-distribution-and-excretion-study-of-fluorescein-labeled-ps916-in-rats
#11
Yu Mingming, Wang Yuanhong, Ma Fugang, Yu Weijie, Jiang Tingfu, L V Zhihua
BACKGROUND: PS916, chitosan derivatives with shown activities in atherosclerotic and fatty liver, is being investigated as an anti-atherosclerotic agent in clinical trials in China. METHODS: Fluorescein-labeled PS916 (PS916-FTC) was prepared by the reaction with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The pharmacokinetics and bio-disposition of PS916-FTC were studied in rats after oral or intravenous administration. RESULTS: Analysis of the plasma, urine, fecal and tissue samples collected at intervals up to 72 h revealed that PS916-FTC exhibited moderate volume of distribution (Vss, 0...
April 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441898/novel-route-of-sirolimus-administration-in-a-neonate
#12
Ashley B Clark, Indira Chandrasekar, Jennee Nickleson
A term newborn presented with widespread cutaneous erythematous to bluish lesions since birth. He had extensive lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, brain, retina, heart, and bones. He also developed an intestinal perforation due to erosion of an intestinal lesion. Due to his critical status and clinical presentation, he was initially diagnosed with multifocal lymphangioendotheliomatosis with thrombocytopenia (MLT), and sirolimus treatment was initiated. Sirolimus was given by buccal route in this nonfeeding patient...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441044/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-midazolam-following-intravenous-and-intramuscular-administration-to-sheep
#13
Bradley T Simon, Elizabeth M Scallan, Odette O, Lisa Sams Ebner, Michelle N Cerullo, Christelle Follette, Sherry K Cox, Thomas J Doherty, Ignacio Lizarraga
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of midazolam following IV and IM administration in sheep. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult rams. PROCEDURES Sheep were administered midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) by the IV route and then by the IM route 7 days later in a crossover study. Physiologic and behavioral variables were assessed and blood samples collected for determination of plasma midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam (primary midazolam metabolite) concentrations immediately before (baseline) and at predetermined times for 1,440 minutes after midazolam administration...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438780/penetration-route-of-the-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-agonist-sa22465-and-betamethasone-into-rabbit-meibomian-gland-based-on-pharmacokinetics-and-autoradiography
#14
Nagayoshi Asano, Kenji Ueda, Kouichi Kawazu
Meibomian glands are tiny sebaceous glands embedded within specific types of dense connective tissues. This study investigated drug penetration into meibomian glands following a single topical administration in rabbits. We measured time-course concentrations of the selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist (SEGRA) SA22465 and betamethasone in lid margins, palpebral conjunctival epithelium, and meibomian glands following a single instillation using a newly established collection method. We also visualized the distribution of (14)C-SA22465 in eyelid tissue sections using micro-autoradiography...
April 24, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438674/current-state-and-challenges-in-developing-oral-vaccines
#15
REVIEW
Julia E Vela Ramirez, Lindsey A Sharpe, Nicholas A Peppas
While vaccination remains the most cost effective strategy for disease prevention, communicable diseases persist as the second leading cause of death worldwide. There is a need to design safe, novel vaccine delivery methods to protect against unaddressed and emerging diseases. Development of vaccines administered orally is preferable to traditional injection-based formulations for numerous reasons including improved safety and compliance, and easier manufacturing and administration. Additionally, the oral route enables stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses at both systemic and mucosal sites to establish broader and long-lasting protection...
April 21, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437176/echinocandins-in-ocular-therapeutics
#16
Akash Patil, Soumyajit Majumdar
Fungal infections of the eye, especially fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis, are major causes of concern and if left untreated could lead to vision loss. Currently, natamycin (polyene antifungal) is the only commercially available topical agent used for the treatment of ocular fungal infections. The other antifungals, belonging to the polyene and azole classes, are used off-label in treating ocular infections and are administered topically, orally, intraocularly, or systemically. Even though their use through the different routes of administration has shown favorable outcomes, challenges such as poor ocular penetration, low bioavailability, ocular toxicity, and systemic side effects limit their utility...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437025/effectiveness-of-paracetamol-versus-ibuprofen-administration-in-febrile-children-a-systematic-literature-review
#17
Kaajal Narayan, Simon Cooper, Julia Morphet, Kelli Innes
AIM: The use of antipyretics to manage the febrile child is becoming increasingly popular. Paracetamol and ibuprofen are the most commonly used interventions to manage fever in children; however, there have been no comparative analyses. The aim of the study is to evaluate the evidence comparing paracetamol to ibuprofen in the treatment of fever in children. METHODS: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials investigating the administration of oral paracetamol and ibuprofen to reduce fever in children...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436333/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-pakistan-current-estimate-and-major-risk-factors
#18
Aiman Arshad, Usman Ali Ashfaq
In Pakistan, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major healthcare problem, with acute and chronic infections responsible for liver damage, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Under the Human Development Index of the United Nations, Pakistan is ranked 134th of 174 countries due to its poor educational and health standards. This study was designed to study HCV and its genotype prevalence in different cities and provinces of Pakistan and describe the major routes of HCV transmission. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, Mendeley, and Google Scholar...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435493/prehospital-care-for-the-adult-and-pediatric-seizure-patient-current-evidence-based-recommendations
#19
Eric C Silverman, Karl A Sporer, Justin M Lemieux, John F Brown, Kristi L Koenig, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Eric M Rudnick, Angelo A Salvucci, Greg H Gilbert
INTRODUCTION: We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of adult and pediatric patients with a seizure and to compare these recommendations against the current protocol used by the 33 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies in California. METHODS: We performed a review of the evidence in the prehospital treatment of patients with a seizure, and then compared the seizure protocols of each of the 33 EMS agencies for consistency with these recommendations...
April 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435338/recommendations-for-optimizing-methotrexate-treatment-for-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#20
REVIEW
Alfonso E Bello, Elizabeth L Perkins, Randy Jay, Petros Efthimiou
Methotrexate (MTX) remains the cornerstone therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with well-established safety and efficacy profiles and support in international guidelines. Clinical and radiologic results indicate benefits of MTX monotherapy and combination with other agents, yet patients may not receive optimal dosing, duration, or route of administration to maximize their response to this drug. This review highlights best practices for MTX use in RA patients. First, to improve the response to oral MTX, a high initial dose should be administered followed by rapid titration...
2017: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
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