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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333830/-treatment-with-sublingual-desmopressin-in-two-infants-with-hydranencephaly-and-central-diabetes-insipidus
#1
Gustavo R Marín, Berta Baspineiro, Iris Vilca
Central diabetes insipidus is a rare disease in children caused by a deficiency of vasopressin. Its main clinical manifestations are polyuria and polydipsia. Brain malformations are one of the main causes. Desmopressin is the synthetic drug of choice for the treatment. One of the routes of administration is sublingual and its use in infants is very limited. We describe two infants with central diabetes insipidus and hydranencephaly who were successfully treated with sublingual desmopressin.
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333777/-retrospective-analysis-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-stomatology-hospital-from-2014-to-2016
#2
Li Jia, Wang Jianli, Zhao Ke, Zhao Shaofeng
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the characteristics and general rules of adverse drug reactions (ADR) in a 3A-grade stomatology hospital for safe and rational drug use in clinical stomatology. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 52 ADR cases (1∶1.36, males∶females) reported in the West China Hospital of Stomatology of Sichuan University from 2014 to 2016 in terms of gender and age distributions, drug categories, and clinical manifestations. RESULTS: Eight kinds of drugs and antibiotics were predominately used [24 cases, 46...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330997/comparison-of-different-formulations-of-vitamin-d
#3
Hafiz Muhammad Fahan Rashid, Uneeba Syed, Zaheer Ahmad, Kbaa Khalil Chauhdary, Usman Musharraf, Suresh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD) is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases and vitamin D deficiency prevalence is frightening in most parts of the world including Pakistan. Therefore, supplementations of vitamin D are used in the population at high risk for the prevention and the treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D supplementation comes in various formulations both oral and intramuscular. Cholecalciferol is the most commonly used preparation which is given through these routes of administration...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330776/second-hand-exposure-of-staff-administering-vaporised-cannabinoid-products-to-patients-in-a-hospital-setting
#4
Nadia Solowij, Peter Galettis, Samantha J Broyd, Peter de Krey, Jennifer H Martin
BACKGROUND: In many health settings, administration of medicinal cannabis poses significant implementation barriers including drug storage and safety for administering staff and surrounding patients. Different modes of administration also provide different yet potentially significant issues. One route that has become of clinical interest owing to the rapid onset of action and patient control of the inhaled amount (via breath timing and depth) is that of vaporisation of cannabinoid products...
January 12, 2018: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330714/evidence-based-recommendations-to-improve-the-safe-use-of-drugs-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#5
Rianne A Weersink, Margriet Bouma, David M Burger, Joost P H Drenth, S Froukje Harkes-Idzinga, Nicole G M Hunfeld, Herold J Metselaar, Margje H Monster-Simons, Katja Taxis, Sander D Borgsteede
INTRODUCTION: The presence of liver cirrhosis can have a major impact on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, but guidance for prescribing is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of evidence-based recommendations developed for the safe use of drugs in liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Recommendations were based on a systematic literature search combined with expert opinion from a panel of 10 experts. The safety of each drug was classified as safe, no additional risks known, additional risks known, unsafe, unknown or the safety class was dependent on the severity of liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh classification)...
January 12, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330512/inactivated-rotavirus-vaccine-by-parenteral-administration-induces-mucosal-immunity-in-mice
#6
Theresa K Resch, Yuhuan Wang, Sung-Sil Moon, Jessica Joyce, Song Li, Mark Prausnitz, Baoming Jiang
To improve the safety and efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines, we developed an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) for parenteral administration. Since it remains unknown whether parenteral vaccination can induce mucosal immunity, we performed a comprehensive assessment of immune responses to IRV in mice with an adjuvant-free dissolving polymer MN patch or by alum-adjuvanted IM injection. We demonstrated that IRV induced the expression of the gut homing receptor LPAM-1 on T and B cells in spleen and mLN of vaccinated mice...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329977/recent-insights-in-the-use-of-nanocarriers-for-the-oral-delivery-of-bioactive-proteins-and-peptides
#7
REVIEW
Patrícia Batista, Pedro M Castro, Ana Raquel Madureira, Bruno Sarmento, Manuela Pintado
Bioactive proteins and peptides have been used with either prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, presenting inherent advantages as high specificity and biocompatibility. Nanocarriers play an important role in the stabilization of proteins and peptides, offering enhanced buccal permeation and protection while crossing the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, preparation of nanoparticles as oral delivery systems for proteins/peptides may include tailored formulation along with functionalization aiming bioavailability enhancement of carried proteins or peptides...
January 9, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327894/cell-therapy-for-heart-disease-current-status-and-future-directions
#8
Arunpreet Kahlon, Gaurang Vaidya, Roberto Bolli
Treatment of ischemic heart disease has evolved considerably over time, seeing a technological impetus in recent times. Prompt diagnosis and progressively earlier reperfusion of the infarct artery have become the cornerstone of the early myocardial ischemia management. However, treatment of post-infarction sequelae resulting from ischemic damage sustained within the myocardium remains a considerable challenge. In this setting, stem cell therapy has emerged as an exciting regenerative modality with a promise to arrest or even reverse the pathological myocardial remodeling...
January 10, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326082/pharmaceutical-nanocrystals-production-by-wet-milling-and-applications
#9
REVIEW
Maria Malamatari, Kevin M G Taylor, Stavros Malamataris, Dennis Douroumis, Kyriakos Kachrimanis
Nanocrystals are regarded as an important nanoformulation approach exhibiting advantages of increased dissolution and saturation solubility with chemical stability and low toxicity. Nanocrystals are produced in the form of nanosuspensions using top-down (e.g., wet milling or high pressure homogenization) and bottom-up methods (e.g., antisolvent precipitation). Wet milling is a scalable method applicable to drugs with different physicochemical and mechanical properties. Nanocrystalline-based formulations, either as liquid nanosuspensions or after downstream processing to solid dosage forms, have been developed as drug delivery systems for various routes of administration (i...
January 8, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324423/effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-against-chemotherapy-induced-mucositis-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour, Samaneh Barzegari, Shahla Kakoie, Raha Habib Aghahi
OBJECTIVE: This double-blind randomized clinical trial evaluates the ef cacy and route of administration of omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing che- motherapy in Iranian hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients developing World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 oral mucositis were randomized to the omega-3 fatty acid (n=30) or placebo (n=30) group. Mucositis was assessed according to the WHO, Western Consortium for Cancer Nursing Research, and Oral Mucositis Weekly Questionnaire cri- teria at baseline and rst, second, and third weeks of chemotherapy un- til mucositis resolved...
December 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323575/phase-ii-investigational-oral-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-radio-chemotherapy-induced-oral-mucositis
#11
Stephen T Sonis, Alessandro Villa
Oral mucositis is a significant unmet clinical need for many cancer patients. The biological complexity of mucositis' pathogenesis provides a number of mechanistic targets suitable as pharmacologic targets. The diversity of targets has stimulated drug development in search of an effective intervention. In this paper, we review a range of agents that are currently being evaluated. Areas covered: Drugs for management of oral mucositis vary in formulation, route of administration and biological target. Most propose to interrupt the initiation of injury by suppressing activation of the innate immune response or countering oxidative stress, or minimizing downstream inflammatory responses...
January 11, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322484/acute-low-dose-ketamine-produces-a-rapid-and-robust-increase-in-plasma-bdnf-without-altering-brain-bdnf-concentrations
#12
Martin Le Nedelec, Paul Glue, Helen Winter, Chelsea Goulton, Lucy Broughton, Natalie Medlicott
Peripheral BDNF changes after ketamine administration have been proposed as a biomarker for brain BDNF changes. However, published data are conflicting and come from studies in paired animal groups. This study determined the time course of plasma BDNF concentrations following the administration of a single 10 mg/kg dose of ketamine by different routes of administration in rats. Brain BDNF concentrations in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cortex were measured in the same animals. Ketamine administration resulted in a rapid and robust increase in plasma BDNF concentrations that were sustained for 240 min...
January 10, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321114/nebulized-ketamine-to-avoid-mechanical-ventilation-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-severe-asthma-exacerbation
#13
Abdelghafour Elkoundi, Aziza Bentalha, Alae El Koraichi, Salma Ech-Cherif El Kettani
Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in outpatient treatment. Sometimes, children fail to respond to standard treatment and can potentially require mechanical ventilation. We describe a case of a 26-month-old girl with a severe asthma exacerbation successfully managed by ketamine administration via nebulization route that permitted to avoid mechanical ventilation. Nebulized ketamine might be a reasonable option to avoid mechanical ventilation in children who fail to respond to standard treatment of severe asthma exacerbation...
January 6, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318025/feline-dry-eye-syndrome-of-presumed-neurogenic-origin-a-case-report
#15
Lionel Sebbag, Patricia A Pesavento, Sebastian E Carrasco, Christopher M Reilly, David J Maggs
Case summary: A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317727/enhanced-nasal-drug-delivery-efficiency-by-increasing-mechanical-loading-using-hypergravity
#16
Dongjoo Kim, Young Hyo Kim, Soonjo Kwon
Nasal route drug administration for local and systemic delivery of many therapeutics has received attention because the nasal cavity is highly vascularized and provides a large surface area for drug absorption. However, nasal mucosa exhibits limited permeability to polar molecules. In this study, we developed a novel method for improving absorption efficiency of polar drugs by applying hypergravity. RPMI 2650 cells and primary human nasal epithelial cells were exposed three times to a 20 min hypergravitational condition (10 × g) with a 20 min rest period after each exposure...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317112/cannabinoid-disposition-after-human-intraperitoneal-use-an-insight-into-intraperitoneal-pharmacokinetic-properties-in-metastatic-cancer
#17
Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis, Shuzhen Song, Nadia Solowij, Stephanie E Reuter, Jennifer Schneider, Jennifer H Martin
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis is prescribed under the provision of a controlled drug in the Australian Poisons Standard. However, multiple laws must be navigated in order for patients to obtain access and imported products can be expensive. Dose-response information for both efficacy and toxicity pertaining to medicinal cannabis is lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis administered by traditional routes has been described but to date, there is no literature on the pharmacokinetic properties of an intraperitoneal cannabinoid emulsion...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313295/radiation-preparation-of-l-arginine-acrylic-acid-hydrogel-matrix-patch-for-transdermal-delivery-of-propranolol-hcl-in-hypertensive-rats
#18
Rasha R Radwan, Heba A Mohamed, H E Ali, Ghada A Mahmoud
In the present study, L-arginine/acrylic acid (Arg/AAc) batch hydrogel was successfully prepared by gamma irradiation for transdermal delivery of propranolol HCl in hypertensive rats. The resulted system has been characterized by FTIR to confirm the hydrogel formation. The swelling behavior of the prepared hydrogels was investigated as a function of time and pH. The kinetics of swelling has been investigated. In vivo pharmacokinetics evaluation, skin irritation test, and histopathological studies were investigated...
January 8, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313255/subcutaneous-administration-cpg-odns-acts-as-a-potent-adjuvant-for-an-hiv-1-tat-based-vaccine-candidate-to-elicit-cellular-immunity-in-balb-c-mice
#19
Zeinab Panahi, Asghar Abdoli, Ghasem Mosayebi, Mehdi Mahdavi, Fariborz Bahrami
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) adjuvant and subcutaneous injection route on efficacy of a HIV-1-tat DNA vaccine candidate using BALB/c mice as an animal model. RESULTS: Evaluation of cellular and humoral immunity of mice injected subcutaneously with HIV-1-tat gene cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector indicated that significant levels of IFN-γ cytokine secretion (900 pg/ml), lymphocyte proliferation (2.5 stimulation index) and IgG2a (1...
January 8, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313072/-antibiotic-stewardship-measures-for-optimizing-prescription-of-anti-infective-agents
#20
REVIEW
C Lanckohr, H Bracht
Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) comprises a bundle of different interventions to improve anti-infective treatment in a hospital setting. An important component of ABS interventions is the interdisciplinary approach to infection management. Besides improving infrastructural aspects on a hospital level, including surveillance of the use of anti-infective agents and nosocomial infections, collation and interpretation of statistics on resistance and formulation of local treatment guidelines, ABS teams go to the wards and advise treating physicians on antibiotic therapy...
January 8, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
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