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Interferon hiv

Lyle W Murray, Iman Satti, Jodi Meyerowitz, Matthew Jones, Christian B Willberg, James E Ussher, Dominique Goedhals, Jacob Hurst, Rodney E Phillips, Helen McShane, Cloete van Vuuren, John Frater
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have a higher risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-uninfected individuals, but the mechanisms underpinning this are unclear. We hypothesized that depletion of specific components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses contributed to this increased risk. Methods: Mtb-specific T-cell responses in 147 HIV-infected and 44 HIV-uninfected control subjects in a TB-endemic setting in Bloemfontein, South Africa, were evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Denise C Hsu, Kimberly F Breglio, Luxin Pei, Chun-Shu Wong, Bruno B Andrade, Virginia Sheikh, Margery Smelkinson, Constantinos Petrovas, Adam Rupert, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Adrian Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kenneth Olivier, Daniel Barber, Irini Sereti
Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response in individuals with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. The pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS has not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated monocyte and CD4+ T-cell responses in vitro, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression in tissues, and plasma cytokines and inflammatory markers, in 13 HIV-infected patients with MAC-IRIS and 14 HIV-uninfected patients with pulmonary MAC infection...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Joseph B Margolick, Jay H Bream, Tricia L Nilles, Huifen Li, Susan J Langan, Shane Deng, Ruibin Wang, Nikolas Wada, Sean X Leng
Background: Both aging and treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations exhibit low-level chronic immune activation of unknown etiology, which correlates with morbidity and mortality. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in both populations, but its relation to immune activation is unknown. Methods: T cells from men who have sex with men (22 virologically suppressed HIV+, 20 HIV-) were stimulated with peptides spanning 19 CMV open reading frames, and intracellular cytokine responses were assessed...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Victoria P Strouvelle, Dominique L Braun, Valentina Vongrad, Alexandra U Scherrer, Yik Lim Kok, Roger D Kouyos, Marcel Stöckle, Andri Rauch, Katharine Darling, Matthias Hoffmann, Karin J Metzner, Huldrych F Günthard
Pegylated interferon-alpha (pIFN-α) is suggested to lower HIV-1 DNA load in antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated patients. We studied the kinetics of total HIV-1 DNA levels in 40 HIV-1/hepatitis C (HCV) coinfected patients, treated with pIFN-α for HCV and categorized into three groups according to start of ART: Chronic HIV-1 infection (n=22), acute HIV-1 infection (n=8), no-ART (n=10). Total HIV-1 DNA levels were quantified in 247 PBMC samples and remained stable before, during, and after pIFN-α treatment in all three groups...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Virginia D McLane, Saurabh Kumar, Reno Leeming, Sanjay Rau, Colin L Willis, Ling Cao
Opioid use accelerates neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS patients. We assessed the effect of chronic morphine treatment and LP-BM5/murine AIDS (MAIDS) infection on cognition, cytokine production, and type 1 interferon (IFN) expression in the murine CNS. Morphine treatment decreased expression of pro-inflammatory factors (CCL5, iNOS) and reduced cognitive performance in LP-BM5-infected mice, correlating to increased hippocampal viral load and a blunted type 1 IFN response. In the striatum, morphine reduced viral load while increasing IFN-α RNA expression...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Saverio G Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Nicola Menegotto, Silvia Cavinato, Renzo Scaggiante, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Monica Basso, Anna Maria Cattelan
Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). The subjects were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or low-level viraemia (LLV) in the 18 months before T2...
March 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
James J Gilchrist, Anna Rautanen, Benjamin P Fairfax, Tara C Mills, Vivek Naranbhai, Holly Trochet, Matti Pirinen, Esther Muthumbi, Salim Mwarumba, Patricia Njuguna, Neema Mturi, Chisomo L Msefula, Esther N Gondwe, Jenny M MacLennan, Stephen J Chapman, Malcolm E Molyneux, Julian C Knight, Chris C A Spencer, Thomas N Williams, Calman A MacLennan, J Anthony G Scott, Adrian V S Hill
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of bacteraemia in Africa. The disease typically affects HIV-infected individuals and young children, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Here we present a genome-wide association study (180 cases, 2677 controls) and replication analysis of NTS bacteraemia in Kenyan and Malawian children. We identify a locus in STAT4, rs13390936, associated with NTS bacteraemia. rs13390936 is a context-specific expression quantitative trait locus for STAT4 RNA expression, and individuals carrying the NTS-risk genotype demonstrate decreased interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in stimulated natural killer cells, and decreased circulating IFNγ concentrations during acute NTS bacteraemia...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Fengchao Xu, Hongxiao Song, Qingfei Xiao, Na Li, Hong Zhang, Genhong Cheng, Guangyun Tan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its associated chronic infection remain serious health threats worldwide. However, there is still no impactful approach for clinical treatment of hepatitis B patients. Therefore, developing a better understanding of the interactions between HBV and its host is particularly important. HBV infection has been reported to induce type-III but not type-I or type-II interferon (IFN). In this study, we identified CBFβ, an HIV enhancer, as an HBV restriction factor that is specifically induced by type-III IFN in the early stages of HBV infection...
March 9, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Jeffy George, Joseph J Mattapallil
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) establishes life-long latency in infected individuals. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a significant impact on the course of HIV infection leading to a better long-term outcome, the pool of latent reservoir remains substantial even under HAART. Numerous approaches have been under development with the goal of eradicating the latent HIV reservoir though with limited success. Approaches that combine immune-mediated control of HIV to activate both the innate and the adaptive immune system under suppressive therapy along with "shock and kill" drugs may lead to a better control of the reactivated virus...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anna Starshinova, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Irina Dovgaluk, Alexandr Panteleev, Vera Manina, Ulia Zinchenko, Evgenia Istomina, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: The WHO strategy for eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 (The End TB Strategy) is aimed at an early and precise diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of TB patients. Currently, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. This study evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of a new intradermal test using recombinant TB allergen (Diaskintest) compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) and commercial TB interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Methods: A post-hoc data analysis that involved examining 860 HIV-negative, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated persons aged 1-65 years who visited the TB health-care institutions of Saint Petersburg to rule out or confirm an active TB was conducted from 2011 to 2016...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Le Guo, Xi-Qiu Xu, Li Zhou, Run-Hong Zhou, Xu Wang, Jie-Liang Li, Jin-Biao Liu, Hang Liu, Biao Zhang, Wen-Zhe Ho
As a rich source of CD4+ T cells and macrophages, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a major target site for HIV infection. The interplay between GI-resident macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutes an important element of GI innate immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated whether human IECs have the ability to produce antiviral factors that can inhibit HIV infection of macrophages. We demonstrated that IECs possess functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), the activation of which resulted in induction of key interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF7), IFN-β, IFN-λ, and CC chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES), the ligands of HIV entry co-receptor CCR5...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Paula Jáuregui, Nathaniel R Landau
Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are an important target for HIV-1 despite SAMHD1, a myeloid restriction factor for which HIV-1 lacks a counteracting accessory protein. The antiviral activity of SAMHD1 is modulated by phosphorylation of T592 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). We show that treatment of MDMs with neocarzinostatin, a compound that introduces double strand breaks (DBS) in genomic DNA, results in the decrease of phosphorylated SAMHD1, activating its antiviral activity and blocking HIV-1 infection...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aletheia Soares Sampaio, Ana Lucia Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais, George Tadeu Nunes Diniz, Anna Lígia de Castro Figueiredo, Sílvia Maria Lucena Montenegro
INTRODUCTION: The functioning of the immune system during pregnancy is altered in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. Unfavorable socioeconomic conditions have been indicative of higher morbidity and mortality and worsening of the immune system. The aim of this study was to correlate social status with levels of interleukin (IL)-10 (non-inflammatory) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ; inflammatory) cytokines. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with three groups of women: 33 pregnant HIV-infected (G1); 40 non-pregnant, HIV-infected (G2); and 35 pregnant, HIV-uninfected...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Jiraprapa Wipasa, Romanee Chaiwarith, Kriangkrai Chawansuntati, Jutarat Praparattanapan, Kritsadee Rattanathammethee, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo
A major characteristic of immunodeficiency associated with life-threatening intracellular infection in adults is the presence of anti-interferon-γ antibodies. Although little is known about the mechanism underlying this syndrome, it is believed that the antibodies inhibit the activity of downstream signaling pathway of interferon-γ. In this study, the characteristics of these antibodies in patients who presented, or have a history of, intracellular infection and were positive to anti-interferon-γ antibodies were investigated...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Alexander J Gill, Rolando Garza, Surendra S Ambegaokar, Benjamin B Gelman, Dennis L Kolson
BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a critical cytoprotective enzyme that limits oxidative stress, inflammation, and cellular injury within the central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues. We previously demonstrated that HO-1 protein expression is decreased within the brains of HIV+ subjects and that this HO-1 reduction correlates with CNS immune activation and neurocognitive dysfunction. To define a potential CNS protective role for HO-1 against HIV, we analyzed a well-characterized HIV autopsy cohort for two common HO-1 promoter region polymorphisms that are implicated in regulating HO-1 promoter transcriptional activity, a (GT)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (A(-413)T)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Lijie Gao, Yunqi Wang, Yi Li, Ya Dong, Aimin Yang, Jie Zhang, Fengying Li, Rongqiang Zhang
Objectives Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the key biomarkers in response to HIV infection of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Methods The numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of HIV infected individuals were analyzed and the GEO database (GSE6740) was screened for deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HIV infected CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway analyses and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify the key pathway and core proteins in anti-HIV virus process of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Michael McGee, Nicholas Whitehead, Jennifer Martin, Nicholas Collins
INTRODUCTION: While pulmonary arterial hypertension remains an uncommon diagnosis, various therapeutic agents are recognized as important associations. These agents are typically categorized into "definite", "likely", "possible", or "unlikely" to cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, based on the strength of evidence. OBJECTIVE: This review will focus on those therapeutic agents where there is sufficient literature to adequately comment on the role of the agent in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Gurmit Kaur Jagjit Singh, Steve Kaye, James C Abbott, Christoph Boesecke, Juergen Rockstroh, Myra O McClure, Mark Nelson
Background The epidemic of acute HCV infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is ongoing. Transmission of drug-resistant variants (DRVs) after HCV treatment failure could pose a major threat to the effectiveness of future therapies. We determined the baseline prevalence of pre-existing DRVs in the HCV NS3 protease gene and their effects on the addition of telaprevir (TVR) to standard pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) for acute HCV infection in individuals enrolled in a multicentre randomized controlled trial (2013 and 2014)...
March 1, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
Wenfeng Gao, Rui Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Hao Wu, Yang Wang, Xiaofan Lu, Li Li, Jiasheng Zheng, Wei Li
AIM: Vitamin D is involved in antiviral/antitumor activities. Its associations to hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unclear. MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 232 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 72 HIV-infected patients. The correlation between serum 25(OH)D3 and 25 vitamin D receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms to disease progression and interferons were evaluated. RESULTS: The 25(OH)D3 was associated with HBV infection and progression...
September 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
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