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Interferon hiv

Kenichi Morikawa, Tomoe Shimazaki, Rei Takeda, Takaaki Izumi, Machiko Umumura, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health threat around the world. Despite the availability of an effective hepatitis B vaccine, the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be as high as 240 million worldwide. Global mortality due to HBV-related liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be as high as 1 million deaths per year. HBV is transmitted via blood and body fluids, and is much more infectious than both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161983.].
2016: PloS One
Sern Wei Yeoh
Direct acting antiviral (DAA) regimens containing ritonavir have been developed to treat hepatitis C, with fewer side effects than that by interferon-based regimens. However prescribers must be aware of drug-drug interactions. There are multiple reports of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by ritonavir, when used to treat human immunodeficiency virus, increasing the bioavailability of exogenous steroids by inhibiting cytochrome p450 enzymes in the liver and gut wall and thus reducing steroid metabolism...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Susmita K Singh, Anna-Maria Andersson, Rada Ellegård, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Marie Larsson, Olle Stendahl, Robert Blomgran
HIV coinfection is the most prominent risk factor for progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection into active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The mechanisms behind the increased transition from latent to active TB in coinfected individuals have not been well elucidated at the cellular level. We hypothesized that HIV infection contributes to Mtb pathogenesis by interfering with the dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immune control. Mtb-antigen processing and presentation are key events in the immune response against TB...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Shuting Xu, Aurélie Ducroux, Aparna Ponnurangam, Gabrielle Vieyres, Sergej Franz, Mathias Müsken, Thomas Zillinger, Angelina Malassa, Ellen Ewald, Veit Hornung, Winfried Barchet, Susanne Häussler, Thomas Pietschmann, Christine Goffinet
Upon sensing cytoplasmic retroviral DNA in infected cells, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) produces the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, which activates STING to trigger a type I interferon (IFN) response. We find that membrane fusion-inducing contact between donor cells expressing the HIV envelope (Env) and primary macrophages endogenously expressing the HIV receptor CD4 and coreceptor enable intercellular transfer of cGAMP. This cGAMP exchange results in STING-dependent antiviral IFN responses in target macrophages and protection from HIV infection...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sojan Abraham, Jang-Gi Choi, Nora M Ortega, Junli Zhang, Premlata Shankar, N Manjunath Swamy
Because endogenous interferon type I (IFN-I) produced by HIV-1 infection might complicate the analysis of therapeutically administered IFN-I, we tested different humanized mouse models for induction of IFN-I during HIV-1 infection. While HIV-1 induced high levels of IFN-α in BLT mice, IFN-I was undetectable following infection in the Hu-PBL mouse model, in which only T cells expand. We therefore tested the effect of treatment with Pegylated IFN-2 (pegasys), in Hu-PBL mice. Pegasys prevented CD4 T cell depletion and reduced the viral load for 10 days, but the effect waned thereafter...
October 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Rumi Minami, Soichiro Takahama, Yu Kaku, Masahiro Yamamoto
The CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc (MVC), is associated with an enhanced CD4+ T-cell response independent of virological suppression; however, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study, we confirmed the effect of MVC on CD4+ T-cell count recovery in immunological non-responders, and compared the conventional combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with MVC-intensified cART. We also investigated the effect of MVC on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the relationship between the mRNA level of IFN-γ and the degree of CD4+ T-cell count recovery...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Mona Afify, Amal H Hamza, Reem A Alomari
To provide fundamental insights into the mechanism of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), we conduct the present study to improve further understanding of the interaction between HCV and cytokines. Two hundred one patients were enrolled in this study. Seventy-eight patients matching the study group in terms of age and gender with negative serology for hepatitis viruses, HIV virus, and with liver enzyme levels within normal range were selected as the control group. Patients were diagnosed with positive hepatitis C by detection of positive HCV antibodies in serum...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Anuradha Basavaraju
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Daniëla K van Santen, Anneke S de Vos, Amy Matser, Sophie B Willemse, Karen Lindenburg, Mirjam E E Kretzschmar, Maria Prins, G Ardine de Wit
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are disproportionally affected by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The efficacy of HCV treatment has significantly improved in recent years with the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). However, DAAs are more costly than pegylated-interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV). We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of four HCV treatment strategies among PWID and treatment scale-up. METHODS: An individual-based model was used describing HIV and HCV transmission and disease progression among PWID...
2016: PloS One
Giórgia de Souza Marasca, André Luiz Machado, Nélson Alexandre Kretzmann, Adaliany Cecília da Silva Souza, Angelo Alves de Mattos, Dimas Kliemann, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Ana Beatriz Gorini da Veiga
Background: Due to the high prevalence of co-infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the severity of these infections, the understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in these processes, including viral behavior and host genetic profile, is of great importance for patient treatment and for public health policies.Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome, such as the SNP rs1045642 (C3435T) in the MDR1 gene, have been reported to be associated to the sustained virological response (SVR) to HCV treatment in HCV-HIV co-infected patients...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Jolien Vermeire, Ferdinand Roesch, Daniel Sauter, Réjane Rua, Dominik Hotter, Anouk Van Nuffel, Hanne Vanderstraeten, Evelien Naessens, Veronica Iannucci, Alessia Landi, Wojciech Witkowski, Ann Baeyens, Frank Kirchhoff, Bruno Verhasselt
Several pattern-recognition receptors sense HIV-1 replication products and induce type I interferon (IFN-I) production under specific experimental conditions. However, it is thought that viral sensing and IFN induction are virtually absent in the main target cells of HIV-1 in vivo. Here, we show that activated CD4(+) T cells sense HIV-1 infection through the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS and mount a bioactive IFN-I response. Efficient induction of IFN-I by HIV-1 infection requires proviral integration and is regulated by newly expressed viral accessory proteins: Vpr potentiates, while Vpu suppresses cGAS-dependent IFN-I induction...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Susanna Naggie, Andrew J Muir
The current standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) consists of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens, including combinations of DAAs and fixed-dose combination pills. DAAs for HCV are likely to be heralded as one of medicine's greatest advancements. Viral eradication rates are pushing 100% for many HCV-infected populations, including patients with HIV/HCV coinfection, decompensated cirrhosis, liver and kidney transplants, and end-stage liver disease. We highlight the greatest successes of combination DAA therapies, discuss the ongoing challenges, and identify the remaining patient subgroups with unmet medical needs...
September 23, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Stefan Mauss, Florian Berger, Malte H Wehmeyer, Patrick Ingiliz, Dietrich Hueppe, Thomas Lutz, Karl G Simon, Knud Schewe, Juergen K Rockstroh, Axel Baumgarten, Stefan Christensen
HCV has complex interactions with human lipid metabolism leading to down regulation of cholesterol levels. Interferon therapy has been shown to decrease cholesterol even further. With the availability of second generation direct acting antiviral agents (DAA) the effect of suppressing and eliminating HCV on lipid metabolism warrants reevaluation. 
Methods: Prospective German multicenter cohort on HCV- and HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with direct antiviral agents (GECCO). Lipids were assessed at baseline, during and after therapy...
September 29, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Jian Xiao, Xian Liu, Xiaolei Yu, Yuan Dong, Xuqin Wang, Jing Leng, Rongge Yang, Ying Wang
Objective To investigate the expressions of programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD38, human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) and anligen KI-67(ki67) on CD8(+) T cells, and the correlation between PD-1/PD-L1 pathway and activation, immunodepletion during HIV-1 infection. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from 87 HIV-1 patients and 22 healthy controls. The expression levels of PD-1, CD38, HLA-DR and ki67 on CD8(+)T cells were detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in CD8(+) T cells by blocking PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in the presence of PD-L1 mAb...
October 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Todd T Brown, Kristine M Erlandson, Frank J Palella, Edward M Gardner, Bernard J C Macatangay, Elizabeth C Breen, Lisa P Jacobson, Peter L Anderson, Nikolas I Wada
BACKGROUND:  HIV-infected individuals exhibit residual inflammation regardless of virologic suppression. We evaluated whether suboptimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with greater residual inflammation compared to optimal adherence despite virologic suppression. METHODS:  Longitudinal self-reported cART adherence data and serum concentrations of 24 biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation were measured at the same study visit in HIV RNA-suppressed (<50 copies/mL) HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1998 to 2009...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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