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Interferon hiv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225519/a-cytokine-pattern-that-differentiates-preseroconversion-from-postseroconversion-phases-of-primary-hiv-infection
#1
Lucia Pastor, Erica Parker, Jorge Carrillo, Victor Urrea, Laura Fuente-Soro, Durval Respeito, Chenjerai Jairoce, Inacio Mandomando, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
BACKGROUND: During acute HIV infection, HIV actively replicates but seroconversion has not yet occurred. Primary HIV infection (PHI) is characterized by a transient nonspecific febrile illness, a massive inflammatory response, and the progressive appearance of anti-HIV-specific antibodies. In this study, we have identified patterns of inflammatory biomarkers associated with the innate immunological reaction before completion of a full humoral response. METHODS: A symptom-based screening was used to identify acute HIV infection in the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225338/potential-biomarkers-associated-with-discrimination-between-latent-and-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
R Kamakia, S Kiazyk, J Waruk, A Meyers, J Ochanda, T B Ball, J Oyugi
SETTING: A third of the world's population has latent tuberculous infection (LTBI). Current TB diagnostics used in developing countries are ineffective and are unable to distinguish LTBI from active TB. Identifying biomarkers that could aid in the early detection of TB and in distinguishing TB states could be a major breakthrough in global TB control. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential immune biomarkers to distinguish active TB from LTBI. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 19 active TB patients, 8 TB-negative individuals (controls) and 16 LTBI non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223351/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-proteome-analysis-of-hiv-1-infected-human-cd4-t-cells
#3
Johannes Nemeth, Valentina Vongrad, Karin J Metzner, Victoria Strouvelle, Rainer Weber, Patrick Pedrioli, Ruedi Aebersold, Huldrych Guenthard, Ben C Collins
Host directed therapies against HIV-1 are thought to be critical for long term containment of the HIV-1 pandemic but remain elusive. Since HIV-1 infects and manipulates important effectors of both the innate and adaptive immune system, identifying modulations of the host cell systems in humans during HIV-1 infection may be crucial for the development of immune based therapies. Here, we quantified the changes of the proteome in human CD4+ T cells upon HIV-1 infection, both in vitro and in vivo. A SWATH-MS approach was used to measure the proteome of human primary CD4+ T cells infected with HIV-1 in vitro as well as CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 infected patients with paired samples on and off antiretroviral treatment...
February 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218976/differential-expression-of-innate-immune-response-genes-in-clinical-phases-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#4
Sara Romani, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Andre Boonstra, Afsaneh Sharifian
We investigated innate immune gene expression in clinical phases of Chronic Hepatitis B infection, including immune tolerant (IT); immune active (IA); inactive carrier (IC); and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative phases, as well as healthy controls. Expression levels of interferon types I, II, and III, their receptor subunits, IRFs, TLRs and other IFN-induced genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared.Forty HBsAg-positive treatment-naïve subjects without co-infection with HIV, HCV or HDV were enrolled...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217259/phase-3-trial-of-first-generation-protease-inhibitor-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection
#5
Kenneth E Sherman, Minhee Kang, Richard Sterling, Triin Umbleja, Kristen Marks, Jennifer J Kiser, Beverly Alston-Smith, Wayne Greaves, Adeel A Butt, The Actg Birth Study Team
AIM: To evaluate efficacy/safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor boceprevir with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa and weight-based ribavirin (RBV) in a phase 3 trial. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, phase 3, open-label, single-arm study of PEG-IFN alfa, weight-based RBV, and boceprevir, with a PEG-IFN/RBV lead-in phase was performed. The HCV/human immunodeficiency virus coinfected study population included treatment naïve (TN) and treatment experienced (TE) patients...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215501/serial-quantiferon-testing-and-tuberculosis-disease-risk-among-young-children-an-observational-cohort-study
#6
Jason R Andrews, Elisa Nemes, Michele Tameris, Bernard S Landry, Hassan Mahomed, J Bruce McClain, Helen A Fletcher, Willem A Hanekom, Robin Wood, Helen McShane, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT reversion. METHODS: We analysed data from a reported vaccine efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in South Africa...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#7
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210927/efficacy-and-safety-of-daclatasvir-plus-pegylated-interferon-alfa-2a-and-ribavirin-in-previously-untreated-hcv-subjects-coinfected-with-hiv-and-hcv-genotype-1-a-phase-iii-open-label-study
#8
Mark S Sulkowski, Walford J Fessel, Adriano Lazzarin, Juan Berenguer, Natalia Zakharova, Hugo Cheinquer, Pierre Côté, Douglas Dieterich, Adrian Gadano, Gail Matthews, Jean-Michel Molina, Christophe Moreno, Juan Antonio Pineda, Federico Pulido, Antonio Rivero, Jurgen Rockstroh, Dennis Hernandez, Fiona McPhee, Timothy Eley, Zhaohui Liu, Patricia Mendez, Eric Hughes, Stephanie Noviello, Peter Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Daclatasvir (DCV) is a potent, pangenotypic, hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A inhibitor with low potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of DCV plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in HIV-1/HCV genotype-1-coinfected patients. METHODS: AI444043 (NCT01471574), an open-label, Phase III, single-arm, response-guided treatment (RGT) study included 301 patients. They received DCV doses of 30, 60 or 90 mg once daily (depending on concomitant ART), plus weight-based RBV (<75 kg, 1000 mg/day; or ≥75 kg, 1200 mg/day), and once-weekly PegIFN 180 μg, for 24 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#9
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183221/sofosbuvir-in-the-treatment-of-early-hcv-infection-in-hiv-infected-men
#10
Ahmed El Sayed, Zachary R Barbati, Samuel S Turner, Andrew L Foster, Tristan Morey, Douglas T Dieterich, Daniel S Fierer
BACKGROUND: There is an international epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. We previously showed that adding telaprevir to pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) both shortened treatment and increased the cure rate of early HCV in these men. Whether shortening treatment of early HCV using IFN-free regimens would be similarly successful has not yet been demonstrated. METHODS: We performed a pilot study of treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF) + RBV for 12 weeks in early genotype 1 HCV infection in HIV-infected men...
February 10, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179536/hiv-aids-vaccine-candidates-based-on-replication-competent-recombinant-poxvirus-nyvac-c-kc-expressing-trimeric-gp140-and-gag-derived-vlps-or-lacking-the-viral-molecule-b19-that-inhibits-type-i-interferon-activate-relevant-hiv-1-specific-b-and-t-cell-immune
#11
Juan García-Arriaza, Beatriz Perdiguero, Jonathan L Heeney, Michael S Seaman, David C Montefiori, Nicole L Yates, Georgia D Tomaras, Guido Ferrari, Kathryn E Foulds, Mario Roederer, Steven G Self, Bhavesh Borate, Raphael Gottardo, Sanjay Phogat, Jim Tartaglia, Susan W Barnett, Brian Burke, Anthony D Cristillo, Deborah E Weiss, Carter Lee, Karen V Kibler, Bertram L Jacobs, Ralf Wagner, Song Ding, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Mariano Esteban
The non-replicating attenuated poxvirus vector NYVAC expressing clade C(CN54) HIV-1 Env(gp120), Gag-Pol-Nef antigens (NYVAC-C) showed in phase I clinical trials limited immunogenicity. To enhance the capacity of the NYVAC vector to trigger broad humoral responses and a more balanced activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, here we compared the HIV-1-specific immunogenicity elicited in non-human primates immunized with two replicating NYVAC vectors that have been modified by the insertion of K1L and C7L vaccinia viral host-range genes and express clade C(ZM96) trimeric HIV-1 gp140 protein or a Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) polyprotein as Gag-derived virus-like particles (termed NYVAC-C-KC)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179531/toll-like-receptor-7-agonist-gs-9620-induces-hiv-expression-and-hiv-specific-immunity-in-cells-from-hiv-infected-individuals-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Angela Tsai, Alivelu Irrinki, Jasmine Kaur, Tomas Cihlar, George Kukolj, Derek D Sloan, Jeffrey P Murry
Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179527/hiv-specific-granzyme-b-but-not-interferon-%C3%AE-secreting-t-cells-are-associated-with-reduced-viral-reservoirs-in-early-hiv-infection
#13
Feng Yun Yue, Jared C Cohen, Mu Ho, A K M Nur-Ur Rahman, Jun Liu, Shariq Mujib, Aamir Saiyed, Sabrina Hundal, Alexandra Khozin, Phil Bonner, Daheng Liu, Erika Benko, Colin Kovacs, Mario Ostrowski
A major barrier to an Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV) infection cure is the establishment of a viral reservoir despite cART. It is unclear how HIV-specific CTLs influence the size of the reservoir in early HIV infection. 28 subjects with early HIV infection were recruited to receive cART and followed for 48 weeks. HIV reservoirs in peripheral CD4+ T cells measured by cell associated proviral DNA and viral outgrowth cultures were determined at baseline and 48 weeks of cART. At baseline, Granzyme B and IFN-γ ELISpot assays were performed with peptides spanning the HIV proteome...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167698/adar1-and-pact-contribute-to-efficient-translation-of-transcripts-containing-hiv-1-trans-activating-response-tar-element
#14
Evelyn Chukwurah, Indhira Handy, Rekha C Patel
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has evolved various measures to counter the host cell's innate antiviral response during the course of infection. Interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene products are produced following HIV-1 infection to limit viral replication, but viral proteins and RNAs counteract their effect. One such mechanism is specifically directed against the IFN-induced Protein Kinase R (PKR), which is centrally important to the cellular antiviral response. In the presence of viral RNAs, PKR is activated and phosphorylates the translation initiation factor, eIF2α...
February 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157399/cxcr5-cd8-t-cells-indirectly-offer-b-cell-help-and-are-inversely-correlated-with-viral-load-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#15
Hang Jiang, Linhai Li, Jiang Han, Zhiwei Sun, Yihui Rong, Yun Jin
Treatment options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection are extremely limited. CXCR5(+) CD8(+) T cell is a novel cell subtype and could possess strong cytotoxic properties in HIV infection. In this study, we investigated the role of CXCR5(+) CD8(+) T cells in CHB patients. Compared to healthy individuals, both CHB patients and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocellular carcinoma patients presented significant upregulation of CXCR5(+) CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood, in which CXCR5(+) CD8(+) T cells were negatively correlated with the frequency of CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in CHB patients...
February 3, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155806/human-immunology-of-tuberculosis
#16
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogeneous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148784/different-expression-of-interferon-stimulated-genes-in-response-to-hiv-1-infection-in-dendritic-cells-according-to-their-maturation-state
#17
Esther Calonge, Mercedes Bermejo, Francisco Diez-Fuertes, Isabelle Mangeot, Nuria Gonzalez, Mayte Coiras, Laura Jimenez Tormo, Javier García-Perez, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Roger Le Grand, José Alcamí
: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells whose functions are dependent on their degree of differentiation. In their immature state, DCs, capture pathogens and migrate to the lymph nodes. During this process DCs become resident mature cells specialized in antigen presentation. DCs are characterized by a highly limiting environment to HIV-1 replication due to the expression of restriction factors as SAMHD1 and APOBEC3G. However, uninfected DCs capture and transfer viral particles to CD4 lymphocytes through a trans-enhancement mechanism in which chemokines are involved...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141782/effect-of-pregnancy-on-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-detection-of-latent-tb-infection-among-hiv-infected-women-in-a-high-burden-setting
#18
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, David J Horne, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. METHODS: HIV-infected women were serially-tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON® TB Gold In-tube [QFT]) in pregnancy and weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and M. tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130810/shift-in-disparities-in-hepatitis-c-treatment-from-interferon-to-daa-era-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
N Z Janjua, N Islam, J Wong, E M Yoshida, A Ramji, H Samji, Z A Butt, M Chong, D Cook, M Alvarez, M Darvishian, M Tyndall, M Krajden
We evaluated the shift in the characteristics of people who received interferon-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments and those who received recently introduced direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort includes 1.5 million individuals tested for HCV or HIV, or reported cases of hepatitis B and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990 to 2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalization, cancer, prescription drugs and mortality data. This analysis included all patients who filled at least one prescription for HCV treatment until 31 July 2015...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130599/progress-in-eradication-of-hcv-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-significant-liver-fibrosis-in-vienna
#20
Sebastian Steiner, Theresa Bucsics, Philipp Schwabl, Mattias Mandorfer, Bernhard Scheiner, Maximilian Christopher Aichelburg, Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Peter Ferenci, Michael Trauner, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Thomas Reiberger
AIM: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of interferon and ribavirin-free sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) and ritonavir boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir with or without dasabuvir (2D/3D) regimens in a real-life cohort of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfected patients. The study focused on efficacy, need for changes in antiretroviral therapy (ART) due to drug-drug interaction (DDI), and treatment-associated changes in liver stiffness. METHODS: In this study 36 patients (n = 21 SOF/LDV and n = 15 2D/3D) were retrospectively analyzed...
January 27, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
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