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Interferon hiv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087685/bst-2-restricts-iav-release-and-is-countered-by-the-viral-m2-protein
#1
Siqi Hu, Lijuan Yin, Shan Mei, Jian Li, Fengwen Xu, Hong Sun, Xiaoman Liu, Shan Cen, Chen Liang, Ailing Li, Fei Guo
BST-2 (tetherin, CD317, HM1.24) is induced by interferon and restricts virus release by tethering the enveloped viruses to the cell surface. The effect of BST-2 on influenza A virus (IAV) infection has been inconclusive. In this study, we report that BST-2 diminishes the production of IAV virus-like particles, that are generated by viral NA and HA proteins, to a much greater degree than inhibits the production of wild type IAV particles. This relatively weaker inhibition of IAV is associated with reduction of BST-2 levels, which is caused by the M2 protein that interacts with BST-2 and leads to downregulation of cell surface BST-2 via the proteasomal pathway...
January 13, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087069/safety-tolerability-and-antiviral-effect-of-rg-101-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-phase-1b-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Meike H van der Ree, J Marleen de Vree, Femke Stelma, Sophie Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Svend Rietdijk, Richard Molenkamp, Janke Schinkel, Ad C van Nuenen, Ulrich Beuers, Salah Hadi, Marten Harbers, Eva van der Veer, Kai Liu, John Grundy, Amy K Patick, Adam Pavlicek, Jacqueline Blem, Michael Huang, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Neil W Gibson, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
BACKGROUND: miR-122 is an important host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral effect of a single dose of RG-101, a hepatocyte targeted N-acetylgalactosamine conjugated oligonucleotide that antagonises miR-122, in patients with chronic HCV infection with various genotypes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 1B study, patients were randomly assigned to RG-101 or placebo (7:1)...
January 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081374/cytokine-profiles-in-aqueous-humor-and-plasma-of-hiv-infected-individuals-with-ocular-syphilis-or-cytomegalovirus-retinitis
#3
Matilde Ruiz-Cruz, Santiago Ávila-Rios, Christopher E Ormsby, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Claudia Alvarado-de la Barrera, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
PURPOSE: To characterize the immunologic profile in aqueous humor (AqH) of HIV-infected individuals with cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVr) or ocular syphilis and to assess if AqH and plasma represent independent cytokine compartments. METHODS: Concentrations of 27 cytokines in AqH and plasma of HIV-infected individuals with CMVr (n = 23) or ocular syphilis (n = 16) were measured by multiplex assay. Cytokine profiles of both groups were compared. RESULTS: Individuals with CMVr had higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-7, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-α2, G-CSF, IP-10 and IL-1α; as well as higher AqH concentrations of IL-1α, IP-10 and GM-CSF than those with ocular syphilis...
January 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#4
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069935/resistance-to-type-1-interferons-is-a-major-determinant-of-hiv-1-transmission-fitness
#5
Shilpa S Iyer, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Gerald H Learn, Lindsey Plenderleith, Andrew G Smith, Hannah J Barbian, Ronnie M Russell, Marcos V P Gondim, Catherine Y Bahari, Christiana M Shaw, Yingying Li, Timothy Decker, Barton F Haynes, George M Shaw, Paul M Sharp, Persephone Borrow, Beatrice H Hahn
Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is an inefficient process, with only one or few variants of the donor quasispecies establishing the new infection. A critical, and as yet unresolved, question is whether the mucosal bottleneck selects for viruses with increased transmission fitness. Here, we characterized 300 limiting dilution-derived virus isolates from the plasma, and in some instances genital secretions, of eight HIV-1 donor and recipient pairs. Although there were no differences in the amount of virion-associated envelope glycoprotein, recipient isolates were on average threefold more infectious (P = 0...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056752/inhibiting-the-secretion-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-to-treat-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#6
Simon D Baugh
Chronic Hepatitis B is a major global health issue, and has no known cure. Currently there are over 240 million people infected with the disease, and it leads to the death of over 686,000 people each year. A total of seven treatments which help to control the disease are currently available: interferon-based treatments (pegasys, and interferon alpha), and nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Viread, Baraclude, Tyzeka, Hepsera, Epivir-HBV), but all require continuing treatment to maintain control of the disease...
January 4, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051930/ifn-%C3%AE-attenuates-spontaneous-lymphocyte-proliferation-by-fuelling-regulatory-t-cells-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#7
Velislava I Terzieva, Dora N Popova, Ivaylo I Elenkov
HIV infection is characterized by a high degree of immune activation. It has an impact on CD4 cell count and populations' distribution and function. T regulatory cells (Tregs) were found to play a controversial role in the course of infection because of their beneficial effect on the degree of immune activation and unfavorable influence on the antigen-specific responses. The goal of the present work was to study the relationship among interferon-γ (IFN-γ), spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation, and regulatory T cells in HIV patients receiving therapy...
January 4, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051797/%C3%A2-sofosbuvir-and-daclatasvir-in-mono-and-hiv-coinfected-patients-with-recurrent-hepatitis-c-after-liver-transplant
#8
Lluís Castells, Jordi Llaneras, Isabel Campos-Varela, Itxarone Bilbao, Manel Crespo, Oscar Len, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Ramon Charco, Teresa Salcedo, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Rafael Esteban-Mur
:  Background and aims. Pegylated interferon (Peg-INF) and ribavirin (RBV) based therapy is suboptimal and poorly tolerated. We evaluated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a 24-week course of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir without ribavirin for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) in both HCV-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV coinfected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 22 consecutive adult LT recipients (16 monoinfected and 6 coinfected with HIV) who received a 24-week course of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir treatment under an international compassionate access program...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046052/integrative-analysis-of-immunological-data-to-explore-chronic-immune-t-cell-activation-in-successfully-treated-hiv-patients
#9
Marie-Quitterie Picat, Isabelle Pellegrin, Juliette Bitard, Linda Wittkop, Cécile Proust-Lima, Benoît Liquet, Jean-François Moreau, Fabrice Bonnet, Patrick Blanco, Rodolphe Thiébaut
OBJECTIVES: To unravel the complex relationships between cytomegalovirus-induced-, autoimmune-induced responses, microbial translocation and chronic immune activation (CIA) in successfully treated HIV-infected patients and to explore the mediating role of alpha-interferon in these processes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study nested in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients in South-Western France. METHODS: Patients initiated antiretroviral therapy between 2005 and 2008 and were treated with sustained virological suppression for at least two years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045025/interferon-epsilon-promotes-hiv-restriction-at-multiple-steps-of-viral-replication
#10
Albert Garcia-Minambres, Sahar G Eid, Niamh E Mangan, Corinna Pade, San S Lim, Antony Y Matthews, Nicole A de Weerd, Paul J Hertzog, Johnson Mak
Interferon epsilon (IFNɛ) is a type I IFN that is expressed constitutively in the female reproductive tract (FRT), and contributes to protection in models of sexually transmitted infections. Using multiple cell systems, including reporter cell lines and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), we show that recombinant IFNɛ impairs HIV infection at stage(s) post HIV entry and up to the translation of viral proteins. Consistent with this, IFNɛ upregulated a number of host cell restriction factors that block HIV at these stages of the replication cycle...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027315/non-human-primate-schlafen11-inhibits-production-of-both-host-and-viral-proteins
#11
Alex C Stabell, John Hawkins, Manqing Li, Xia Gao, Michael David, William H Press, Sara L Sawyer
Schlafen11 (encoded by the SLFN11 gene) has been shown to inhibit the accumulation of HIV-1 proteins. We show that the SLFN11 gene is under positive selection in simian primates and is species-specific in its activity against HIV-1. The activity of human Schlafen11 is relatively weak compared to that of some other primate versions of this protein, with the versions encoded by chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, and marmoset being particularly potent inhibitors of HIV-1 protein production. Interestingly, we find that Schlafen11 is functional in the absence of infection and reduces protein production from certain non-viral (GFP) and even host (Vinculin and GAPDH) transcripts...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024153/hiv-1-blocks-the-signaling-adaptor-mavs-to-evade-antiviral-host-defense-after-sensing-of-abortive-hiv-1-rna-by-the-host-helicase-ddx3
#12
Sonja I Gringhuis, Nina Hertoghs, Tanja M Kaptein, Esther M Zijlstra-Willems, Ramin Sarrami-Fooroshani, Joris K Sprokholt, Nienke H van Teijlingen, Neeltje A Kootstra, Thijs Booiman, Karel A van Dort, Carla M S Ribeiro, Agata Drewniak, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek
The mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) avoids immune surveillance by dendritic cells (DCs), and thereby prevents protective adaptive immune responses, remain poorly understood. Here we showed that HIV-1 actively arrested antiviral immune responses by DCs, which contributed to efficient HIV-1 replication in infected individuals. We identified the RNA helicase DDX3 as an HIV-1 sensor that bound abortive HIV-1 RNA after HIV-1 infection and induced DC maturation and type I interferon responses via the signaling adaptor MAVS...
December 26, 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018873/restrictions-for-reimbursement-of-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-canada-a-descriptive-study
#13
Alison D Marshall, Sahar Saeed, Lisa Barrett, Curtis L Cooper, Carla Treloar, Julie Bruneau, Jordan J Feld, Lesley Gallagher, Marina B Klein, Mel Krajden, Naglaa H Shoukry, Lynn E Taylor, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: In Canada, interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens are costly. This presents challenges for universal drug coverage of the estimated 220 000 people with chronic HCV infection nationwide. The study objective was to appraise criteria for reimbursement of 4 HCV direct-acting antivirals in Canada. METHODS: We reviewed the reimbursement criteria for simeprevir, sofosbuvir, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir plus dasabuvir in the 10 provinces and 3 territories...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017149/htlv-1-associated-neurological-disorders
#14
Muhammad Yasir Khan, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Muhammad Farman, Saleh Al Karim, Ishtiaq Qadri, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Khalid Al Ghamdi, Steve Harakeh
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus which is endemic to certain regions of the world and infects around 10-20 million people. HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated neurological disorders including mainly HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis. The involvement of the central nervous diseases occurs among: HTLV-1 infected patients from endemic areas, HIV positive individuals and drug users. The ability of HTLV-1 to cause associated neuropathies starts with the virus crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB), then entering and infecting the cells of the central nervous system...
December 22, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009639/increased-expression-of-the-type-i-interferon-receptor-on-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#15
M Scott Killian, Sue H Fujimura, Ramu G Sudhagoni
BACKGROUND: Type I interferons (IFN1; e.g. IFN-α and IFN-β) are potent cytokines that inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other viruses. The antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of IFN1 are mediated through ligand/receptor interactions with the IFN1 receptor complex (IFNAR). Variation in the cell surface density of IFNAR could play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of fresh whole blood, we used flow cytometry to evaluate the expression of IFNAR2 on lymphocyte subsets from HIV-1-infected (n=33) and -uninfected (n=22) individuals...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005685/is-response-to-anti-hcv-treatment-predictive-of-mortality-in-hcv-hiv-positive-patients
#16
Lars Peters, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri
BACKGROUND: Long-term clinical outcomes after HCV treatment of HIV/HCV patients are not well described. We aimed to compare the risk of all-cause and liver-related death according to HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV patients in the multi-cohort study COHERE. METHODS: All patients who had started PEG-interferon + ribavirin (baseline) and followed for ≥72 weeks after baseline were included. Patients were categorized into three response groups depending on treatment duration and HCV-RNA measured in the window 24-72 weeks after baseline...
December 21, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005028/-causes-of-t-lymphocyte-activation-in-hiv-infected-patients-coinfected-with-hepatitis-c-virus
#17
K V Shmagel', N G Shmagel', L B Korolevskaya, E V Saidakova, V A Chereshnev
AIM: To establish the causes of T lymphocyte activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients coinfected with hepatitis C (HCV) who are adherent to their antiretroviral therapy regimen and interferon untreated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Examinations were made in 62 people who were HIV+HCV-positive (n=21), HIV+HCV-negative (n=21), and noninfected volunteers (n=20). The activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and proliferation (Ki-67+) of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were estimated...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003502/effect-of-interferon-free-therapy-on-cognition-in-hcv-and-hcv-hiv-infection-a-pilot-study
#18
Felix Kleefeld, Sophie Heller, Heiko Jessen, Patrick Ingiliz, Antje Kraft, Katrin Hahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998918/role-of-t-cell-dysfunction-inflammation-and-coagulation-in-microvascular-disease-in-hiv
#19
Arjun Sinha, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Sophia Hur, Danny Li, Peter Ganz, Steven G Deeks, Priscilla Y Hsue
BACKGROUND: Compared to uninfected adults, HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the increase in T-cell dysfunction, inflammation, and coagulation in HIV infection, microvascular dysfunction is thought to contribute to this excess cardiovascular risk. However, the relationships between these variables remain undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 HIV-infected adults from the SCOPE cohort...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995575/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-rakai-uganda
#20
Mahsa Abassi, Bozena M Morawski, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Xiangrong Kong, David B Meya, Kevin Robertson, Ronald Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor, David R Boulware
In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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