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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741901/trends-in-hcv-treatment-uptake-efficacy-and-impact-on-liver-fibrosis-in-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study
#1
Charles Béguelin, Annatina Suter, Enos Bernasconi, Jan Fehr, Helen Kovari, Heiner C Bucher, Marcel Stoeckle, Mathias Cavassini, Mathieu Rougemont, Patrick Schmid, Gilles Wandeler, Andri Rauch
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies with interferon-free second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are highly effective and well tolerated. They have the potential to increase treatment eligibility and efficacy in HIV-infected patients. We assessed the impact of DAAs on treatment uptake, efficacy as well as its impact on the burden of liver disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). METHODS: We describe clinical and virological characteristics of patients treated with second generation DAAs...
July 25, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733564/the-clinical-features-and-treatment-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-in-routine-care
#2
S S Tan, Z Adlin Nadia
AIM: To describe the clinical characteristic of hepatitis C (HCV) patients and the results of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive HCV patients treated with PegIFN/RBV in 2004 to 2012. RESULTS: A total of 273 patients received treatment. The mean age was 44.16 ± 10.5 years and 76% were male. The top 2 self-reported risks were blood or blood product transfusion before 1994 and injection drug use, found in 57...
June 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729550/anti-tumor-activity-and-immunotherapeutic-potential-of-a-bisphosphonate-prodrug
#3
Yoshimasa Tanaka, Masashi Iwasaki, Kaoru Murata-Hirai, Kenji Matsumoto, Kosuke Hayashi, Haruki Okamura, Tomoharu Sugie, Nagahiro Minato, Craig T Morita, Masakazu Toi
Bisphosphonates have benefits in breast cancer and multiple myeloma patients and have been used with adoptive immunotherapy with γδ T cells expressing Vγ2 Vδ2 TCRs. Although treatment with γδ T cells is safe, it has shown limited efficacy. Present bisphosphonates stimulate γδ T cells but were designed to inhibit bone resorption rather than treating cancer and have limited oral absorption, tumor cell entry, and cause bone side effects. The development of phosphate and phosphonate nucleotide prodrugs has led to important drugs for hepatitis C and HIV...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720611/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#5
Tariro J Basera, Jabulani Ncayiyana, Mark E Engel
INTRODUCTION: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains a major public health problem and one of the major contributors to the pool of active tuberculosis cases. The true burden of LTBI in Africa is not known. Early modelling studies estimate that over 33% of the world's population is infected with latent tuberculosis. We propose conducting a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate the burden and risk factors of LTBI in Africa reported in studies from 2000 to 2017. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will include cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-control studies estimating either tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) confirmed prevalence of LTBI and associated risk factors among people in African countries...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#6
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700479/the-investigation-of-cd4-t-cell-functions-in-primary-hiv-infection-with-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Yu Sun, Yajing Fu, Zining Zhang, Tian Tang, Jing Liu, Haibo Ding, Xiaoxu Han, Junjie Xu, Zhenxing Chu, Hong Shang, Yongjun Jiang
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to reduced CD4T-cell counts and immune dysfunction. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV primary infection has been recommended to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, but a comprehensive study on restoration of CD4T-cell function in primary HIV-infected individuals with ART still needs to be eluciated. We investigated longitudinal changes in the CD4T-cell counts, phenotypes, and functions in HIV-infected individuals with early ART (initiated within 6 months after HIV infection) or later ART (initiated more than 12 months after HIV infection)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694201/use-of-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-in-screening-for-neutralizing-anti-interferon-gamma-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-disseminated-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#8
Un-In Wu, Yu-Chung Chuang, Wang-Huei Sheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Yi-Ting Jhong, Jann-Yuan Wang, Shan-Chwen Chang, Jann-Tay Wang, Yee-Chun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) autoantibodies (anti-IFN-γ Abs) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (DNTM) infection, and identification of this immunodeficiency impacts clinical management. However, the protean disease manifestations and inaccessibility to diagnostic tests in clinical settings hamper its early diagnosis. Here, we sought to determine whether QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT), a commercialized IFN-γ release assay, could be used to screen for neutralizing anti-IFN-γ Abs among previously healthy adults with DNTM infection...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692581/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-suppresses-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#9
Joseph E Henriquez, Michael D Rizzo, Matthias A Schulz, Robert B Crawford, Peter Gulick, Norbert E Kaminski
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a crucial role in host antiviral immune response through secretion of type I interferon. Interferon alpha (IFNα), a type I IFN, is critical for mounting the initial response to viral pathogens. A consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) infection is a decrease in both pDC number and function, but prolonged pDC activity has been linked with progression from HIV infection to the development of AIDS. Patients with HIV in the United States routinely use cannabinoid-based therapies to combat the side effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683982/research-priorities-to-achieve-universal-access-to-hepatitis-c-prevention-management-and-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#10
Jason Grebely, Julie Bruneau, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Olav Dalgard, Philip Bruggmann, Carla Treloar, Matthew Hickman, Margaret Hellard, Teri Roberts, Levinia Crooks, Håvard Midgard, Sarah Larney, Louisa Degenhardt, Hannu Alho, Jude Byrne, John F Dillon, Jordan J Feld, Graham Foster, David Goldberg, Andrew R Lloyd, Jens Reimer, Geert Robaeys, Marta Torrens, Nat Wright, Icro Maremmani, Brianna L Norton, Alain H Litwin, Gregory J Dore
Globally, it is estimated that 71.1 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including an estimated 7.5 million people who have recently injected drugs (PWID). There is an additional large, but unquantified, burden among those PWID who have ceased injecting. The incidence of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95%...
July 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683357/exercise-improves-cytokine-profile-in-hiv-infected-people-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Rafael Evangelista Pedro, Nadia Candido, Débora Alves Guariglia, Bruno Pereira Melo, Dennis Armando Bertolini, Sidney Barnabé Peres, Solange Marta Franzói de Moraes
PURPOSE: Verify the effects of concurrent training on cytokines in people living with HIV under antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment. METHODS: This was a blinded, parallel-group, clinical trial, where 49 participants, divided in two groups, either control group or concurrent training group, took part in the intervention. The control group performed recreational activities and concurrent training group participated of 16-week, 3 times per week of heart rate guided-aerobic plus resistance training for major muscular groups...
July 3, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670638/a-comparison-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-by-plasmodium-lactate-dehydrogenase-and-quantitative-buffy-coat-technique-in-malaria-diagnosis-in-children
#12
Ifeanyi Kanayo Ifeorah, Biobele J Brown, Olugbemiro O Sodeinde
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved children ages 0-5 years who presented with a history of fever at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660150/expanding-treatment-access-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-task-shifting-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#13
REVIEW
Eric R Yoo, Ryan B Perumpail, George Cholankeril, Channa R Jayasekera, Aijaz Ahmed
In the United States, the fight to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been ongoing for many years, but the results have been less than ideal. Historically, patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) were treated with interferon-based regimens, which were associated with frequent adverse effects, suboptimal response rates, and long durations of treatment - of up to 48 weeks. Expertise from specialist-physicians, such as hepatologists and gastroenterologists, was needed to closely follow patients on these medications so as to monitor laboratory values and manage adverse effects...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656178/gene-knockout-shows-that-pml-trim19-does-not-restrict-the-early-stages-of-hiv-1-infection-in-human-cell-lines
#14
Nasser Masroori, Pearl Cherry, Natacha Merindol, Jia-Xin Li, Caroline Dufour, Lina Poulain, Mélodie B Plourde, Lionel Berthoux
The PML (promyelocytic leukemia) protein is a member of the TRIM family, a large group of proteins that show high diversity in functions but possess a common tripartite motif giving the family its name. We and others recently reported that both murine PML (mPML) and human PML (hPML) strongly restrict the early stages of infection by HIV-1 and other lentiviruses when expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). This restriction activity was found to contribute to the type I interferon (IFN-I)-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 in MEFs...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654687/combined-single-cell-quantitation-of-host-and-siv-genes-and-proteins-ex-vivo-reveals-host-pathogen-interactions-in-individual-cells
#15
Diane L Bolton, Kathleen McGinnis, Greg Finak, Pratip Chattopadhyay, Raphael Gottardo, Mario Roederer
CD4 T cells harboring HIV-1/SIV represent a formidable hurdle to eradicating infection, and yet their detailed phenotype remains unknown. Here we integrate two single-cell technologies, flow cytometry and highly multiplexed quantitative RT-PCR, to characterize SIV-infected CD4 T cells directly ex vivo. Within individual cells, we correlate the cellular phenotype, in terms of host protein and RNA expression, with stages of the viral life cycle defined by combinatorial expression of viral RNAs. Spliced RNA+ infected cells display multiple memory and activation phenotypes, indicating virus production by diverse CD4 T cell subsets...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637906/anogenital-warts-and-other-hpv-associated-anogenital-lesions-in-the-hiv-positive-patient-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-interventions-assessed-in-controlled-clinical-trials
#16
Ricardo Niklas Werner, Lukas Westfechtel, Corinna Dressler, Alexander Nast
OBJECTIVES: Anogenital warts (AGW, condylomata acuminata) and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) do not only impact health and social well-being, they are also associated with considerable costs for the healthcare systems. Immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients carry the highest epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and comprise a population specifically susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. This systematic review aimed at identifying and appraising the available evidence from controlled studies of interventions for the treatment of AGW and IEN in immunocompromised patients...
June 21, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633705/household-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-low-interferon-gamma-levels-in-pregnant-indian-women
#17
A Vaidya, R Bhosale, P Sambarey, N Suryavanshi, S Young, V Mave, S Kanade, V Kulkarni, P Deshpande, U Balasubramanian, J Elf, N Gupte, A Gupta, J S Mathad
SETTING: Over 20% of tuberculosis (TB) cases during pregnancy occur in India. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between household food insecurity and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in pregnancy. DESIGN: Pregnant women in India were administered the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) questionnaire and underwent an IFN-γ release assay. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with food insecurity. RESULTS: Of 538 women, 60 (11%) had household food insecurity, 47 (78%) of which were moderate or severe food insecure...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632109/successful-treatment-of-sexually-acquired-acute-hcv-reinfection-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-a-hiv-infected-patient
#18
Salvatore Sollima, Spinello Antinori, Alessandro Torre, Francesca Binda, Andrea Giacomelli, Laura Milazzo
Here we describe the case of a HIV-positive patient with acute hepatitis C virus reinfection, who was successfully treated with an interferon-free regimen of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir.
July 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628454/disseminated-mycobacterium-genavense-infection-in-patient-with-adult-onset-immunodeficiency
#19
Takanori Asakura, Ho Namkoong, Takuro Sakagami, Naoki Hasegawa, Kiyofumi Ohkusu, Akira Nakamura
We report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection resulting from neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies in the patient. We identified M. genavense targeting the hsp65 gene in an aspiration specimen of the lymph node. Adult-onset immunodeficiency caused by neutralizing anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies, in addition to HIV infection, can lead to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623917/the-dynamic-changes-of-interferon-lambdas-related-genes-and-proteins-in-jak-stat-pathway-in-both-acute-and-chronic-hiv-1-infected-patients
#20
Guoxian Zhao, Lifeng Liu, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Peng Chen, Wei Li, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: Host immune responses during acute HIV-1 infection can influence the viral setpoint, which is a predictor of disease progression. Interferon (IFN)-lambdas are newly classified type III interferons, which use JAK-STAT pathway. Currently, the dynamics of IFN-lambdas related genes and proteins expression in the signaling pathway have not been well elaborated, especially in acute HIV-1-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the dynamic changes of IFN-lambdas related genes and proteins in JAK/STAT pathway in acute HIV-1-infected patients, and analyze their correlation with CD4 T cell counts and HIV-1 viral loads...
June 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
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