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Clinical Usefulness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787034/critical-preparation-and-readiness-to-support-future-change
#1
Elizabeth Curtis, Emma Duffy, Frank O'Rourke, Sylvia Huntley-Moore, Annabel Walsh, Ken Coogan, Catherine Comiskey
The challenging nature of change is well documented and adequate preparation before implementing a change initiative is critical to reducing resistance and increasing its chances of success. This article describes a service review conducted in preparation for possible change and improvement at an internationally ranked school of nursing and midwifery in an Irish tertiary education institution. The purpose of the review was to examine organisational structures and work activities, including pressures facing the administrative team that supports the school, and to establish whether operations were fit for purpose and capable of continuing to support the international ranking...
May 22, 2018: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786959/assessment-of-the-drug-interaction-potential-of-ertugliflozin-with-sitagliptin-metformin-glimepiride-or-simvastatin-in-healthy-subjects
#2
Vikas Kumar Dawra, David L Cutler, Susan Zhou, Rajesh Krishna, Haihong Shi, Yali Liang, Christine Alvey, Anne Hickman, Didier Saur, Steven G Terra, Vaishali Sahasrabudhe
Ertugliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, is expected to be coadministered with sitagliptin, metformin, glimepiride, and/or simvastatin. Four separate open-label, randomized, single-dose, crossover studies were conducted in healthy adults to assess the potential pharmacokinetic interactions between ertugliflozin 15 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg (n = 12), metformin 1000 mg (n = 18), glimepiride 1 mg (n = 18), or simvastatin 40 mg (n = 18)...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786957/statistical-approaches-to-adjusting-weights-for-dependent-arms-in-network-meta-analysis
#3
Yu-Xuan Su, Yu-Kang Tu
Network meta-analysis compares multiple treatments in terms of their efficacy and harm by including evidence from randomized controlled trials. Most clinical trials use parallel design, where patients are randomly allocated to different treatments and receive only one treatment. However, some trials use within person designs such as split-body, split-mouth and cross-over designs, where each patient may receive more than one treatment. Data from treatment arms within these trials are no longer independent, so the correlations between dependent arms need to be accounted for within the statistical analyses...
May 22, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786949/the-qsofa-score-a-simple-and-accurate-predictor-of-outcomes-in-patients-with-glyphosate-herbicide-poisoning
#4
Yongsoo Cho, Byeongjo Chun, Jeongmi Moon
This study aimed to investigate whether the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score at emergency department (ED) presentation can help improve the risk assessment of glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GlySH) poisoning complications. A total of 150 patients presenting with acute glyphosate herbicide ingestion were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The qSOFA scores at presentation, ΔqSOFA (calculated by subtracting the worst qSOFA score from 1 hr after admission from the qSOFA score at presentation), baseline characteristics, clinical courses and outcomes were collected and analysed...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786947/does-general-experience-affect-self-assessment
#5
Parisa Rezaiefar, Kelly Forse, Joseph K Burns, Sharon Johnston, Elizabeth Muggah, Claire Kendall, Douglas Archibald
BACKGROUND: The assessment of clinical competence is critical in medical education. Understanding the effect of general experience on a physician's self-assessment would help design more effective curricula and evaluations of procedural skills in postgraduate training and continuing professional development (CPD). In this observational study, we assessed the effect of general experience on the correlation between confidence and competence amongst experienced clinicians (ECs) and postgraduate trainees (PGTs) when learning an office-based procedure in pessary care...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786927/the-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-mannitol-test-to-predict-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction
#6
Kyubo Kim, Hong Je Cho, Jung Won Yoon, Sun Hee Choi, Youn Ho Sheen, ManYong Han, Heysung Baek
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is diagnosed via exercise challenge on a treadmill. However, such testing requires complex equipment and sufficient healthcare resources. The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) test and mannitol bronchial provocation test (BPT) may serve as a surrogate of exercise testing. METHODS: We compared the diagnostic utilities of the FeNO test and mannitol BPT in predicting EIB in asthmatic children. We retrospectively analysed data from 60 asthmatic children aged 6-16 years...
May 22, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786916/herbal-medicine-as-a-promising-therapeutic-approach-for-the-management-of-vascular-dementia-a-systematic-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Samaneh Sepahi, Elham Khodaverdi, Seyed Ahmad Mohajeri
Vascular dementia (VaD) generally refers to memory deficits and cognitive abnormalities that are resulted from vascular disease. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the literature wherein therapeutic effects of medicinal plants have been studied on VaD. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and other databases using VaD, and medicinal plants as key terms. No strict inclusion criteria were defined, and almost all clinical studies were included...
May 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786897/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-for-the-diagnosis-of-patients-with-rare-congenital-anemias
#8
Noa Shefer Averbuch, Orna Steinberg-Shemer, Orly Dgany, Tanya Krasnov, Sharon Noy-Lotan, Joanne Yacobovich, Amir A Kuperman, Antonis Kattamis, Ayelet Ben Barak, Batia Roth-Jelinek, Evgeni Chubar, Evelyn Shabad, Gustavo Dufort, Martin Ellis, Ofir Wolach, Idit Pazgal, Abed Abu Quider, Hagit Miskin, Hannah Tamary
BACKGROUND: Most patients with anemia are diagnosed through clinical phenotype and basic laboratory testing. Nonetheless, in cases of rare congenital anemias, some patients remain undiagnosed despite undergoing an exhaustive workup. Genetic testing is complicated by the large number of genes involved in rare anemias and the similarities in the clinical presentation of the different syndromes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to enhance the diagnosis of patients with congenital anemias by using targeted next-generation sequencing...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786880/metagenomic-study-of-bacterial-microbiota-in-persistent-endodontic-infections-using-next-generation-sequencing
#9
G Sánchez-Sanhueza, H Bello-Toledo, G González-Rocha, A T Gonçalves, V Valenzuela, C Gallardo-Escárate
AIM: To determine the bacterial microbiota in root canals associated with persistent apical periodontitis and their relationship with the clinical characteristics of patients using next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODOLOGY: Bacterial samples from root canals associated with teeth having persistent apical periodontitis were taken from 24 patients undergoing root canal retreatment. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and V3-V4 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were amplified...
May 22, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786873/in-vivo-profiling-of-four-centrally-administered-opioids-for-antinociception-constipation-and-respiratory-depression-between-colony-differences-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#10
A Kuo, M T Smith
Outbred rodent stocks including Sprague Dawley rats, are known for their genetic diversity and so they are often used to develop animal models of human disease. Although between-colony differences in pharmaco-behavioural studies have been published previously, a direct head-to-head comparison study, whereby all research was performed in the same laboratory by the same experimenter utilising the supraspinal route of drug administration in the same strain of rat, is lacking. Herein, we report our head-to-head comparison study, involving assessment of antinociception, constipation and respiratory depression evoked by single bolus intracerebroventricular (ICV) doses of morphine, buprenorphine, DPDPE and U69,593 using male Sprague Dawley rats sourced from a different breeding colony (BC2) from that (BC1) used by us previously...
May 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#11
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786857/effect-of-oatp1b1-1b3-inhibitor-gdc-0810-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-pravastatin-and-coproporphyrin-i-iii-in-healthy-female-subjects
#12
Lichuan Liu, Sravanthi Cheeti, Kenta Yoshida, Edna Choo, Eugene Chen, Buyun Chen, Mary Gates, Stina Singel, Roland Morley, Joseph Ware, Srikumar Sahasranaman
Developed as an oral anticancer drug to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, GDC-0810 was shown to be a potent inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1/1B3) from an in vitro assay. A clinical study was conducted to assess the drug-drug interaction potential between GDC-0810 and pravastatin, which is a relatively selective and sensitive OATP1B1/1B3 substrate. Fifteen healthy female subjects of non-childbearing potential were enrolled in the study. On day 1 in period 1, a single 10-mg dose of pravastatin was administered to all subjects...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786851/annual-report-to-the-nation-on-the-status-of-cancer-part-ii-recent-changes-in-prostate-cancer-trends-and-disease-characteristics
#13
Serban Negoita, Eric J Feuer, Angela Mariotto, Kathleen A Cronin, Valentina I Petkov, Sarah K Hussey, Vicki Benard, S Jane Henley, Robert N Anderson, Stacey Fedewa, Recinda L Sherman, Betsy A Kohler, Barbara J Dearmon, Andrew J Lake, Jiemin Ma, Lisa C Richardson, Ahmedin Jemal, Lynne Penberthy
BACKGROUND: Temporal trends in prostate cancer incidence and death rates have been attributed to changing patterns of screening and improved treatment (mortality only), among other factors. This study evaluated contemporary national-level trends and their relations with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence and explored trends in incidence according to disease characteristics with stage-specific, delay-adjusted rates. METHODS: Joinpoint regression was used to examine changes in delay-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates from population-based US cancer registries from 2000 to 2014 by age categories, race, and disease characteristics, including stage, PSA, Gleason score, and clinical extension...
May 22, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786830/blue-light-filtering-intraocular-lenses-iols-for-protecting-macular-health
#14
REVIEW
Laura E Downie, Ljoudmila Busija, Peter R Keller
BACKGROUND: An intraocular lens (IOL) is a synthetic lens that is surgically implanted within the eye following removal of the crystalline lens, during cataract surgery. While all modern IOLs attenuate the transmission of ultra-violet (UV) light, some IOLs, called blue-blocking or blue-light filtering IOLs, also reduce short-wavelength visible light transmission. The rationale for blue-light filtering IOLs derives primarily from cell culture and animal studies, which suggest that short-wavelength visible light can induce retinal photoxicity...
May 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786828/oral-contraceptives-for-pain-associated-with-endometriosis
#15
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Tineke J Crawford, Shree Datta, Andrew Prentice
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition which affects many women of reproductive age worldwide and is a major cause of pain and infertility. The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) is widely used to treat pain occurring as a result of endometriosis, although the evidence for its efficacy is limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of oral contraceptive preparations in the treatment of painful symptoms ascribed to the diagnosis of laparoscopically proven endometriosis...
May 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786827/the-protective-effect-of-montelukast-against-skeletal-muscle-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-an-experimental-rat-model
#16
Mehmet İlker Bilgiç, Güray Altun, Hüsamettin Çakıcı, Kaan Gideroğlu, Gürsel Saka
BACKGROUND: Montelukast is a selective leukotriene D-4 receptor antagonist, which specifically and reversibly inhibits cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Montelukast on skeletal muscle reperfusion injury created as acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in Wistar-albino rats. METHODS: The study comprised 16 male Wistar-albino rats. The rats were randomly separated into two groups as control (IR) and treatment (IR+Montelukast)...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786823/application-of-hybrid-external-fixation-by-the-joystick-method-in-bicondylar-tibial-plateau-fractures-technical-note
#17
Ersin Kuyucu, Adnan Kara, Ferhat Say, Mehmet Erdil, Murat Bülbül, Barış Gülenç
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to present clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures who were treated with hybrid external fixators and describe the details of our technique. Schanz screws were synchronously applied and used as a joystick for fracture reduction. METHODS: The study population included 72 patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fractures classified as type 41-C2 according to the AO classification. Joint reduction was maintained using Schanz screws transmitted through tibial condyles as a joystick under fluoroscopy...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786814/predictive-value-of-preoperative-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-while-detecting-bowel-resection-in-hernia-with-intestinal-incarceration
#18
Hande Köksal, Derviş Ateş, Emet Ebru Nazik, İlknur Küçükosmanoğlu, Serap Melek Doğan, Osman Doğru
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative hematological inflammatory markers of the patients who underwent a surgery for incarcerated hernia and intestinal resection requirement. METHODS: The data of 102 patients who underwent a surgery for incarcerated hernia were retrospectively evaluated. Whole blood cell counts were preoperatively measured, and operation types and pathology results were recorded. The patients with intestinal resections were compared with those without any resection in terms of leukocyte number, neutrophil rate, red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet distribution width, neutrophil-to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV)...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786813/prediction-of-mortality-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-implementations-from-a-tertiary-pediatric-intensive-care-facility
#19
Ebru Atike Ongun, Oğuz Dursun
BACKGROUND: To explore the mortality risk factors of traumatic brain injury in pediatric intensive care unit admissions. METHODS: Eighty-eight children (categorized using the Glasgow Coma Scale) between September 2014 and December 2016 were analyzed. Emergency department and intensive care course, treatment strategies, axonal injury, intubation and tracheostomy rates, length of intensive care and hospitalization, Rotterdam-CT scores, injury severity scores, and PRISM-III scores were recorded...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786793/a-method-for-prostate-and-breast-cancer-cell-spheroid-cultures-using-gelatin-methacryloyl-based-hydrogels
#20
Christoph Meinert, Christina Theodoropoulos, Travis J Klein, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Daniela Loessner
Modern tissue engineering technologies have delivered tools to recreate a cell's naturally occurring niche in vitro and to investigate normal and pathological cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. Hydrogel biomaterials mimic crucial properties of native extracellular matrices, including mechanical support, cell adhesion sites and proteolytic degradability. As such, they are applied as 3D cell culture platforms to replicate tissue-like architectures observed in vivo, allowing physiologically relevant cell behaviors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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