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In the pathogenesis of

Renata Świątkowska-Stodulska, Piotr Kmieć, Katarzyna Stefańska, Krzysztof Sworczak
Hypertension occurs in 7-10% of pregnant women. Despite the continuous development of medicine, it is still an important risk factor for perinatal mortality of both mothers and fetuses. Pregnant women with hypertension are at greater risk of complications such as: placental abruption, cerebral and cardiac incidents, multiorgan failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The aim of this review was to discuss multilevel disorders of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the etiopathogenesis of pregnancy-induced hypertension...
March 20, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Alireza Vakilian, Seyed Moein Razavi-Nasab, Ali Ravari, Tayebeh Mirzaei, Amir Moghadam-Ahmadi, Nazanin Jalali, Reza Bahramabadi, Mohammadtaghi Rezayati, Amin Yazdanpanah-Ravari, Farhad Bahmaniar, Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Mahmood Sheikh Fathollahi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) suffer from psychotic symptoms including pain. The current antipsychotic drugs confer limited effectiveness, and hence new strategies are being designed to decrease pain in order to increase antipsychological effectiveness. Vitamin B12 is a safe supplementary drug to decrease pain. Additionally, cytokines participate in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases such as AD. Thus, the main aim of this clinical trial study was to determine the effects of treatment with risperidone and quetiapine, as antipsychotic drugs, with and without vitamin B12 on the psychotic symptoms of AD patients and the expression of IL-6, IL-8, tumor growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and endothelin (ET)-1)...
March 20, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Jie Tang, Jiaqian Fei, Chunxia Gu, Weixia Liu, Minwei Li, Cheng Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immune inhibitory receptor involved in the pathogenesis of chronic viral infections. Little is known about the effects of BTLA gene polymorphisms on chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of BTLA are associated with the progression of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 382 chronic HBV carriers and 170 healthy individuals in the same region were recruited for this study...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Stefano Grazioli, Maurizio Paciaroni, Giancarlo Agnelli, Monica Acciarresi, Andrea Alberti, Cataldo D'Amore, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Luigina Guasti, Walter Ageno, Alessandro Squizzato
BACKGROUND: The association between stroke and cancer is well-known but insufficiently investigated. Aim of this multicentre retrospective cohort study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer-associated ischemic stroke, describe clinical outcomes in patients with cancer-associated ischemic stroke and investigate independent factors associated with active cancer. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke were included. Included patients were admitted in the Stroke Unit of the Hospital of Perugia, Italy, from March 2005 to March 2015, and in a medical unit of the Hospital of Varese, Italy, from January 2010 till December 2011...
March 15, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Zsolt Zador, Andrew T King, Nophar Geifman
BACKGROUND: Atypical meningiomas are common central nervous system neoplasms with high recurrence rate and poorer prognosis compared to their grade I counterparts. Surgical excision and radiotherapy remains the mainstay therapy but medical treatments are limited. We explore new drug candidates using computational drug repurposing based on the gene expression signature of atypical meningioma tissue with subsequent analysis of drug-generated expression profiles. We further explore possible mechanisms of action for the identified drug candidates using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2018: PloS One
Bilon Khambu, Nazmul Huda, Xiaoyun Chen, Daniel J Antoine, Yong Li, Guoli Dai, Ulrike A Köhler, Wei-Xing Zong, Satoshi Waguri, Sabine Werner, Tim D Oury, Zheng Dong, Xiao-Ming Yin
Autophagy is important for liver homeostasis and the deficiency leads to injury, inflammation, ductular reaction (DR), fibrosis, and tumorigenesis. It is not clear how these events are mechanistically linked to autophagy deficiency. Here we reveal the role of highmobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in two of these processes. First, HMGB1 was required for DR, which represents the expansion of hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) implicated in liver repair and regeneration. DR caused by hepatic toxic diets (DDC or CDE) also depended on HMGB1, indicating that HMGB1 may be generally required for DR in various injury scenarios...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jolanta Parada-Turska, Monika Turska
Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis which predominantly affects medium-sized arteries. It is a rare disease nowadays. Both the nomenclature and the classification of polyarteritis nodosa was amended several times in the past. Currently, there is a distinction between the primary form described as classical polyarteritis nodosa and other forms that are associated with their probable cause e.g. with viral hepatitis B, C or HIV infection. Moreover, polyarteritis-like necrotizing vasculitis can appear in the course of genetic diseases caused by mutations in single genes...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Bożena Targońska-Stępniak
The available data indicate that seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops as a result of systemic, autoimmune reaction directed against a range of "self" peptides/proteins that have undergone specific forms of post-translational modification. The development and progress of autoimmunity may be triggered by non-specific, local inflammatory processes outside the joints, for example in the oral or respiratory mucous membrane. The disease occurs in genetically susceptible individuals under the influence of environmental risk factors that promote autoimmunity and consequently the inflammatory process...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Magdalena Dryglewska, Bogdan Kolarz, Maria Majdan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that results in uncontrolled immune system activation and overproduction of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and not fully understood, nevertheless, genetic and environmental factors play an important role. So far, about 30 genes have been identified to be involved in the SLE pathomechanism. However, not all genetically predisposed individuals develop the disease. This phenomenon can be associated with epigenetic changes that occur under the influence of environmental factors...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jing Wang, Mingshui Fu, Kun Liu, Ning Wang, Zhihua Zhang, Minwen Zhou, Xun Xu
PURPOSE: To quantify levels of matricellular proteins in aqueous humor samples from acute primary angle closure (APAC) and non-glaucomatous cataract eyes and investigate their correlation with intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous humor samples were collected from 63 eyes including 29 current APAC eyes, 12 previous APAC eyes, and 22 cataract eyes. Concentrations of four main matricellular proteins (SPARC, tenascin-C, thrombospondin-2, and osteopontin) were measured using multiplexed immunoassay kits...
March 20, 2018: Current Eye Research
Izabela Gosk-Bierska, Maria Misterska-Skóra, Marta Wasilewska, Małgorzata Bilińska, Jerzy Gosk, Rajmund Adamiec, Magdalena Koszewicz
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (SRP) associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) is not entirely understood. Nervous system dysfunction and microangiopathy are considered to be causes of this pathology. OBJECTIVES: Peripheral and autonomic nervous system function, the stage of microangiopathy, and the relationships between these in patients with SRP were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, 20 patients with CTD-related SRP and 30 healthy controls were subject to capillaroscopy, standard conduction velocity tests and conduction velocity distribution (CVD) tests in ulnar and peroneal nerves, heart rate variability (HRV), and sympathetic skin response (SSR) tests...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Katarzyna J Błochowiak, Dorota Trzybulska, Anna Olewicz-Gawlik, Jan J Sikora, Michalina Nowak-Gabryel, Jarosław Kocięcki, Henryk Witmanowski, Jerzy Sokalski
BACKGROUND: Aberrant angiogenesis plays a role in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in stimulatory parotid saliva and in serum in healthy subjects (HS), patients with primary SS (pSS) and secondary SS (sSS) and to evaluate the expression of EGF, proangiogenic VEGF165 and antiangiogenic VEGF165 b mRNA isoforms. Additionally, we determined the salivary levels of serine/arginine splicing factor (SRSF1), which regulates VEGF165 and VEGF165 b expression...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Zbyszko Chowaniec, Anna Skoczyńska
Cardiovascular diseases are still the main cause of death in Poland and throughout the world. Independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease, in addition to elevated LDL cholesterol, are both low HDL levels and high levels of non-HDL cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid-transfer protein (PLTP) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) both play a major role in the metabolism of those lipoproteins. A lack of these proteins increases HDL and lowers LDL levels. In the light of current knowledge, it seems reasonable to search for compounds that may decrease the activity of CETP, and thus reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease...
March 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ulkem Kocoglu Barlas, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Nilufer Goknar, Melike Ersoy, Nihal Akcay, Esra Sevketoglu
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a devastating disease with significant mortality and high risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease. It is mostly caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Cobalamin C (Cbl C) defect is a genetic disorder of cobalamin metabolism and is a rare cause of HUS. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We present a 6-month-old male infant who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) due to restlessness, severe hypertension, anemia, respiratory distress, and acute kidney injury...
March 20, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Abdulaziz Anazi Alshamrani, Sami Al-Shahwan
BACKGROUND: Crouzon syndrome is the most common form of craniosynostosis, and mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (FGFR2 and FGFR3) genes are implicated in its pathogenesis. OBSERVATION: A 10-year-old female patient with Crouzon syndrome and congenital glaucoma treated with trabeculectomy and ocular hypotensive medications was examined. The patient had proptosis, exposure keratopathy, megalocornea, thin central corneal thickness, a shallow anterior chamber, mild anterior subcapsular cataract, and a cup-to-disc ratio of 0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Eun Jung Lee, Jong Chul Han, Changwon Kee
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between glaucomatous disc hemorrhage (DH) location with respect to the nasal or temporal margin of the retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) and the direction of RNFLD widening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Patients with any documented episode of glaucomatous DH throughout the follow-up period, and definite RNFLD widening on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photos were analyzed...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Francesco Carubbi, Alessia Alunno, Paola Cipriani, Onelia Bistoni, Rosa Scipioni, Vasiliki Liakouli, Piero Ruscitti, Onorina Berardicurti, Salvatore Di Bartolomeo, Roberto Gerli, Roberto Giacomelli
Current patient care in rheumatology relies primarily on a combination of traditional clinical assessment and standard laboratory tests. Investigators seek to discover new biomarkers and novel technologies such as the 'omics' boosted the research in this field. Mechanistic biomarkers such as cytokines, cell types, antibodies, signaling molecules, are rooted in the mechanism underlying the disease and can guide the clinical management of the disease. Conversely, descriptive biomarkers are byproducts of the disease process, depict the state of a disease but are not involved in its pathogenesis...
March 19, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
Wenjing Lu, Yang Wang, Yu Zhang, Huaibin Liang, Xuanqiang Tu, Jirong He, Guoyuan Yang, Lili Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the function of blood microRNA-15a (miR-15a) in the pathogenesis of acute cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients within 72 h after onset and normal control healthy. A model of ischemia in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was established by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). MiR-15a in patients and in cells was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Alexander N Orekhov, Igor A Sobenin
Atherosclerotic diseases are the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries. Correspondingly, studying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and developing new methods of its diagnostic and treatment remain in the focus of current medicine and health care. This review aims to discuss the mechanistic role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in atherogenesis. In particular, the generally accepted hypothesis about the key role of oxidized LDL in atherogenesis is questioned, and an alternative concept of multiple modification of LDL is presented...
March 20, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Yixuan Zhang, Muhammad Hussain, Xiuqin Yang, Peng Chen, Yaping Tian, Hongwu Du
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic and chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands, with massive autoantibody production. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is incompletely understood, some studies have reported that anti-moesin antibodies have been detected in autoimmune diseases with which SS is closely associated. Nevertheless, little is known about moesin's potential involvement in SS. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to verify whether moesin is a specific autoantigen involved in Chinese Hans SS patients...
March 19, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
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