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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551908/-involvement-of-epigenetic-regulation-in-cerebral-cell-death-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model
#1
Mona Shehadeh, Moti Ben-Shabat, Jana Livshits, Eilam Palzur
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a major cause of mortality and disability among young adults. TBI are characterized by primary injury, the result of a mechanical impact to the cranium and a secondary injury, a series of molecular mechanism processes developing thereafter. Cerebral cells modify their gene and protein expression as a result of the injury. Epigenetic modifications have a key role as regulators of gene transcription and may simultaneously be involved in the regulation of the molecular pathways following TBI...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551851/the-ratio-of-hla-dr-and-vnn2-expression-on-cd14-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-can-distinguish-glioblastoma-from-radiation-necrosis-patients
#2
David C Soler, Andrew B Young, Kevin D Cooper, Amber Kerstetter-Fogle, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Haley Gittleman, Thomas S McCormick, Andrew E Sloan
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal type of brain cancer with a median survival of less than two years even following aggressive treatment (Stupp et al., N Engl J Med 352:987-996, 2005). Among the many challenges in treating patients with this devastating disease is the ability to differentiate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images that appear following radiation therapy, often termed "radiation necrosis" from true GBM recurrence. Radiation necrosis (RN) and GBM are very difficult to distinguish and currently only a brain biopsy can conclusively differentiate these pathologies...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551847/prior-malignancies-in-patients-harboring-glioblastoma-an-institutional-case-study-of-2164-patients
#3
REVIEW
Brad E Zacharia, Natalie DiStefano, Marius M Mader, Muhammad O Chohan, Shahiba Ogilvie, Cameron Brennan, Philip Gutin, Viviane Tabar
More patients are surviving long-term following a cancer diagnosis and as such are at risk for second malignancies. As the most common primary brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM) will not infrequently occur in this population. No study has examined the incidence of prior cancer (PC) in patients harboring GBM. Here we evaluate the epidemiological features, as well as the molecular and clinical characteristics of GBM as a second cancer. Utilizing a web-based cancer data management system at our institution, we identified 2164 patients harboring GBM from 2007 to 2014...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551806/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-diabetic-kidney
#4
Kumar Sharma
The role of mitochondria in diabetic complications has been viewed as a source of excess superoxide production leading to cell dysfunction. However, with the lack of benefit of non-specific anti-oxidant approaches this view needs to be re-evaluated. With recent studies using real-time imaging of superoxide, metabolomics, flux studies, transcriptomics and proteomics a new appreciation for the role of mitochondria in the evolution of diabetic kidney disease has emerged. Ongoing studies to further unravel the time course and mechanisms that reduce mitochondrial function will be relevant to novel therapies that could have a major impact on diabetic kidney disease and other diabetic complications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551708/novel-and-experimental-therapies-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#5
REVIEW
Soumya Jagannath, Pramod Kumar Garg
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The currently available treatment of CP is aimed at controlling symptoms and managing complications. Unfortunately, no specific treatment is available to halt the progression of the disease process because the pathophysiological perturbations in CP are not well understood. In this review, we discuss various therapeutic targets and investigational agents acting on these targets. Among these, therapies modulating immune cells and those acting on pancreatic stellate cells appear promising and may translate into clinical benefit in near future...
May 27, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551676/hodgkin-lymphoma-transformation-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-under-ibrutinib-therapy-chance-association-or-therapy-related
#6
Sotirios Sachanas, Gerassimos A Pangalis, Maria Moschogiannis, Xanthi Yiakoumis, Efstathios Koulieris, Pantelis Tsirkinidis, Christina Kalpadakis, Dimitra Rontogianni
The established treatment algorithms for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are currently challenged by novel classes of drugs, with ibrutinib being one of the most effective. Published data suggest that patients with early progression under ibrutinib often emerge as having Richter's transformation (RT) with a rapidly fatal prognosis, mostly developing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this respect, it is known that RT to large DLBCL occurs in about 5% of patients with CLL during the disease course and less frequently to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551651/complete-reversion-of-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-phenotype-associated-with-tacrolimus-and-mycophenolate-mofetil-treatment-following-kidney-transplantation
#7
Vered Pinsk, Ilia Pinsk, Galina Ling, Baruch Yerushalmi, Lidia Osyntsov, Eduard Ling
Numerous germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor-suppressor gene are responsible for development of multiple adenomatous colorectal polyps with their inevitable progression to cancer. Multiple attempts at dietary and pharmacological prevention of colorectal carcinoma development in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) have provided conflicting results. Immunosuppressive treatment with tacrolimus is known to be associated with an increased risk of malignancy and should be avoided in patients with high propensity for development of neoplasia...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551620/impact-of-small-molecules-on-%C3%AE-catenin-and-e-cadherin-expression-in-hpv16-positive-and-negative-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#8
Benedikt Kramer, Clemens Hock, Johannes David Schultz, Anne Lammert, Beatrice Kuhlin, Richard Birk, Karl Hörmann, Christoph Aderhold
BACKGROUND: The validation of potential molecular targets in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is mandatory. β-Catenin and E-cadherin are crucial for cancer progression through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We analyzed the effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors nilotinib, dasatinib, erlotinib and gefitinib on β-catenin and E-cadherin expression in SCC with respect to human papillomavirus (HPV) status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in cell lines UMSCC 11A, UMSCC 14C and CERV196 under the influence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551612/pancreatic-cancer-stem-cells-and-therapeutic-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Gulinnaz Ercan, Ayfer Karlitepe, Bulent Ozpolat
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered one of the deadliest human cancers, with 1-5% 5-year survival rates (~6-month median survival duration) despite therapy; thus, PDAC represents an unmet therapeutic challenge. PDAC is the major histological subtype, comprising 90% of all pancreatic cancers. It is a highly complex and aggressive malignancy, presenting with early local invasion and metastasis, and is resistant to most therapies, all of which are believed to contribute to its extremely poor prognosis...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551611/-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-has-a-role-in-detecting-prostate-cancer-lesions-in-patients-with-recurrent-disease
#10
REVIEW
Claire Fitzpatrick, Olwyn Lynch, Laure Marignol
BACKGROUND/AIM: Early detection of recurrent πrostate cancer (PCa) lesions is paramount to allow patients to avail of localised salvage therapy options. The most significant reason for failure of salvage therapy is undetected metastatic disease. This demonstrates the need for a more accurate monitoring tool. The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is increasingly investigated as a novel tracer for gallium 68 PET/CT to detect PCa lesions in patients with recurrent disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Embase, Pubmed and the Cochrane databases were searched to identify studies investigating the accuracy of (68)Ga-PSMA-PET/CT in detecting PCa lesions...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551549/preparation-of-a-chlorophyll-derivative-and-investigation-of-its-photodynamic-activities-against-cholangiocarcinoma
#11
Zhong-Ming Wu, Li Wang, Wei Zhu, Ying-Hua Gao, Hai-Ming Wu, Mi Wang, Tai-Shan Hu, Yi-Jia Yan, Zhi-Long Chen
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a promising method for the treatment of various cancer diseases. However, the clinical application of PDT is limited due to the lack of effective photosensitizers. In this study, a novel chlorophyll derivative, N,N-bis(2-carboxyethyl)pyropheophorbide a (BPPA), had been synthesized and characterized. BPPA had a characteristic long wavelength absorption peak at 669nm and a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.54. To investigate the photodynamic ability of BPPA against cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), cellular uptake, subcellular location and bio-distribution, in vitro and in vivo PDT efficacy of BPPA were studied...
May 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551545/cytotoxicity-of-temozolomide-on-human-glioblastoma-cells-is-enhanced-by-the-concomitant-exposure-to-an-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-100hz-100g
#12
Zeinab Akbarnejad, Hossein Eskandary, Luciana Dini, Cristian Vergallo, Seyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani, Alireza Farsinejad, Maryam Fekri Soofi Abadi, Meysam Ahmadi
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain cancer that causes high mortality in humans. It responds poorly to the most common cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemo- and radiation therapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent that has been widely used to treat GBM; resistance to this drug is often found. One unexplored possibility for overcoming this resistance is a treatment based on concomitant exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and TMZ. Indeed, many evidences show that EMF affects cancer cells and drug performance...
May 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551145/a-magnetic-polypyrrole-iron-oxide-core-gold-shell-nanocomposite-for-multimodal-imaging-and-photothermal-cancer-therapy
#13
Lu Han, Yang Zhang, Yue Zhang, Yang Shu, Xu-Wei Chen, Jian-Hua Wang
For the purpose of improving the diagnosis and enhancing the photothermal therapeutic effect for cancer under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, a novel magnetic therapeutic platform containing dual photothermal agents, polypyrrole (PPy) and gold nanoshell, is constructed. The nanostructure is composed of a magnetic PPy/Fe3O4-core and a gold nanoshell, which is capable of enhancing the contrast for both magnetic resonance (MR) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. By attaching Raman probes onto the surface of gold shell, the nanocomposites exhibit the potential to serve as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates for optical modality identification of cancer cell...
August 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551039/clinical-features-in-very-early-onset-demyelinating-disease-with-anti-mog-antibody
#14
Masahiro Nishiyama, Hiroaki Nagase, Masaaki Matsumoto, Kazumi Tomioka, Hiroyuki Awano, Tsukasa Tanaka, Daisaku Toyoshima, Kyoko Fujita, Azusa Maruyama, Yoshinobu Oyazato, Keisuke Saeki, Kazuhiro Shiraishi, Satoshi Takada, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of patients with very early-onset acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS) with the anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody are unknown. We investigated the clinical characteristics and described detailed treatment of weekly intramuscular interferon β-1a (IFNβ-1a) in children aged <4years with ADS and the anti-MOG antibody. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with anti-MOG positivity who were diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) at <4years of age...
May 24, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550974/eliminating-hiv-1-packaging-sequences-from-lentiviral-vector-proviruses-enhances-safety-and-expedites-gene-transfer-for-gene-therapy
#15
Conrad A Vink, John R Counsell, Dany P Perocheau, Rajvinder Karda, Suzanne M K Buckley, Martijn H Brugman, Melanie Galla, Axel Schambach, Tristan R McKay, Simon N Waddington, Steven J Howe
Lentiviral vector genomic RNA requires sequences that partially overlap wild-type HIV-1 gag and env genes for packaging into vector particles. These HIV-1 packaging sequences constitute 19.6% of the wild-type HIV-1 genome and contain functional cis elements that potentially compromise clinical safety. Here, we describe the development of a novel lentiviral vector (LTR1) with a unique genomic structure designed to prevent transfer of HIV-1 packaging sequences to patient cells, thus reducing the total HIV-1 content to just 4...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550816/designing-an-hcv-vaccine-a-unique-convergence-of-prevention-and-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Christopher M Walker
Direct acting antivirals can cure chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but whether they will reduce global liver disease burden is uncertain. Most chronic infections are undiagnosed and transmission has increased in recent years. The first trial of a preventive vaccine is now underway in humans at risk for HCV infection. It will test the novel hypothesis that T cell-mediated immunity alone can prevent persistent HCV infection. Another vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies is at an advanced stage of development...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550530/rtms-ameliorates-ptsd-symptoms-in-rats-by-enhancing-glutamate-transmission-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-acc-via-the-pten-akt-signalling-pathway
#17
Gaohua Liu, Dayun Feng, Jian Wang, Haifeng Zhang, Zhengwu Peng, Min Cai, Jing Yang, Ruiguo Zhang, Huaning Wang, Shengxi Wu, Qingrong Tan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel physiological therapy that has been adopted to clinically treat psychiatric disorders. Our previous study indicated the potential therapeutic effect of rTMS on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the exact molecular mechanism is elusive. Currently, using the single prolonged stress (SPS) rat model for PTSD, we investigated the glutamatergic transmission and neural plasticity changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) after SPS induction and explored the protective effects and mechanism of rTMS treatment...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550492/microrna-889-is-downregulated-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-and-confers-resistance-to-natural-killer-cytotoxicity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#18
Haitao Xie, Qiugui Zhang, Hui Zhou, Jun Zhou, Ji Zhang, Yan Jiang, Jinghong Wang, Xianglin Meng, Leping Zeng, Xiaoxin Jiang
Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene B (MICB) is expressed on tumor cells and participates in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antitumor immune response through engagement with the NKG2D receptor. This study was undertaken to identify novel microRNA (miRNA) regulators of MICB and clarify their functions in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay were conducted to search for MICB-targeting miRNAs. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed to determine the roles of candidate miRNAs in the susceptibility of HCC cells to NK lysis...
May 26, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550489/impedance-ph-monitoring-for-diagnosis-of-reflux-disease-new-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Marzio Frazzoni, Nicola de Bortoli, Leonardo Frazzoni, Salvatore Tolone, Vincenzo Savarino, Edoardo Savarino
Heartburn is the most specific symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In clinical practice, heartburn relief by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) trial does suffice to confirm GERD. However, an objective diagnosis of GERD is required before anti-reflux endoscopic or surgical interventions, independently from PPI response. Thus, since normal findings at upper endoscopy are detected in the majority of patients with heartburn, reflux monitoring is often required. When traditional catheter-based or wireless pH tests are used, reflux episodes are conventionally identified by pH drops below 4...
May 26, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550202/antigen-specific-t-cell-analysis-reveals-that-active-immune-responses-to-%C3%AE-cell-antigens-are-focused-on-a-unique-set-of-epitopes
#20
Junbao Yang, Xiaomin Wen, Hengyu Xu, Nadia Torres-Chinn, Cate Speake, Carla J Greenbaum, Gerald T Nepom, William W Kwok
CD38 is an activation marker that is present on recently activated T cells, but absent on resting memory T cells. In this study, we show that CD45RO(+)CD38(+) β cell Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells were present at higher frequencies in type 1 diabetes subjects compared with those in healthy subjects. These results imply an ongoing β cell immunity years after onset of diabetes and suggest these activated T cells have an active role in the disease process. The Ag specificities of these activated T cells were determined by a novel CD154 T cell epitope mapping assay...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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