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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161401/the-evolution-of-airway-management-new-concepts-and-conflicts-with-traditional-practice
#1
A F McNarry, A Patel
In the last 25 yr, there have been several advances in the safe management of the airway. Videolaryngoscopes and supraglottic airways, now in routine use by new trainees in anaesthesia, have had their genesis in the recent past. The 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society published in 2011 a seminal report that has influenced airway management worldwide . Understanding how the report's recommendations were constructed and how clinical guidelines compliment rather than contradict them is important in understanding the tenets of safe airway management...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161238/downregulation-of-inhibition-of-apoptosis-stimulating-protein-of-p53-iaspp-suppresses-cisplatin-resistant-gastric-carcinoma-in-vitro
#2
Jianyong Yu, Li Li, Chengsuo Huang
BACKGROUND Gastric cancer (GC) with cisplatin resistance is one of the leading causes of limitations to therapy. Inhibition of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) plays a key role in GC. However, the role of iASPP in GC with cisplatin resistance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate iASPP expression in GC, and the functions of iASPP in cisplatin-resistant cell lines. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, the expression of iASPP was investigated in normal GC patients and patients with cisplatin resistance, along with GC cell lines and cell lines with cisplatin resistance...
November 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160954/islet-allo-autotransplantation-allogeneic-pancreas-transplantation-followed-by-transplant-pancreatectomy-and-islet-transplantation
#3
M F Nijhoff, J Dubbeld, A R van Erkel, P J M van der Boog, T J Rabelink, M A Engelse, E J P de Koning
Simultaneous pancreas/kidney (SPK) transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to complications, in up to 10% of cases allograft pancreatectomy is necessary shortly after transplantation. Usually the donor pancreas is discarded. Here we report on a novel procedure to rescue endocrine tissue after allograft pancreatectomy. A 39-year-old woman with T1D and ESRD who had received an SPK transplantation required emergency allograft pancreatectomy due to bleeding at the vascular anastomosis...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#4
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160785/scleral-pits-in-choroideremia-implications-for-retinal-gene-therapy
#5
Abdullah A Al-Qahtani, Shakoor Ba-Ali, Talal Alabduljalil, Aaron S Coyner, Rachel C Patel, Richard G Weleber, Aniz Girach, Søren K Christensen, Michael Larsen, Mark E Pennesi, Paul Yang
PURPOSE: We report a novel finding on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with choroideremia, which we describe as scleral pits (SCPs). METHODS: Cross-sectional observational case series of 36 patients with choroideremia, who underwent ophthalmic examination and multimodal imaging, including optical coherence tomography of the macula. Optical coherence tomography images were reviewed for SCP, which were defined as discrete tracts of hyporeflectivity that traverse the sclera with or without the involvement of Bruch membrane, retinal pigment epithelium, and retina...
November 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160555/the-effect-of-sleep-disorders-sedating-medications-and-depression-on-cognitive-processing-therapy-outcomes-a-fuzzy-set-qualitative-comparative-analysis
#6
Patricia L Haynes, Sarah E Emert, Dana Epstein, Suzanne Perkins, Sairam Parthasarathy, James Wilcox
Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an effortful process requiring engagement in cognitive restructuring. Sleep disorders may lead to avoidance of effortful tasks and cognitive performance deficits. We explored whether sleep disorders, as assessed by polysomnography, were consistently associated with treatment response in combination with other factors. This study included 32 U.S. veterans who were examined both before and after CPT for combat-related PTSD. We employed a novel, case-comparative technique, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), to identify combinations of fuzzy and crisp factors (recipes) that achieve a clinically significant outcome...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160225/phosphatidylserine-targeted-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-photothermal-ablation-of-bladder-cancer
#7
Needa A Virani, Carole Davis, Patrick McKernan, Paul Hauser, Robert E Hurst, Joel Slaton, Ricardo P Silvy, Daniel E Resasco, Roger G Harrison
Bladder cancer has a 60-70% recurrence rate most likely due to residual tumour left behind after a transurethral resection (TUR). Failure to completely resect the cancer can lead to recurrence and progression into higher grade tumours with metastatic potential. We present here a novel therapy to treat superficial tumours with the potential to decrease recurrence. The therapy is a heat-based approach in which bladder tumour specific single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are delivered intravesically at a very low dose (0...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160119/a-review-of-the-infection-pathogenesis-and-prophylaxis-recommendations-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#8
Tamar Tadmor, Manfred Welslau, Iwoma Hus
The majority of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) will obtain an infectious complication at some point during their disease, accounting for up to an estimated 60% of deaths in CLL. Patients are predisposed to infection due to inherent immune defects related to the primary disease, and as a result of therapy. The range of infectious complications has evolved alongside therapeutic advances in the treatment of CLL. More recently several novel targeted therapeutic compounds have been introduced in CLL, whose unique safety profiles will probably have an impact on the prophylaxis and management of infectious complications in these patients Areas covered: This review describes the pathogenesis of infections due to intrinsic CLL or therapy-related immunosuppression, and deals with the importance of proactive and reactive infection management as a key focus of patient care...
November 21, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160079/a-comprehensive-mass-spectrometric-survey-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-subcellular-proteomes
#9
Laura Wilk, Lotta Happonen, Johan Malmström, Heiko Herwald
Streptococcus pyogenes is a major global health burden causing a wide variety of diseases. As a vaccine against this bacterium is still lacking, vaccine candidates or antimicrobial therapies are urgently needed. Here, we use an invasive and clinical relevant streptococcal M1 serotype in order to characterise the bacterial proteome in-depth. An elaborate fractionation technique is employed to separate the different cell fractions followed by shotgun mass spectrometry analysis, allowing us to confirm the expression of nearly two thirds (1022) of the 1690 open reading frames predicted for the streptococcal M1 reference proteome...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160033/discordant-fetal-phenotype-of-hypophosphatasia-in-two-siblings
#10
Satoru Ikenoue, Kei Miyakoshi, Tomohiro Ishii, Yu Sato, Toshimitsu Otani, Yohei Akiba, Yoshifumi Kasuga, Daigo Ochiai, Tadashi Matsumoto, Yosuke Ichihashi, Yohei Matsuzaki, Kanako Tachikawa, Toshimi Michigami, Gen Nishimura, Kazushige Ikeda, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Mamoru Tanaka
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with impaired bone mineralization due to mutations in the ALPL gene. The genotype-phenotype correlation of this disorder has been widely described. Here, we present two affected siblings, whose fetal phenotypes were discordant. A 31-year-old Japanese woman, G0P0, was referred to our institution because of fetal micromelia. After obstetric counseling, the pregnancy was terminated at 21 weeks' gestation. Post-mortem radiographs demonstrated severely defective mineralization of the skeleton...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159483/obestatin-can-potentially-differentiate-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells
#11
Rana K El-Asfar, Mohamed M Kamal, Rania S Abd El-Razek, Ebtehal El-Demerdash, Hala O El-Mesallamy
In vitro-generation of β-cells from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) could provide a potential basis for diabetes mellitus cell therapy. However, the generation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from WJ-MSCs remains a challenge. Recently, obestatin, a gut hormone, was found to promote β-cell generation from pancreatic precursor cells. Accordingly, we hypothesize that obestatin can induce the differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of obestatin to generate IPCs in comparison to well-known extrinsic factors that are commonly used in IPCs differentiation protocols from MSCs, namely exendin-4 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159466/efficacy-and-safety-of-perampanel-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Simona Lattanzi, Elisabetta Grillo, Francesco Brigo, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: L-Dopa represents the mainstay of therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD), but its effectiveness is reduced with continued treatment and disease progression. Accordingly, there remains a need to explore novel treatment strategies to manage the signs and symptoms of the later disease stages. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive perampanel (PER) in patients with PD through a meta-analysis of existing trials. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double- or single-blind, add-on studies of PER in patients with PD were identified through a systematic literature search...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159318/young-donor-white-blood-cell-immunotherapy-induces-extensive-tumor-necrosis-in-advanced-stage-solid-tumors
#13
Dipnarine Maharaj, Pedro G Vianna, Wendy Ward, Anthony J Messina, Trevor Rayborn, Jacqueline V Gouvea, Richard D Hammer, Zheng Cui
Background: In the past decade, a variety of immunotherapy approaches focused predominantly on the adaptive immune system have shown unprecedented responses in patients with advanced-stage malignancies. However, studies in spontaneous regression/complete resistance (SR/CR) mice and humans have shown a novel innate cancer-killing activity mediated by granulocytes, which is completely transferable for prevention or therapy against established malignancies. Methods: Three patients with advanced, relapsed or refractory solid tumors for which no standard therapy was available or was refused were enrolled into this ongoing combined phase I/II open label clinical trial testing the safety, dose tolerance, and possible antineoplastic efficacy of sequential infusions of HLA-mismatched non-irradiated allogeneic white cells (68-91% granulocytes) collected by leukapheresis from young, healthy donors (age 18-35) following mobilization with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone...
October 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158836/a-laser-activated-biocompatible-theranostic-nanoagent-for-targeted-multimodal-imaging-and-photothermal-therapy
#14
Liming Deng, Xiaojun Cai, Danli Sheng, Yang Yang, Eric M Strohm, Zhigang Wang, Haitao Ran, Dong Wang, Yuanyi Zheng, Pan Li, Tingting Shang, Yi Ling, Fengjuan Wang, Yang Sun
Multifunctional nanoparticles have been reported for cancer detection and treatment currently. However, the accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment for tumors are still not satisfied. Here we report on the development of targeted phase change multimodal polymeric nanoparticles for the imaging and treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS: We evaluated the multimodal imaging capabilities of the prepared nanoparticles in vitro using agar-based phantoms. The targeting performance and cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles were examined in cell culture using SKBR3 (over-expressing HER2) and MDA-MB-231 (HER2 negative) cells...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158835/theranostic-role-of-32-p-atp-as-radiopharmaceutical-for-the-induction-of-massive-cell-death-within-avascular-tumor-core
#15
Mirco Galiè, Federico Boschi, Ilaria Scambi, Flavia Merigo, Pasquina Marzola, Luisa Altabella, Umberto Lavagnolo, Andrea Sbarbati, Antonello E Spinelli
Drug inaccessibility to vast areas of the tumor parenchyma is amongst the major hurdles for conventional therapies. Treatment efficacy rapidly decreases with distance from vessels and most of the tumor cells survive therapy. Also, between subsequent cycles of treatment, spared cancer cells replace those killed near the vessels, improving their access to nutrients, boosting their proliferation rate, and thus enabling tumor repopulation. Because of their property of "acting at a distance," radioisotopes are believed to overcome the physical barrier of vascular inaccessibility...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158821/ultra-small-ph-responsive-nd-doped-nadyf4-nanoagents-for-enhanced-cancer-theranostic-by-in-situ-aggregation
#16
Yuxin Liu, Huimin Fan, Quanwei Guo, Anqi Jiang, Xiaoxia Du, Jing Zhou
To achieve accurate tumor location and highly efficient cancer therapy effect, the properties of cancer theranostic agents should be optimized and enhanced. In this work, ultra-small Nd doped NaDyF4 were firstly reported as novel contrast agents for near-infrared second window downconversion luminescence (NIR II DCL) and magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the optimization strategy, gallic acid-Fe(III) complex modified NaDyF4:10%Nd (NaDyF4:10%Nd-GA-Fe) was selected as the optimal agent with high transversal relaxivity, strong NIR II DCL, high photothermal conversion efficiency, and low toxicity...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158790/synergy-of-purine-scaffold-tlr7-agonist-with-doxorubicin-on-systemic-inhibition-of-lymphoma-in-mouse-model
#17
Dong Gao, Wang Li, Wanmin Wang, Yongguang Cai, Yuhuan Wang, Xiaoling Luo, Chih-Chang Wei
Chemo- and radio-therapy suffer from certain well-recognized drawbacks for lymphoma therapy. Passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibody has improved outcome for patients with CD20(+) B cell lymphoma, but not for T cell lymphoma. Therefore, novel treatment approaches are clearly required for T cell lymphoma. To date, the combined application targeting TLR7, 8 and 9 has established long-term antitumor immunity. We previously synthesized a purine-scaffold TLR7 agonist named GD5. Here, we report that the intratumoral administration of GD5 combined with doxorubicin (DOX), a conventional chemotherapeutic agent in T cell lymphoma...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158675/transplantation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-angiogenesis-and-improves-neurological-function-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#18
Shewei Guo, Yingwei Zhen, Anran Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Transplantation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has emerged as a promising treatment for various central nervous system diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of BMSCs transplantation by intravenous injection on neurological function and angiogenesis of the TBI mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham, TBI, and BMSC. Functional neurological evaluation was performed 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after TBI using neurological severity scores...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158666/tenofovir-alafenamide-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo, Mindie H Nguyen
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. TAF has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HBV replication at a low dose, with high intracellular concentration and more than 90% lower systemic TFV concentration than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). In two randomized, double-blind, multinational, Phase 3, non-inferiority trials for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative patients (primary analysis: 48 weeks), TAF 25 mg orally once-daily was not inferior to TDF 300 mg in achieving an HBV DNA level <29 IU/mL at week 48...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158558/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-prmt5-has-prognostic-relevance-and-is-a-druggable-target-in-multiple-myeloma
#20
A Gullà, T Hideshima, G Bianchi, M Fulciniti, M K Samur, J Qi, Y-T Tai, T Harada, E Morelli, N Amodio, R Carrasco, P Tagliaferri, N C Munshi, P Tassone, K C Anderson
Arginine methyltransferases critically regulate cellular homeostasis by modulating the functional outcome of their substrates. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is an enzyme involved in growth and survival pathways promoting tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the biologic function of PRMT5 and its therapeutic potential in multiple myeloma (MM). In the present study, we identified and validated PRMT5 as a new therapeutic target in MM. PRMT5 is overexpressed in patient MM cells and associated with decreased PFS and OS...
November 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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