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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734184/an-empirical-review-of-potential-mediators-and-mechanisms-of-prolonged-exposure-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Andrew A Cooper, Erin G Clifton, Norah C Feeny
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically-supported treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the precise mechanism(s) by which PE promotes symptom change are not well established. Understanding how PE works is critical to improving clinical outcomes, advancing dissemination efforts, and enhancing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology. However, mechanisms research conducted in clinical treatment settings is complex, and findings may be difficult to interpret without appropriate context. This is the first review of potential mechanisms of PE to provide such context, by rigorously evaluating empirical findings in line with essential criteria for effective research on mechanisms (or mediators)...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732370/silibinin-an-old-drug-for-hematological-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Hai Zou, Xing-Xing Zhu, Guo-Bing Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yi Wu, Dong-Sheng Huang
Silibinin (silybin), a non-toxic natural polyphenolic flavonoid, is the principal and the most biologically active component of silymarin. It is efficient in the treatment of acute and chronic liver disorders caused by toxins, drug, alcohol, hepatitis, and gall bladder disorders. Further, in our previous studies, we explored the anti-cancer efficacy in common cancers, such as lung, prostatic, colon, breast, bladder, as well as, hepatocellular carcinoma. Interestingly, silibinin is still not solely limited to the treatment of these diseases...
July 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732024/4-nitrophenylsulfonyl-piperazines-mitigate-radiation-damage-to-multiple-tissues
#3
Ewa D Micewicz, Kwanghee Kim, Keisuke S Iwamoto, Josephine A Ratikan, Genhong Cheng, Gayle M Boxx, Robert D Damoiseaux, Julian P Whitelegge, Piotr Ruchala, Christine Nguyen, Prabhat Purbey, Joseph Loo, Gang Deng, Michael E Jung, James W Sayre, Andrew J Norris, Dörthe Schaue, William H McBride
Our ability to use ionizing radiation as an energy source, as a therapeutic agent, and, unfortunately, as a weapon, has evolved tremendously over the past 120 years, yet our tool box to handle the consequences of accidental and unwanted radiation exposure remains very limited. We have identified a novel group of small molecule compounds with a 4-nitrophenylsulfonamide (NPS) backbone in common that dramatically decrease mortality from the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (hARS). The group emerged from an in vitro high throughput screen (HTS) for inhibitors of radiation-induced apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731290/autoantibodies-against-pfdn2-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-a-case-control-study
#4
Douglas C Chang, Paolo Piaggi, Robert L Hanson, William C Knowler, Clifton Bogardus, Jonathan Krakoff
BACKGROUND: The adaptive immune system is involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), indicating the presence of unidentified autoantibodies that might be useful biomarkers for emerging immunomodulatory therapy. A prior microarray study with a small number of participants suggested the association of novel autoantibodies with T2DM in Southwest American Indians (SAIs). We therefore sought to determine whether antibodies against 14 target proteins are associated with T2DM in a large case-control study...
July 21, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731260/transcriptional-regulation-of-app-by-apoe-to-boldly-go-where-no-isoform-has-gone-before-apoe-app-transcription-and-ad-hypothesised-mechanisms-and-existing-knowledge-gaps
#5
REVIEW
Liying Corinne Lee, Michele Q L Goh, Edward H Koo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that gradually disrupts the brain network to impair memory, language and cognition. While the amyloid hypothesis remains the leading proposed mechanism to explain AD pathophysiology, anti-amyloid therapeutic strategies have yet to translate into useful therapies, suggesting that amyloid β-protein and its precursor, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are but a part of the disease cascade. Further, risk of AD can be modulated by a number of factors, the most impactful being the ɛ4 isoform of apolipoprotein E (apoE)...
July 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731154/sypl1-overexpression-predicts-poor-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-associates-with-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#6
Dong-Han Chen, Qiu-Wan Wu, Xiu-Dong Li, Shuang-Jia Wang, Zhi-Ming Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, which is mainly due to relapse and metastasis. Synaptophysin-like 1 (SYPL1), a member of SYP family proteins, exerts complicated functions, which prompted us to wonder whether SYPL1 contributed to HCC progress. Herein, we performed integrative experiments of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and found that SYPL1 overexpression in HCC tissues was closely correlated with several malignant clinicopathologic features of HCC...
July 21, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731132/mir-374-mediates-the-malignant-transformation-of-gastric-cancer-associated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-an-experimental-rat-model
#7
Runbi Ji, Xu Zhang, Hui Qian, Hongbing Gu, Zixun Sun, Fei Mao, Yongmin Yan, Jingyan Chen, Zhaofeng Liang, Wenrong Xu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a critical component of the tumor microenvironment. Upon distinct pathological stimulus, MSCs show phenotypic and functional changes. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer‑related deaths worldwide. The roles and mechanisms of MSCs in gastric cancer have not been well characterized. In the present study, we investigated the roles of MSCs in the malignant transformation from gastritis to gastric cancer using an N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer model...
July 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731040/er-stress-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-neurodegeneration
#8
REVIEW
Claudio Hetz, Smita Saxena
The clinical manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases is initiated by the selective alteration in the functionality of distinct neuronal populations. The pathology of many neurodegenerative diseases includes accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain. In physiological conditions, the proteostasis network maintains normal protein folding, trafficking and degradation; alterations in this network - particularly disturbances to the function of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - are thought to contribute to abnormal protein aggregation...
July 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731027/ptenp1-acts-as-a-cerna-to-regulate-pten-by-sponging-mir-19b-and-explores-the-biological-role-of-ptenp1-in-breast-cancer
#9
R-K Li, J- Gao, L-H Guo, G-Q Huang, W-H Luo
This study aimed to investigate role of long noncoding RNA PTENP1 regulating PTEN expression via miR-19b to affect breast cancer (BC) progression. We measured expressions of PTENP1, miR-19b and PTEN in 65 matched BC cancerous and noncancerous tissues by quantitative real-time fluorescence PCR (qRT-PCR) and investigated the biological effects of PTENP1 in BC MDA-MB-231 cells by several in vitro experiments including CCK8, wound healing, transwell and Annexin V-FITC/PI analysis. Besides, the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) activity of PTENP1 on miR-19b was detected by luciferase reporter assay, and the expressions of related genes and proteins were determined by western blot assay and qRT-PCR...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731026/the-novel-gene-ha117-promotes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-drug-resistance-in-mouse-colon-tumor-cells
#10
Y X Guo, Y H Xu, G H Zheng, X Q Jin
In this study, we characterized the role of HA117, a novel gene we previously identified, in drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. Briefly, CT26 cells expressing HA117 were obtained by infection with a recombinant adenovirus, and tested for drug sensitivity by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. In addition, the effect of HA117 on drug sensitivity was assessed in CT26 colon tumors transplanted into nude mice. In vitro, expression of HA117 increased the resistance of CT26 cells to 5-fluorouracil 2.75 times (P<0...
July 21, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730958/engineering-synergistically-active-and-bioavailable-cost-effective-medicines-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-the-role-of-excipients
#11
Dolores R Serrano, Aikaterini Lalatsa, M Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease responsible for the ninth largest disease burden in the world threatening 350 million people mostly in developing countries. The lack of efficacy, severe adverse effects, long duration, high cost and parenteral administration of the current therapies result in poor patient compliance and emergence of resistance. Leishmaniasis' unmet need for safer, affordable and more effective treatments is only partly addressed by today's global health product pipeline that focuses on products amenable to rapid clinical development, mainly by reformulating or repurposing existing drugs for new uses...
July 19, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730707/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-cachexia
#12
Katherine A Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Kevin G Burfeind, Stephanie M Krasnow, Peter R Levasseur, Terry K Morgan, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a complex metabolic and behavioural syndrome lacking effective therapies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most important conditions associated with cachexia, with >80% of PDAC patients suffering from the condition. To establish the cardinal features of a murine model of PDAC-associated cachexia, we characterized the effects of implanting a pancreatic tumour cell line from a syngeneic C57BL/6 KRAS(G12D) P53(R172H) Pdx-Cre(+/+) (KPC) mouse...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730660/bezlotoxumab-a-novel-agent-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
Wesley D Kufel, Aaron S Devanathan, Ashley H Marx, David J Weber, Lindsay M Daniels
Over the last decade, the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have significantly increased, leading to a rise in CDI-associated hospitalizations, health care costs, and mortality. Although treatment options exist for CDI, recurrence is frequent following treatment. Furthermore, patients with at least one CDI recurrence are at an increased risk of developing additional recurrences. A novel approach to the prevention of recurrent CDI is the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the toxins responsible for CDI as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment...
July 21, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730529/role-of-the-golgi-apparatus-in-the-blood-brain-barrier-golgi-protection-may-be-a-targeted-therapy-for-neurological-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Shuwen Deng, Hui Liu, Ke Qiu, Hong You, Qiang Lei, Wei Lu
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from toxic material in the blood, provides nutrients for brain tissues, and screens harmful substances from the brain. The specific brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), tight junction between endothelial cells, and astrocytes ensure proper function of the central nervous system (CNS). Pathological factors disrupt the integrity of the BBB by destroying the normal function of endothelial cells and decreasing the production of tight junction proteins or the expression of proteins specifically localized on astrocytes...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730439/design-and-preparation-of-aptamer-sirna-chimeras-asics-for-targeted-cancer-therapy
#15
Sven Kruspe, Paloma H Giangrande
Conjugation of cell-internalizing DNA or RNA aptamers to tumor-suppressing siRNAs represents a novel promising approach for cancer therapy. Here we describe how to employ RNA aptamers that bind to cell surface receptors as carriers for cell-targeted siRNA (or miRNA) delivery. This protocol was optimized to improve the efficiency of the aptamer-siRNA/miRNA conjugates and facilitate its implementation in most molecular biology labs. The single working steps include (1) outlining the optimal sequences of the RNA strands bearing the aptamer and siRNA sequence, for which further (2) a dsDNA template is synthesized and then (3) transcribed into an RNA that will be (4) folded and annealed to a chemically synthesized siRNA complementary strand...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730427/-basic-research-in-ophthalmology-in-germany-and-its-international-context
#16
REVIEW
U Schlötzer-Schrehardt, C Cursiefen
BACKGROUND: Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. METHODS: The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU)...
July 20, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730333/identification-of-a-novel-leukemic-specific-splice-variant-of-dnmt3b-and-its-stability
#17
Prachi Singh, Sarvagalla Sailu, Elango Palchamy, Mohane Selvaraj Coumar, Sudhakar Baluchamy
DNA methyltransferases make use of alternative splicing mechanism to generate various splice variants, but their role(s) in modulating DNA methylation patterns in the cells is unclear. Notably, DNMT3B alone contains nearly 40 different splice variants. In this study, we have identified a novel splice variant of DNMT3B, which lacks exon 7 and 10 from leukemic cell lines which we termed as DNMT3B9. The exon 7 codes for the major part of PWWP domain, and exon 10 inclusion serves as a pluripotent marker. By quantitative RT-PCR using exon-exon junction-specific primers, we showed higher level of DNMT3B9 transcripts in several leukemic cell lines...
August 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730160/epigenetic-interactions-between-alcohol-and-cannabinergic-effects-focus-on-histone-modification-and-dna-methylation
#18
Tiyash Parira, Alejandra Laverde, Marisela Agudelo
Epigenetic studies have led to a more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic conditions. In the case of alcohol addiction, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 16 million adults suffer from Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Even though therapeutic interventions like behavioral therapy and medications to prevent relapse are currently available, no robust cure exists, which stems from the lack of understanding the mechanisms of action of alcohol and the lack of development of precision medicine approaches to treat AUDs...
April 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729919/toward-understanding-non-coding-rna-roles-in-intracranial-aneurysms-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#19
Fengzhen Huang, Jiping Yi, Tieqiao Zhou, Xiaoxiang Gong, Hong Jiang, Xiaoxi Yao
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common and frequently life-threatening cerebrovascular disease, which is mostly related with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Its complications include rebleeding, early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, chronic hydrocephalus, and also non neurological problems. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), comprising of microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), play an important role in intracranial aneurysms and SAH. Here, we review the non-coding RNAs expression profile and their related mechanisms in intracranial aneurysms and SAH...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729730/a-selective-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylase-3-prevents-cognitive-deficits-and-suppresses-striatal-cag-repeat-expansions-in-huntington-s-disease-mice
#20
Nuria Suelves, Lucy Kirkham-McCarthy, Robert S Lahue, Silvia Ginés
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major symptoms include progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive decline is a critical quality of life concern for HD patients and families. The enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) appears to be important in HD pathology by negatively regulating genes involved in cognitive functions. Furthermore, HDAC3 has been implicated in the aberrant transcriptional patterns that help cause disease symptoms in HD mice. HDAC3 also helps fuel CAG repeat expansions in human cells, suggesting that HDAC3 may power striatal expansions in the HTT gene thought to drive disease progression...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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