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Rapid Response Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333748/near-infrared-light-sensitive-polyvinyl-alcohol-hydrogel-photoresist-for-spatiotemporal-control-of-cell-instructive-3d-microenvironments
#1
Xiao-Hua Qin, Xiaopu Wang, Markus Rottmar, Bradley J Nelson, Katharina Maniura-Weber
Advanced hydrogel systems that allow precise control of cells and their 3D microenvironments are needed in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and drug screening. Multiphoton lithography (MPL) allows true 3D microfabrication of complex objects, but its biological application requires a cell-compatible hydrogel resist that is sufficiently photosensitive, cell-degradable, and permissive to support 3D cell growth. Here, an extremely photosensitive cell-responsive hydrogel composed of peptide-crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is designed to expand the biological applications of MPL...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332416/-autoimmune-encephalitis-possibilities-in-the-laboratory-investigation
#2
Katalin Böröcz, Zsófia Hayden, Viktória Mészáros, Zsuzsanna Csizmadia, Kornélia Farkas, Zoltán Kellermayer, Péter Balogh, Ferenc Nagy, Tímea Berki
INTRODUCTION: The role of autoimmune responses against central nervous system (CNS) antigens in encephalitis presenting with non-classified neurologic or psychiatric symptoms has been appreciated in the past decade. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis has a poor prognosis and is most commonly associated with lung, ovarium, and testicular neoplasms, leading to immune reactions against intracellular antigens (anti-Hu/ANNA1, anti-Ri/ANNA2, anti-CV2/CRMP5 and anti-Ma2/Ta). In contrast, the recently described autoimmune encephalitis subtypes present with a broad spectrum of symptoms, respond to autoimmune therapies well and usually associate with autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface receptors (NMDAR, GABABR, AMPAR) or synaptic proteins (LGI1, CASPR2)...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332285/immunity-associated-programmed-cell-death-as-a-tool-for-the-identification-of-genes-essential-for-plant-innate-immunity
#3
Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng
Plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immune system to contend with potential infection by various pathogens. Understanding and manipulation of key molecular mechanisms that plants use to defend against various pathogens are critical for developing novel strategies in plant disease control. In plants, resistance to attempted pathogen infection is often associated with hypersensitive response (HR), a form of rapid programmed cell death (PCD) at the site of attempted pathogen invasion. In this chapter, we describe a method for rapid identification of genes that are essential for plant innate immunity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331929/sex-related-differential-response-to-dexamethasone-in-endocrine-and-immune-measures-in-depressed-in-patients-and-healthy-controls
#4
Carina Rampp, Andreas Eichelkraut, Johanna Best, Darina Czamara, Monika Rex-Haffner, Manfred Uhr, Elisabeth B Binder, Andreas Menke
Although sex differences in major depression have been reported repeatedly, the underlying mechanisms are still disputed. The rapidly changing gonadal steroid concentrations of the postpartum period or during menopause have been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms and to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is implicated in depression. The sample comprised of 128 depressed in-patients (36.7% women) and 166 healthy controls (30.0% women). Blood was collected at baseline (at 6pm) and then 3 h as well as 21 h after ingestion of 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331905/macrophage-phenotype-switch-by-sequential-action-of-immunomodulatory-cytokines-from-hydrogel-layers-on-titania-nanotubes
#5
Junhong Chen, Mengting Li, Congling Yang, Xianzhen Yin, Ke Duan, Jianxin Wang, Bo Feng
Inflammatory response occurring between tissues and implants after implantation has attracted increasing attention because it can cause local tissue necrosis and even implant failure. Macrophages play a key role in all stages of inflammation. Pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages comprise two main phenotypes and the switch from M1 to M2 at specific time points is important for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Therefore, we hypothesized that biomaterial systems capable of facilitating macrophage phenotype switching should attenuate inflammation and enhance healing...
January 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331649/friend-or-foe-reactive-oxygen-species-production-scavenging-and-signaling-in-plant-response-to-environmental-stresses
#6
Weronika Czarnocka, Stanisław Karpiński
In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR)...
January 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331367/molecular-characterization-and-differential-expression-analysis-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-from-ovis-aries
#7
Yi-Ming Shui, Shi-Ying Lu, Xing Guo, Xi-Lin Liu, Bao-Quan Fu, Pan Hu, Lin-Lin Qu, Nan-Nan Liu, Yan-Song Li, Lu-Lu Wang, Fei-Fei Zhai, Dan-Di Ju, Zeng-Shan Liu, Yu Zhou, Hong-Lin Ren
The interleukin-1 family is an important component of the innate immune system and plays an important role in regulating immune responses on the invasion of intracellular parasites in the acquired immune system. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is one of the members of the IL-1 family that predominantly activates downstream signaling pathways to play immunological functions of stimulating T and B lymphocyte activation and promoting the various syntheses of inflammatory substances in conjunction with other cytokines...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330699/accounting-of-ghg-emissions-and-removals-from-forest-management-a-long-road-from-kyoto-to-paris
#8
REVIEW
Joachim H A Krug
BACKGROUND: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others...
January 3, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329947/-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome-and-pseudoexfoliation-glaucoma
#9
REVIEW
C Schweitzer
Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related systemic disease that mainly affects the anterior structures of the eye. Despite a worldwide distribution, reported incidence and prevalence of this syndrome vary widely between ethnicities and geographical areas. The exfoliative material is composed mainly of abnormal cross-linked fibrils that accumulate progressively in some organs such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs or meninges, and particularly in the anterior structures of the eye. The exact pathophysiological process still remains unclear but the association of genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development and progressive extracellular accumulation of exfoliative material...
January 9, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329556/cancer-immunotherapy-beyond-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
REVIEW
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Aixa E Soyano, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Keith L Knutson, Yanyan Lou
Malignant cells have the capacity to rapidly grow exponentially and spread in part by suppressing, evading, and exploiting the host immune system. Immunotherapy is a form of oncologic treatment directed towards enhancing the host immune system against cancer. In recent years, manipulation of immune checkpoints or pathways has emerged as an important and effective form of immunotherapy. Agents that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328787/immune-responses-to-retroviruses
#11
Asier Saez-Cirion, Nicolas Manel
Retroviruses are genome invaders that have shared a long history of coevolution with vertebrates and their immune system. Found endogenously in genomes as traces of past invasions, retroviruses are also considerable threats to human health when they exist as exogenous viruses such as HIV. The immune response to retroviruses is engaged by germline-encoded sensors of innate immunity that recognize viral components and damage induced by the infection. This response develops with the induction of antiviral effectors and launching of the clonal adaptive immune response, which can contribute to protective immunity...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326990/a-fluorescent-microbead-based-microfluidic-immunoassay-chip-for-immune-cell-cytokine-secretion-quantification
#12
Xin Cui, Ya Liu, Dinglong Hu, Weiyi Qian, Chung Tin, Dong Sun, Weiqiang Chen, Raymond H W Lam
Quantitative and dynamic analyses of immune cell secretory cytokines are essential for precise determination and characterization of the "immune phenotype" of patients for clinical diagnosis and treatment of immune-related diseases. Although multiple methods including the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been applied for cytokine detection, such measurements remain very challenging in real-time, high-throughput, and high-sensitivity immune cell analysis. In this paper, we report a highly integrated microfluidic device that allows for on-chip isolation, culture, and stimulation, as well as sensitive and dynamic cytokine profiling of immune cells...
January 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326816/immune-checkpoint-inhibition-prospects-for-prevention-and-therapy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Caryn L Elsegood, Janina Ee Tirnitz-Parker, John K Olynyk, George Ct Yeoh
The global prevalence of liver cancer is rapidly rising, mostly as a result of the amplified incidence rates of viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and obesity in recent decades. Treatment options for liver cancer are remarkably limited with sorafenib being the gold standard for advanced, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma but offering extremely limited improvement of survival time. The immune system is now recognised as a key regulator of cancer development through its ability to protect against infection and chronic inflammation, which promote cancer development, and eliminate tumour cells when present...
November 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325399/evaluating-the-process-and-extent-of-institutionalization-a-case-study-of-a-rapid-response-unit-for-health-policy-in-burkina-faso
#14
Andre Zida, John N Lavis, Nelson K Sewankambo, Bocar Kouyate, Salimata Ouedraogo
BACKGROUND: Good decision-making requires gathering and using sufficient information. Several knowledge translation platforms have been introduced in Burkina Faso to support evidence-informed decision-making. One of these is the rapid response service for health. This platform aims to provide quick access for policy-makers in Burkina Faso to highquality research evidence about health systems. The purpose of this study is to describe the process and extent of the institutionalization of the rapid response service...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323465/multiplexed-digital-mrna-expression-analysis-profiles-system-wide-changes-in-mrna-abundance-and-responsiveness-of-upr-specific-gene-expression-changes-during-batch-culture-of-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#15
Rodrigo Maldonado-Agurto, Alan J Dickson
The unfolded protein response (UPR) signalling pathway is viewed as critical for setting the effectiveness of recombinant protein expression in CHO cells. In this study, we used Nanostring nCounter technology to study expression of a group of genes associated with cellular processes linked to UPR activation under ER stress and the changing environment of a batch culture. Time course induction of ER stress, using tunicamycin (TM), showed a group of genes such as Chop, Trb3, Sqstm1, Grp78 and Herpud1 responded rapidly to TM inhibition of N-glycosylation, whilst others such as Atf5, Odz4 and Birc5 exhibited a delayed response...
January 11, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323382/probing-transcription-factor-binding-activity-and-downstream-gene-silencing-in-living-cells-with-a-dna-nanoswitch
#16
Alessandro Bertucci, Junling Guo, Nicolas Oppmann, Agata Glab, Francesco Ricci, Frank Caruso, Francesca Cavalieri
Transcription factor DNA binding activity is of pivotal importance in living systems because of its primary involvement in the regulation of genetic machinery. The analysis of transient expression levels of transcription factors in response to a certain cell status is a powerful means for investigating cellular dynamics at the biomolecular level. Herein, a DNA-based molecular switch that enables probing of transcription factor DNA binding activity is directly used in living cells. We demonstrate that the DNA nanoswitch allows for dynamic fluorescence imaging of NF-κB and quantification of downstream gene silencing in real time...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323029/environmental-cues-determine-the-fate-of-astrocytes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
REVIEW
Fatima M Nathan, Shuxin Li
Reactive astrogliosis occurs after central nervous system (CNS) injuries whereby resident astrocytes form rapid responses along a graded continuum. Following CNS lesions, naïve astrocytes are converted into reactive astrocytes and eventually into scar-forming astrocytes that block axon regeneration and neural repair. It has been known for decades that scarring development and its related extracellular matrix molecules interfere with regeneration of injured axons after CNS injury, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms for controlling astrocytic scar formation and maintenance are not well known...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322917/identification-of-natural-antimicrobial-peptides-from-bacteria-through-metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-high-throughput-transcriptome-data-of-taiwanese-oolong-teas
#18
Kai-Yao Huang, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jhih-Hua Jhong, Yu-Hsiang Chi, Wen-Chi Li, Chien-Lung Chan, K Robert Lai, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), naturally encoded by genes and generally containing 12-100 amino acids, are crucial components of the innate immune system and can protect the host from various pathogenic bacteria and viruses. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the rapid growth of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms that often induce critical infection and pathogenesis. Recently, the advent of high-throughput technologies has led molecular biology into a data surge in both the amount and scope of data...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322842/cd133-expression-and-mycn-amplification-induce-chemoresistance-and-reduce-average-survival-time-in-pediatric-neuroblastoma
#19
Zhi-Yong Zhong, Bao-Jun Shi, Hui Zhou, Wen-Bo Wang
Objectives Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common pediatric solid tumor derived from the sympathetic nervous system. MYCN is amplified in nearly half of patients with NB, and its association with rapid disease progression and poor outcome is controversial. Characterization of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in NBs has been rarely studied. This study was performed to determine whether MYCN and CD133+ CSCs are associated with chemotherapy resistance and the survival time of patients with NB. Methods Fifty patients with an unequivocal pathological diagnosis of NB were recruited...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322710/etiology-and-outcomes-of-lower-limb-ulcers-in-non-diabetic-patients-an-experience-from-government-hospital-in-western-india
#20
Yojana Gokhale, Amol Raut, Divya Kunal Lala, Rushabh Kothari, Lalana Kalekar, Amol Kamble
Aim: To study the Etiology and Outcomes of Lower Extremity Ulcer in Non- Diabetic Patients. Method: A total number of 40 patients were collected from Rheumatology services (Department of Medicine), Venous Clinic (Department of Surgery) and Dermatology Clinic (Department of Dermatology) of a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai over a period of 48 months from January 2013 to December 2016. The study included serial recruitment of lower limb ulcer fulfilling inclusion criteria...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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