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Rapid Response Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431469/enhanced-response-time-of-electrowetting-lenses-with-shaped-input-voltage-functions
#1
Omkar D Supekar, Mo Zohrabi, Juliet T Gopinath, Victor M Bright
Adaptive optical lenses, based on the electrowetting principle, are being rapidly implemented in many applications such as microscopy, remote sensing, displays, and optical communication. To characterize the response of these electrowetting lenses, the dependence on DC driving voltage functions was investigated in a low viscosity liquid system. Cylindrical lenses with inner diameter 2.45 and 3.95-mm were used to characterize the dynamic behavior of the liquids under DC voltage electrowetting actuation. By increasing the rise time of the input exponential driving voltage, the originally underdamped system response can be damped, enabling a smooth response from the lens...
April 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430184/the-ubiquitin-ligase-lin41-trim71-targets-p53-to-antagonize-cell-death-and-differentiation-pathways-during-stem-cell-differentiation
#2
Duong Thi Thuy Nguyen, Daniel Richter, Geert Michel, Sibylle Mitschka, Waldemar Kolanus, Elisa Cuevas, F Gregory Wulczyn
Rapidity and specificity are characteristic features of proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Therefore, the UPS is ideally suited for the remodeling of the embryonic stem cell proteome during the transition from pluripotent to differentiated states and its inverse, the generation of inducible pluripotent stem cells. The Trim-NHL family member LIN41 is among the first E3 ubiquitin ligases to be linked to stem cell pluripotency and reprogramming. Initially discovered in C. elegans as a downstream target of the let-7 miRNA, LIN41 is now recognized as a critical regulator of stem cell fates as well as the timing of neurogenesis...
April 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428882/differential-phenotypes-of-memory-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-in-the-spleen-and-peripheral-tissues-following-immunostimulatory-therapy
#3
Gail D Sckisel, Annie Mirsoian, Christine M Minnar, Marka Crittenden, Brendan Curti, Jane Q Chen, Bruce R Blazar, Alexander D Borowsky, Arta M Monjazeb, William J Murphy
BACKGROUND: Studies assessing immune parameters typically utilize human PBMCs or murine splenocytes to generate data that is interpreted as representative of immune status. Using splenocytes, we have shown memory CD4-T cells that expand following systemic immunostimulatory therapies undergo rapid IFNg-mediated activation induced cell death (AICD) resulting in a net loss of total CD4-T cells which correlates with elevated PD-1 expression. This is in contrast to CD8-T cells which expand with minimal PD-1 upregulation and apoptosis...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428631/an-overview-of-the-synergy-and-crosstalk-between-pentraxins-and-collectins-ficolins-their-functional-relevance-in-complement-activation
#4
REVIEW
Ying Jie Ma, Bok Luel Lee, Peter Garred
The complement system is an innate immune defense machinery comprising components that deploy rapid immune responses and provide efficient protection against foreign invaders and unwanted host elements. The complement system is activated upon recognition of pathogenic microorganisms or altered self-cells by exclusive pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), such as collectins, ficolins and pentraxins. Recent accumulating evidence shows that the different classes of effector PRMs build up a co-operative network and exert synergistic effects on complement activation...
April 21, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427998/nitric-oxide-regulated-proteolysis-of-human-cyp2b6-via-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#5
Choon-Myung Lee, Shweta Tripathi, Edward T Morgan
We showed previously that rat cytochrome P450 CYP2B1 undergoes NO-dependent proteasomal degradation in response to inflammatory stimuli, and that the related human enzyme CYP2B6 is also down-regulated by NO in primary human hepatocytes. To investigate the mechanism of CYP2B6 down-regulation, we made several cell lines (HeLa and HuH7 cells) in which native CYP2B6 or CYP2B6 with a C-terminal V5 tag (CYP2B6V5) are expressed from a lentiviral vector with a cytomegalovirus promoter. Native CYP2B6 protein was rapidly down-regulated in HeLa cells within 3h of treatment with the NO donor (Z)-1-[2-(2-Aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, while its mRNA level was not down-regulated...
April 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427104/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-tofogliflozin-a-selective-sglt2-inhibitor-in-healthy-male-subjects
#6
Nahoko Kasahara-Ito, Hiroyuki Fukase, Yoichiro Ogama, Tomohisa Saito, Yasuhiro Ohba, Sumire Shimada, Yasuki Takano, Tomoko Ichihara, Kimio Terao, Noboru Nakamichi, Yuji Kumagai, Sachiya Ikeda
Tofogliflozin is a selective oral inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of tofogliflozin were investigated in healthy male subjects. Three studies were conducted: single-ascending dose study (10-640 mg) in 56 Japanese and 24 Caucasian subjects; multiple-ascending dose study (2.5-80 mg once daily for 7 days) in 24 Japanese subjects; and food-effect study (20-40 mg) in 30 Japanese subjects. Tofogliflozin was absorbed rapidly and eliminated from the systemic circulation with a t1/2 of 5-6 h...
April 20, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427069/practical-lessons-from-protocol-i-for-the-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#7
Lekha Mukkamala, Neelakshi Bhagat, Marco A Zarbin
Protocol I, a multicenter randomized clinical trial, compared the visual outcomes of patients treated with 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab with either prompt or deferred (by 24 weeks laser), 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone with prompt laser, or sham injection with prompt laser for the treatment of center-involving diabetic macular edema (DME). A total of 854 adult patients with type I or II diabetes and any level of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative retinopathy with adequate panretinal photocoagulation, with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 78 to 24 ETDRS letters (Snellen equivalent of 20/32 to 20/320) and visual loss attributed to macular edema, or retinal thickening with central subfield thickness of at least 250 µm by OCT were enrolled...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426958/elucidating-the-role-of-trem2-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jason D Ulrich, Tyler K Ulland, Marco Colonna, David M Holtzman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Genetic factors, such as rare variants in the microglial-expressed gene TREM2, strongly impact the lifetime risk of developing AD. Several recent studies have described dramatic TREM2-dependent phenotypes in mouse models of amyloidosis that point to an important role for TREM2 in regulating the response of the innate immune system to Aβ pathology. Furthermore, elevations in the CSF levels of soluble TREM2 fragments implicate changes in inflammatory pathways as occurring coincident with markers of neuronal damage and the onset of clinical dementia in AD...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426053/improved-spatial-resolution-for-spot-sampling-in-thermal-desorption-atomic-force-microscopy-mass-spectrometry-via-rapid-heating-functions
#9
Suhas Somnath, Stephen Jesse, Gary J Van Berkel, Sergei V Kalinin, Olga S Ovchinnikova
The key to advancing materials is to understand and control their structure and chemistry. However, thorough chemical characterization is challenging since existing techniques characterize only a few properties of the specimen, thereby necessitating multiple measurement platforms to acquire the necessary information. The multimodal combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry (MS) transcends existing analytical capabilities for nanometer scale spatially resolved correlation of the chemical and physical properties of a sample surface...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425695/reduced-graphene-oxide-containing-smart-hydrogels-with-excellent-electro-response-and-mechanical-property-for-soft-actuators
#10
Chao Yang, Zhuang Liu, Chen Chen, Kun Shi, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Jie Ju, Wei Wang, Rui Xie, Liang-Yin Chu
A novel reduced graphene oxide/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid-co-acrylamide) (rGO/poly(AMPS-co-AAm)) nanocomposite hydrogel that possesses excellent electro-response and mechanical property has been successfully developed. The rGO nanosheets that homogeneously dispersed in the hydrogels could provide prominent conductive platforms for promoting the ion transport inside the hydrogels to generate significant osmotic pressure between the external and internal of such nanocomposite hydrogels. Thus, the electro-responsive rate and degree of the hydrogel for both deswelling and bending performances become rapid and remarkable...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425472/label-free-single-cell-separation-and-imaging-of-cancer-cells-using-an-integrated-microfluidic-system
#11
Maria Antfolk, Soo Hyeon Kim, Saori Koizumi, Teruo Fujii, Thomas Laurell
The incidence of cancer is increasing worldwide and metastatic disease, through the spread of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), is responsible for the majority of the cancer deaths. Accurate monitoring of CTC levels in blood provides clinical information supporting therapeutic decision making, and improved methods for CTC enumeration are asked for. Microfluidics has been extensively used for this purpose but most methods require several post-separation processing steps including concentration of the sample before analysis...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424847/characterization-of-microtubule-buckling-in-living-cells
#12
Carla Pallavicini, Alejandro Monastra, Nicolás González Bardeci, Diana Wetzler, Valeria Levi, Luciana Bruno
Microtubules are filamentous biopolymers involved in essential biological processes. They form key structures in eukaryotic cells, and thus it is very important to determine the mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of the microtubule network. Microtubule bucklings are transient and localized events commonly observed in living cells and characterized by a fast bending and its posterior relaxation. Active forces provided by molecular motors have been indicated as responsible for most of these rapid deformations...
April 19, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424618/pharmacological-and-biochemical-characterization-of-tlqp-21-activation-of-a-binding-site-on-cho-cells
#13
Laura Molteni, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Roberta Possenti, Pamela Petrocchi Passeri, Corrado Ghè, Giampiero Muccioli, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Pascal Verdié, Jean Martinez, Robert J Omeljaniuk, Giuseppe Biagini, Anna Binda, Ilaria Rivolta, Vittorio Locatelli, Antonio Torsello
VGF is a propeptide of 617 amino acids expressed throughout the central and the peripheral nervous system. VGF and peptides derived from its processing have been found in dense core vesicles and are released from neuronal and neuroendocrine cells via the regulated secretory pathway. Among VGF-derived neuropeptides, TLQP-21 (VGF(556-576)) has raised a huge interest and is one of most studied. TLQP-21 is a multifunctional neuropeptide involved in the control of several physiological functions, potentially including energy homeostasis, pain modulation, stress responsiveness and reproduction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424466/the-role-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-induced-sleep-metabolic-and-feeding-responses
#14
Éva Szentirmai, Levente Kapás
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424315/prior-social-experience-affects-the-behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-acute-alcohol-in-juvenile-crayfish
#15
Matthew E Swierzbinski, Andrew R Lazarchik, Jens Herberholz
The effects of alcohol on society can be devastating, both as an immediate consequence of acute intoxication and as a powerful drug of abuse. However, the neurocellular mechanisms of alcohol intoxication are still elusive, partly because of the complex interactions between alcohol and nervous system function. We found that juvenile crayfish are behaviorally sensitive to acute alcohol exposure and progress through stages that are strikingly similar to those of most other intoxicated organisms. Most surprisingly, we found that the social history of the animals significantly modified the acute effects of alcohol...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424291/comparison-of-optomotor-and-optokinetic-reflexes-in-mice
#16
Friedrich Kretschmer, Momina Tariq, Walid Chatila, Beverly Wu, Tudor Constantin Badea
During animal locomotion or position adjustments, the visual system uses image stabilization reflexes to compensate for global shifts in the visual scene. These reflexes elicit compensatory head movements (Optomotor response - OMR) in unrestrained animals or compensatory eye movements (Optokinetic response - OKR) in head fixed or unrestrained animals, exposed to globally rotating striped patterns. In mice, OMR responses are relatively easy to observe and find broad use in the rapid evaluation of visual function...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424062/health-system-factors-influencing-management-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-four-european-union-countries-learning-from-country-experiences
#17
Gerard de Vries, Svetla Tsolova, Laura F Anderson, Agnes C Gebhard, Einar Heldal, Vahur Hollo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero Cejudo, Daniela Schmid, Bert Schreuder, Tonka Varleva, Marieke J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423744/design-and-validation-of-a-platform-to-evaluate-mhealth-apps
#18
Daniel Philpott, Aziz Guergachi, Karim Keshavjee
Emerging technologies show great potential in the field of patient care. One such technology is mobile heath applications (mhealth apps), which have exploded in number and variety in recent years, and offer great promise in the ability to collect and monitor patient health data. Despite their apparent success in proliferation and user adoption, these applications struggle to integrate into the primary care system and there is scant information regarding their efficacy to effect patient behavior and consequently health outcomes...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423336/lung-homeostasis-influence-of-age-microbes-and-the-immune-system
#19
REVIEW
Clare M Lloyd, Benjamin J Marsland
Pulmonary immune homeostasis is maintained by a network of tissue-resident cells that continually monitor the external environment, and in health, instruct tolerance to innocuous inhaled particles while ensuring that efficient and rapid immune responses can be mounted against invading pathogens. Here we review the multiple pathways that underlie effective lung immunity in health, and discuss how these may be affected by external environmental factors and contribute to chronic inflammation during disease. In this context, we examine the current understanding of the impact of the microbiota in immune development and function and in the setting of the threshold for immune responses that maintains the balance between tolerance and chronic inflammation in the lung...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422552/rapid-assessment-of-avoidable-blindness-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-gilan-province-iran
#20
Marzieh Katibeh, Hassan Behboudi, Siamak Moradian, Yousef Alizadeh, Ramin Beiranvand, Hamideh Sabbaghi, Hamid Ahmadieh
PURPOSE: To conduct an assessment of avoidable blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Gilan, 2014. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed on a representative sample of urban and rural individuals aged ≥50 years of the province. Blindness was defined as presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye. Moderate visual impairment (MVI) and severe visual impairment (SVI) were defined as 6/60 ≤ PVA <6/18 and 3/60 ≤ PVA <6/60 in the better eye, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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