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Rapid Response Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643869/mechanotransduction-properties-of-the-cytoplasmic-tail-of-pecam-1
#1
Jessica L Snyder, Elena McBeath, Tamlyn N Thomas, Yi Jen Chiu, Robert L Clark, Keigi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a well-known cell system used in the study of mechanobiology. Using cultured ECs, we found that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a cell adhesion protein localized to regions of EC-EC contact, was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in ECs exposed to shear or cyclic stretch. Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) binds phosphorylated PECAM-1 and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade, a known flow-activated signaling pathway...
June 23, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642732/autonomic-function-impairment-and-brain-perfusion-deficit-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Wei-Che Lin, Pei-Chin Chen, Chih-Cheng Huang, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Hung-Chen Wang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu
INTRODUCTION: Autonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson's disease (PD) components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#3
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#4
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639696/modulation-of-global-sumoylation-by-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-and-its-effects-on-viral-gene-expression
#5
Jinzhong Wang, Yuying Guo, Xu Wang, Rui Zhao, Ying Wang
Some viruses have evolved to exploit the host SUMOylation system to regulate their own replication. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes K-bZIP, a SUMO E3 ligase catalyzing the SUMOylation of viral and host proteins. KSHV also encodes replication and transcriptional activator (RTA), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase catalyzing the ubiquitination of SUMOylated proteins and targeting them for degradation. Using chronic KSHV-infected TRE × BCBL-1 RTA cells, the expression kinetics of K-bZIP and RTA, and the global SUMOylation level were detected...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639277/serum-derived-transfer-factor-stimulates-the-innate-immune-system-to-improve-survival-traits-in-high-risk-pathogen-scenarios
#6
Bridget V Willeford, Trudy Shapiro-Dunlap, Kenneth O Willeford
Preclinical Research Transfer Factors (TFs) are low molecular weight (<5,000 daltons) biological response mediators. In the present study, a serum derived TF improved the ability of the recipient animal to survive high-risk infectious challenges (salmonellosis and canine parvoviral enteritis (CPV)) by altering the host's cytokine response profile. Mice mortally challenged with 5,000 colony-forming units of Salmonella experienced a group mortality of 73% while mice treated with a single 5 mg dose of the TF demonstrated a significant decrease in morbidity (7%, p ≤ 0...
June 22, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638849/refractory-t-cell-anergy-and-rapidly-fatal-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-prolonged-ctla4-therapy
#7
Manon Dekeyser, Marie-Ghislaine de Goër de Herve, Houria Hendel-Chavez, Céline Labeyrie, David Adams, Ghaïdaa Adebs Nasser, Jacques Gasnault, Antoine Durrbach, Yassine Taoufik
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease due to central nervous system replication of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) in immunosuppressed patients. The only effective therapeutic approach is to restore anti-JCV T-cell responses. In this study, we describe a case of rapidly fatal PML with JCV T-cell anergy in a renal transplant patient treated with CTLA4-Ig (belatacept, a CD28-B7 costimulation blocker and T-cell anergy inducer). T-cell anergy could not be reversed despite several therapeutic approaches...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638727/identification-of-an-immunogenic-neo-epitope-encoded-by-mouse-sarcoma-using-cxcr3-ligand-mrnas-as-sensors
#8
Keisuke Fujii, Yoshihiro Miyahara, Naozumi Harada, Daisuke Muraoka, Mitsuhiro Komura, Rui Yamaguchi, Hideo Yagita, Junko Nakamura, Sahoko Sugino, Satoshi Okumura, Seiya Imoto, Satoru Miyano, Hiroshi Shiku
The CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, 10, and 11 play critical roles in the amplification of immune responses by recruiting CXCR3(+) immune effector cells to the tumor site. Taking advantage of this property of CXCR3 ligands, we aimed to establish a novel approach to identify immunogenic mutated-antigens. We examined the feasibility of using CXCR3 ligand mRNAs as sensors for detection of specific immune responses in human and murine systems. We further investigated whether this approach is applicable for the identification of immunogenic mutated-antigens by using murine sarcoma lines...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638406/an-html5-based-pure-website-solution-for-rapidly-viewing-and-processing-large-scale-3d-medical-volume-reconstruction-on-mobile-internet
#9
Liang Qiao, Xin Chen, Ye Zhang, Jingna Zhang, Yi Wu, Ying Li, Xuemei Mo, Wei Chen, Bing Xie, Mingguo Qiu
This study aimed to propose a pure web-based solution to serve users to access large-scale 3D medical volume anywhere with good user experience and complete details. A novel solution of the Master-Slave interaction mode was proposed, which absorbed advantages of remote volume rendering and surface rendering. On server side, we designed a message-responding mechanism to listen to interactive requests from clients (Slave model) and to guide Master volume rendering. On client side, we used HTML5 to normalize user-interactive behaviors on Slave model and enhance the accuracy of behavior request and user-friendly experience...
2017: International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638397/generation-annotation-and-analysis-of-a-large-scale-expressed-sequence-tag-library-from-arabidopsis-pumila-to-explore-salt-responsive-genes
#10
Xianzhong Huang, Lifei Yang, Yuhuan Jin, Jun Lin, Fang Liu
Arabidopsis pumila is an ephemeral plant, and a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but it possesses higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher propagation rate, and higher salinity tolerance compared to those A. thaliana, thus providing a candidate plant system for gene mining for environmental adaption and salt tolerance. However, A. pumila is an under-explored resource for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying abiotic stress adaptation. To improve our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms of salt stress adaptation, more than 19,900 clones randomly selected from a cDNA library constructed previously from leaf tissue exposed to high-salinity shock were sequenced...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638325/dopamine-noradrenaline-and-differences-in-sexual-behavior-between-roman-high-and-low-avoidance-male-rats-a-microdialysis-study-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Fabrizio Sanna, Jessica Bratzu, Maria A Piludu, Maria G Corda, Maria R Melis, Osvaldo Giorgi, Antonio Argiolas
Roman High- (RHA) and Low-Avoidance (RLA) outbred rats, which differ for a respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of the active avoidance response in the shuttle-box, display differences in sexual activity when put in the presence of a sexually receptive female rat. Indeed RHA rats show higher levels of sexual motivation and copulatory performance than RLA rats, which persist also after repeated sexual activity. These differences have been correlated to a higher tone of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system of RHA rats vs...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638065/colorimetric-detection-of-magnesium-ii-ions-using-tryptophan-functionalized-gold-nanoparticles
#12
Dae-Young Kim, Surendra Shinde, Gajanan Ghodake
The functional nanoparticles with specific molecular probe appear to be a promising approach for developing colorimetric nanosensor. In this work, we have synthesized tryptophan capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and used to establish colorimetric detection of magnesium (Mg(2+)). The colorimetric response of the AuNPs toward Mg(2+) was noticed with naked eyes, and spectral changes were monitored by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The detection response was rapid (less than 1 min), with a detection limit (LOD) about 0...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637894/deep-insight-into-neutrophil-trafficking-in-various-organs
#13
REVIEW
Young-Min Hyun, Chang-Won Hong
Neutrophils are professional phagocytes that constitute the first line of defense in humans. The primary function of neutrophils is to eliminate invading pathogens through oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms. Because neutrophils rapidly migrate into inflammatory foci via diapedesis and chemotaxis, neutrophil recruitment has long been considered a hallmark of inflammation. Recent advances in intravital microscopic technologies using animal model systems have enabled researchers to directly visualize neutrophil trafficking...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637090/early-warning-systems-and-rapid-response-to-the-deteriorating-patient-in-hospital-a-realist-evaluation
#14
Jennifer Mcgaughey, Peter O'Halloran, Sam Porter, John Trinder, Bronagh Blackwood
AIM: To identify those contexts and mechanisms that enable or constrain the implementation of Rapid Response Systems on acute general hospital wards to recognise and respond to patient deterioration. BACKGROUND: Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognised using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. DESIGN: Realist Evaluation. METHODS: The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636785/sperm-competition-suppresses-gene-drive-among-experimentally-evolving-populations-of-house-mice
#15
Andri Manser, Anna K Lindholm, Leigh W Simmons, Renée C Firman
Drive genes are genetic elements that manipulate the 50% ratio of Mendelian inheritance in their own favour, allowing them to rapidly propagate through populations. The action of drive genes is often hidden, making detection and identification inherently difficult. Yet drive genes can have profound evolutionary consequences for the populations that harbour them: most known drivers are detrimental to organismal gamete development, reproduction and survival. In this study, we identified the presence of a well-known drive gene called t haplotype post-hoc in eight replicate selection lines of house mice that had been evolving under enforced monandry or polyandry for 20 generations...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636560/lipocalin-2-regulates-intestine-bacterial-survival-by-interplaying-with-siderophore-in-a-weaned-piglet-model-of-escherichia-coli-infection
#16
Bing-Xiu Guo, Qian-Qian Wang, Jia-Hui Li, Zhen-Shun Gan, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Yi-Zhen Wang, Hua-Hua Du
Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth, which plays a pivotal role in modulating the battle for survival between mammalian hosts and their pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria secrete siderophores to acquire iron from the host. However, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a siderophore-binding antimicrobial protein, binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial uptake of iron, which is critical for the control of systemic infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli). But few studies focus on the anti-infective response of Lcn2 in the intestines by inhibiting bacterial proliferation based on microbial iron metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636540/implementation-and-utilization-of-the-molecular-tumor-board-to-guide-precision-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Shuko Harada, Rebecca Arend, Qian Dai, Jessica A Levesque, Thomas S Winokur, Rongjun Guo, Martin J Heslin, Lisle Nabell, L Burt Nabors, Nita A Limdi, Kevin A Roth, Edward E Partridge, Gene P Siegal, Eddy S Yang
BACKGROUND: With rapid advances in genomic medicine, the complexity of delivering precision medicine to oncology patients across a university health system demanded the creation of a Molecular Tumor Board (MTB) for patient selection and assessment of treatment options. The objective of this report is to analyze our progress to date and discuss the importance of the MTB in the implementation of personalized medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were reviewed in the MTB for appropriateness for comprehensive next generation sequencing (NGS) cancer gene set testing based on set criteria that were in place...
June 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#18
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636389/tumor-microenvironment-responsive-multistaged-nanoplatform-for-systemic-rnai-and-cancer-therapy
#19
Xiaoding Xu, Phei Er Saw, Wei Tao, Yujing Li, Xiaoyuan Ji, Mikyung Yu, Morteza Mahmoudi, Jonathan Rasmussen, Dana Ayyash, Yuxiao Zhou, Omid C Farokhzad, Jinjun Shi
While RNA interference (RNAi) therapy has demonstrated significant potential for cancer treatment, effective and safe systemic delivery of RNAi agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into tumor cells in vivo remains challenging. We herein reported a unique multistaged siRNA delivery nanoparticle (NP) platform, which is comprised of (i) a polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface shell, (ii) a sharp tumor microenvironment (TME) pH-responsive polymer that forms the NP core, and (iii) charge-mediated complexes of siRNA and tumor cell-targeting- and penetrating-peptide-amphiphile (TCPA) that are encapsulated in the NP core...
June 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634410/climate-response-to-the-8-2-ka-event-in-coastal-california
#20
Jessica L Oster, Warren D Sharp, Aaron K Covey, Jansen Gibson, Bruce Rogers, Hari Mix
A fast-growing stalagmite from the central California coast provides a high-resolution record of climatic changes synchronous with global perturbations resulting from the catastrophic drainage of proglacial Lake Agassiz at ca. 8.2 ka. High frequency, large amplitude variations in carbon isotopes during the 8.2 ka event, coupled with pulsed increases in phosphorus concentrations, indicate more frequent or intense winter storms on the California coast. Decreased magnesium-calcium ratios point toward a sustained increase in effective moisture during the event, however the magnitude of change in Mg/Ca suggests this event was not as pronounced on the western North American coast as anomalies seen in the high northern latitudes and monsoon-influenced areas...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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