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Critical Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787034/critical-preparation-and-readiness-to-support-future-change
#1
Elizabeth Curtis, Emma Duffy, Frank O'Rourke, Sylvia Huntley-Moore, Annabel Walsh, Ken Coogan, Catherine Comiskey
The challenging nature of change is well documented and adequate preparation before implementing a change initiative is critical to reducing resistance and increasing its chances of success. This article describes a service review conducted in preparation for possible change and improvement at an internationally ranked school of nursing and midwifery in an Irish tertiary education institution. The purpose of the review was to examine organisational structures and work activities, including pressures facing the administrative team that supports the school, and to establish whether operations were fit for purpose and capable of continuing to support the international ranking...
May 22, 2018: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786781/the-ejes-3d-tool-for-personalized-prescription-of-exercise-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-through-multimedia-animations-pilot-study
#2
Mariano Tomás Flórez, Raquel Almodóvar, Fernando García Pérez, Ana Belén Rodríguez Cambrón, Loreto Carmona, María Ángeles Pérez Manzanero, Juan Aboitiz Cantalapiedra, Ana Urruticoechea-Arana, Carlos J Rodríguez Lozano, Carmen Castro, Cristina Fernández-Carballido, Eugenio de Miguel, Eva Galíndez, José Luis Álvarez Vega, Juan Carlos Torre Alonso, Luis F Linares, Mireia Moreno, Victoria Navarro-Compán, Xavier Juanola, Pedro Zarco
To develop and evaluate a web application based on multimedia animations, combined with a training program, to improve the prescription of exercises in spondyloarthritis (SpA). After a review of exercises included in the main clinical trials and recommendations of international societies, a multidisciplinary team-rehabilitators, rheumatologists, physiotherapists, computer scientists and graphic designers-developed a web application for the prescription of exercises (EJES-3D). Once completed, this was presented to 12 pairs of rehabilitators-rheumatologists from the same hospital in a workshop...
May 21, 2018: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786555/innate-immunity-in-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes
#3
REVIEW
Lena Fischer, David C Hay, Cliona O'Farrelly
Stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) offer great opportunities for studies of host-pathogen interactions and tissue regeneration, as well as hepatotoxicity. To reliably predict the outcome of infection or to enhance graft survival, a finely tuned innate immune system is essential. Hepatocytes have long been considered solely metabolic and their critical innate immune potential is only recently gaining attention. Viral infection studies show that pathogen detection by cytosolic receptors leads to interferon (IFN) induction in primary hepatocytes and HLCs...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786553/from-skeletal-development-to-the-creation-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-bone-forming-progenitors
#4
REVIEW
Wai Long Tam, Frank P Luyten, Scott J Roberts
Bone has many functions. It is responsible for protecting the underlying soft organs, it allows locomotion, houses the bone marrow and stores minerals such as calcium and phosphate. Upon damage, bone tissue can efficiently repair itself. However, healing is hampered if the defect exceeds a critical size and/or is in compromised conditions. The isolation or generation of bone-forming progenitors has applicability to skeletal repair and may be used in tissue engineering approaches. Traditionally, bone engineering uses osteochondrogenic stem cells, which are combined with scaffold materials and growth factors...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786539/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-left-main-coronary-artery-disease-the-13th-consensus-document-from-the-european-bifurcation-club
#5
Francesco Burzotta, Jens Flensted Lassen, Adrian P Banning, Thierry Lefèvre, David Hildick-Smith, Alaide Chieffo, Olivier Darremont, Manuel Pan, Yiannis S Chatzizisis, Remo Albiero, Yves Louvard, Goran Stankovic
The 2017 European Bifurcation Club (EBC) meeting was held in Porto (Portugal) and allowed a multidisciplinary international faculty to review and discuss the latest data collected in the field of coronary bifurcation interventions. In particular, the topic of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on left main coronary artery (LM) disease was highlighted as a contemporary priority. Herein, we summarise the key LM anatomy features, the diagnostic modalities and available data that are relevant for a patient's procedural management...
May 20, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786535/evaluating-the-importance-of-sham-controlled-trials-in-the-investigation-of-medical-devices-in-interventional-cardiology
#6
Robert A Byrne, Davide Capodanno, Felix Mahfoud, Jean Fajadet, Stephan Windecker, Peter Jüni, Andreas Baumbach, William Wijns, Michael Haude
Cardiovascular medicine is one of the specialties that has relied most heavily on evidence from randomized clinical trials in determining best practice for the management of common disease conditions. When comparing treatment approaches, trials incorporating random allocation are the most appropriate method for protecting against treatment allocation bias. In order to protect against performance and ascertainment bias, trial designs including placebo control are preferable where feasible. In contrast to testing of medicines, treatments based on procedures or use of medical devices are more challenging to assess, as sham procedures are necessary to facilitate blinding of participants...
May 22, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786412/the-use-of-scoring-balloons-in-the-superficial-femoral-artery
#7
Simon Bays
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting is becoming increasingly the first line treatment for patients with both claudication and critical limb ischaemia instead of surgery, with the aim of returning the patient's quality of life in the former and preventing amputation. Drug eluting technologies have seen a large surge in popularity in recent years, and significant patient benefits have been seen with the use of drug eluting stents and balloons over the use of plain balloon angioplasty. Unfortunately in many patients with arterial disease there is significant vessel wall calcification - this can theoretically be a barrier to drug delivery, and can also be a contributing factor to flow limiting dissection and the subsequent need for bail out stenting...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786411/bad-transmission-and-sad-distribution-a-new-scenario-for-critical-limb-ischemia
#8
Roberto Ferraresi, Giovanni Mauri, Fabrizio Losurdo, Nicola Troisi, Diego Brancaccio, Carlo M Caravaggi, Luca Neri
BACKGROUND: Most of the studies on peripheral artery disease (PAD) focused on above-the-ankle artery disease, while less is known about foot artery disease. We hypothesize a scenario were two different diseases can be present in PAD patients, big artery disease (BAD) and small artery disease (SAD), overlapping at the foot level; the aim of this study is to evaluate their prevalence and their correlation with risk factors and critical limb ischemia (CLI) in a large cohort of patients with symptomatic PAD...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786179/-update-2017-of-the-kdigo-guidelines-on-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-ckd-mbd-what-are-the-real-changes
#9
Marzia Pasquali, Antonio Bellasi, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Carlo Massimetti, Maria Cristina Mereu, Luigi Morrone, Vincenzo Panuccio
Guidelines for the assessment, diagnosis and therapy of the alterations that characterize the CKD-MBD are an important support in the clinical practice of the nephrologist. Compared to the KDIGO guidelines published in 2009, the 2017 update made changes on some topics on which there was previously no strong evidence both in terms of diagnosis and therapy. The recommendations include the diagnosis of bone anomalies in CKD-MBD and the treatment of mineral metabolism abnormalities with particular regard to hyperphosphataemia, calcium levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism and anti-resorptive therapies...
May 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785945/-the-molecular-mechanism-of-sheep-seasonal-breeding-and-artificial-regulatory-techniques-for-estrus-and-mating-in-anestrus
#10
Qing Xia, Qiu Yue Liu, Xiang Yu Wang, Wen Ping Hu, Chun Yan Li, Xiao Yun He, Ming Xing Chu, Ran Di
Seasonal breeding is an important factor limiting sheep production efficiency. Detailed analysis on the molecular mechanisms of seasonal breeding is the premise for improving estrus and mating rate of sheep during anestrus. Recent research showed that under long-photoperiod and short-photoperiod conditions, a series of changes in signaling molecules and cell morphology could be observed in ovine seasonal reproduction pathway. Based on the molecular mechanisms of seasonal reproduction, several technologies or methods for inducing estrus and mating of ewes in anestrus have been developed...
May 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785943/-roles-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-hypoxia-inducible-factors-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Jun Xia Zou, Ke Chen
Renal cancer is a common urologic malignancy. However, the therapeutic options for metastatic renal cancer patients are limited. Hypoxia (low oxygen) is a fundamental microenvironmental determinant of solid tumor pathophysiology. Recent data from molecular and clinical studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play critical roles in the development and progress of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The HIF transcription factor family is a type of heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of HIF-α and HIF-β subunits and can transcriptionally activate genes that mediate the hypoxic response...
May 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785690/migrant-healthcare-guidelines-a-systematic-quality-assessment
#12
REVIEW
Eric Nwachukwu Agbata, Paulina Fuentes Padilla, Ifeoma Nwando Agbata, Laura Hidalgo Armas, Ivan Solà, Kevin Pottie, Pablo Alonso-Coello
Significant international and cross-border migration has led to a growing availability of migrant healthcare guidelines (MHGs), which we systematically reviewed for quality. PubMed, MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsychINFO and guideline developer/guideline databases were searched for MHGs published 2006-2016. Three independent reviewers assessed eligible MHGs using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II instrument (AGREE II). MHGs were identified as high quality if they had a score of ≥ 60% in at least three of the six domains, including "rigour of development", and overall quality was assessed on a seven-point Likert scale...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785656/how-to-measure-the-immunosuppressive-activity-of-mdsc-assays-problems-and-potential-solutions
#13
Annika M Bruger, Anca Dorhoi, Gunes Esendagli, Katarzyna Barczyk-Kahlert, Pierre van der Bruggen, Marie Lipoldova, Tomas Perecko, Juan Santibanez, Margarida Saraiva, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Sven Brandau
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous group of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear myeloid cells, which are present at very low numbers in healthy subjects, but can expand substantially under disease conditions. Depending on disease type and stage, MDSC comprise varying amounts of immature and mature differentiation stages of myeloid cells. Validated unique phenotypic markers for MDSC are still lacking. Therefore, the functional analysis of these cells is of central importance for their identification and characterization...
May 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785521/spatial-stochastic-intracellular-kinetics-a-review-of-modelling-approaches
#14
Stephen Smith, Ramon Grima
Models of chemical kinetics that incorporate both stochasticity and diffusion are an increasingly common tool for studying biology. The variety of competing models is vast, but two stand out by virtue of their popularity: the reaction-diffusion master equation and Brownian dynamics. In this review, we critically address a number of open questions surrounding these models: How can they be justified physically? How do they relate to each other? How do they fit into the wider landscape of chemical models, ranging from the rate equations to molecular dynamics? This review assumes no prior knowledge of modelling chemical kinetics and should be accessible to a wide range of readers...
May 21, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785401/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-mirnas-a-critical-review-through-a-functional-view
#15
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Moran-Moguel, Stefania Petarra-Del Rio, Evangelina E Mayorquin-Galvan, Maria G Zavala-Cerna
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease with severe joint inflammation and destruction associated with an inflammatory environment. The etiology behind RA remains to be elucidated; most updated concepts include the participation of environmental, proteomic, epigenetic, and genetic factors. Epigenetic is considered the missing link to explain genetic diversification among RA patients. Within epigenetic factors participating in RA, miRNAs are defined as small noncoding molecules with a length of approximately 22 nucleotides, capable of gene expression modulation, either negatively through inhibition of translation and degradation of the mRNA or positively through increasing the translation rate...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785336/targeting-the-microbiota-from-irritable-bowel-syndrome-to-mood-disorders-focus-on-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#16
M M Pusceddu, K Murray, M G Gareau
Purpose of review: The crosstalk between the gut and the brain has revealed a complex communication system responsible for maintaining a proper gastrointestinal homeostasis as well as affect emotional mood and cognitive functions. Recent research has revealed that beneficial manipulation of the microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics represent an emerging and novel strategy for the treatment of a large spectrum of diseases ranging from visceral pain to mood disorders. The review critically evaluates current knowledge of the effects exerted by both probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
March 2018: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785199/physical-exercise-for-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Alessandro Oliveira de Carvalho, Alberto Souza Sá Filho, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Sergio Machado
Background: National projections about the increase in the elderly population over 60 years bring with it an increase in the number of people affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD), making it an important public health problem. Therefore, the establishment of effective strategies for intervention in people with PD needs to be more clearly investigated. Objective: The study aimed to report the effectiveness of exercise on functional capacity and neurobiological mechanisms in people with PD...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785100/gender-specific-estimates-of-copd-prevalence-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Georgios Ntritsos, Jacob Franek, Lazaros Belbasis, Maria A Christou, Georgios Markozannes, Pablo Altman, Robert Fogel, Tobias Sayre, Evangelia E Ntzani, Evangelos Evangelou
Rationale: COPD has been perceived as being a disease of older men. However, >7 million women are estimated to live with COPD in the USA alone. Despite a growing body of literature suggesting an increasing burden of COPD in women, the evidence is limited. Objectives: To assess and synthesize the available evidence among population-based epidemiologic studies and calculate the global prevalence of COPD in men and women. Materials and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis reporting gender-specific prevalence of COPD was undertaken...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785076/role-of-osteoprotegerin-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-ligand-axis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Lucia Pacifico, Gian Marco Andreoli, Miriam D'Avanzo, Delia De Mitri, Pasquale Pierimarchi
Concomitantly with the increase in the prevalences of overweight/obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has worldwide become the main cause of chronic liver disease in both adults and children. Patients with fatty liver display features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), like insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Recently, epidemiological studies have linked obesity, MetS, and NAFLD to decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, highlighting an intricate interplay among bone, adipose tissue, and liver...
May 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784935/a-causal-mechanism-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#20
REVIEW
Mel Greaves
In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)+ ALL) drives conversion to overt leukaemia...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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