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Critical Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141275/roles-of-the-declive-folium-and-tuber-cerebellar-vermian-lobules-in-sportspeople
#1
In Sung Park, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
The cerebellum plays vital roles in balance control and motor learning, including in saccadic adaptation and coordination. It consists of the vermis and two hemispheres and is anatomically separated into ten lobules that are designated as I-X. Although neuroimaging and clinical studies suggest that functions are compartmentalized within the cerebellum, the function of each cerebellar lobule is not fully understood. Electrophysiological and lesion studies in animals as well as neuroimaging and lesion studies in humans have revealed that vermian lobules VI and VII (declive, folium, and tuber) are critical for controlling postural balance, saccadic eye movements, and coordination...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141180/motor-neuron-migration-and-positioning-mechanisms-new-roles-for-guidance-cues
#2
REVIEW
Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S Mastick
Motor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodies can migrate, and experiments that show that their migration is regulated by axon guidance cues...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141134/cellular-analysis-using-microfluidics
#3
Jay Sibbitts, Kathleen A Sellens, Shu Jia, Scott A Klasner, Christopher T Culbertson
Cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. Changes within a cell can propagate throughout much larger, more complex systems. Understanding how these changes arise internally within a cell and how cellular signals are transmitted through larger systems of cells, whether those systems be an organ, organism or a larger environmental assemblage, are critical, for example, to understanding how diseases arise and spread and how cells communicate and coordinate their actions. Microfluidic devices provide unique platforms from which to study many of these intra- and intercellular processes...
November 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140950/development-of-clinical-process-measures-for-pediatric-burn-care-understanding-variation-in-practice-patterns
#4
Lewis E Kazis, Robert L Sheridan, Gabriel D Shapiro, Austin F Lee, Matthew H Liang, Colleen M Ryan, Jeffrey C Schneider, Martha Lydon, Marina Soley-Bori, Lily A Sonis, Emily C Dore, Tina Palmieri, David Herndon, Walter Meyer, Petra Warner, Richard Kagan, Frederick J Stoddard, Michael Murphy, Ronald G Tompkins
BACKGROUND: There has been little systematic examination of variation in pediatric burn care clinical practices and its effect on outcomes. As a first step, current clinical care processes need to be operationally defined. The highly specialized burn care units of the Shriners Hospitals for Children system present an opportunity to describe the processes of care. The aim of this study was to develop a set of process-based measures for pediatric burn care and examine adherence to them by providers in a cohort of pediatric burn patients...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140836/pyoderma-gangrenosum-a-critical-appraisal
#5
Eran Shavit, Afsaneh Alavi, R Gary Sibbald
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide information about pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), including pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and treatment. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to: ABSTRACT: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon cutaneous disease, presenting with recurrent painful ulcerations most commonly on the lower extremities...
December 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140451/lipids-in-membrane-dynamics-during-autophagy-in-plants
#6
Rodrigo Enrique Gomez, Jérôme Joubès, Nicolas Valentin, Henri Batoko, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaître, Amélie Bernard
Autophagy is a critical pathway for plant adaptation to stress. Macroautophagy relies on the biogenesis of a specialized membrane named the phagophore that maturates into a double membrane vesicle. Proteins and lipids act synergistically to promote membrane structure and functions, yet research on autophagy has mostly focused on autophagy-related proteins while knowledge of supporting lipids in the formation of autophagic membranes remains scarce. This review expands on studies in plants with examples from other organisms to present and discuss our current understanding of lipids in membrane dynamics associated with the autophagy pathway in plants...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140140/the-physiological-mechanisms-of-effect-of-vitamins-and-amino-acids-on-tendon-and-muscle-healing-a-systematic-review
#7
Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse, Lindsy Kass
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate current literature via systematic review to ascertain whether amino acids/ vitamins provide any influence on musculotendinous healing, and by which physiological mechanisms Methods: EBSCO, PUBMED, Science Direct, Embase Classic/ Embase, and MEDLINE were searched using terms including "vitamins", "amino acids", "healing", "muscle" and "tendon". The primary search had 479 citations, 466 of which were excluded predominantly due to non-randomised design. Randomised human and animal studies investigating all supplement types/ forms of administration were included...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140108/cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-persistence-pouring-gas-on-the-fire
#8
Aaron Christensen-Quick, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Sara Gianella
The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139608/current-state-of-screening-high-ace-youth-and-emerging-adults-in-primary-care
#9
Michelle Pardee, Elizabeth Kuzma, Chin Hwa Gina Y Dahlem, Nicole Boucher, Cynthia S Darling-Fisher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trauma comes in many forms, including interpersonal, community, and institutional trauma. The adverse childhood event (ACE) studies demonstrated that adverse experiences in childhood can have a profound, cumulative impact on the course of health and development over a lifetime. It is critical for healthcare providers, such as nurse practitioners (NPs), working in primary care to screen adolescents and emerging adults for a history of ACEs and trauma. A review of current assessment tools used in assessing this population in health settings is needed to determine how screening for ACEs is being performed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139480/position-paper-the-potential-role-of-optical-biopsy-in-the-study-and-diagnosis-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Alex J Thompson, Michael Hughes, Salzitsa Anastasova, Laurie S Conklin, Tudor Thomas, Cadman Leggett, William A Faubion, Thomas J Miller, Peter Delaney, François Lacombe, Sacha Loiseau, Alexander Meining, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Guillermo J Tearney, Paul Kelly, Guang-Zhong Yang
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a disease of the small intestine affecting children and adults in low and middle income countries. Arising as a consequence of repeated infections, gut inflammation results in impaired intestinal absorptive and barrier function, leading to poor nutrient uptake and ultimately to stunting and other developmental limitations. Progress towards new biomarkers and interventions for EED is hampered by the practical and ethical difficulties of cross-validation with the gold standard of biopsy and histology...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139220/creating-and-facilitating-change-for-person-centred-coordinated-care-p3c-the-development-of-the-organisational-change-tool-p3c-oct
#11
Jane Horrell, Helen Lloyd, Thavapriya Sugavanam, James Close, Richard Byng
BACKGROUND: Person Centred Coordinated Care (P3C) is a UK priority for patients, carers, professionals, commissioners and policy makers. Services are developing a range of approaches to deliver this care with a lack of tools to guide implementation. METHODOLOGY: A scoping review and critical examination of current policy, key literature and NHS guidelines, together with stakeholder involvement led to the identification of domains, subdomains and component activities (processes and behaviours) required to deliver P3C...
November 15, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138918/anatomic-stabilization-techniques-provide-superior-results-in-terms-of-functional-outcome-in-patients-suffering-from-chronic-ankle-instability-compared-to-non-anatomic-techniques
#12
REVIEW
G Vuurberg, H Pereira, L Blankevoort, C N van Dijk
PURPOSE: To determine the best surgical treatment for chronic ankle instability (CAI) a systematic review was performed to compare the functional outcomes between various surgical stabilization methods. METHODS: A systematic search was performed from 1950 up to April 2016 using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were a minimum age of 18 years, persistent lateral ankle instability, treatment by some form of surgical stabilization, described functional outcome measures...
November 14, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138609/non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-impact-of-apixaban-on-patient-outcomes
#13
REVIEW
Adam Ioannou, Irene Tsappa, Sofia Metaxa, Constantinos G Missouris
Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia worldwide, and carries a significantly increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. Initially, vitamin K antagonists were used as stroke prophylaxis; but more recently, a group of drugs known as novel oral anticoagulants have been developed. Apixaban belongs to this group of drugs, and is a factor Xa inhibitor that has emerged as a popular pharmacological agent worldwide. In this review, we will provide an overview of the pivotal trials in the development of apixaban, while also critically evaluating the new emerging real-world data, and discussing the effectiveness, safety, economic viability and future prospects of apixaban and how it impacts on patient outcomes in those with non-valvular atrial fibrillation...
2017: Patient related Outcome Measures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138219/developing-a-tool-for-observing-group-critical-thinking-skills-in-first-year-medical-students-a-pilot-study-using-physiology-based-high-fidelity-patient-simulations
#14
Khoa Nguyen, Bertha Ben Khallouq, Amanda Schuster, Christopher Beevers, Nyla Dil, Denise Kay, Jonathan D Kibble, David M Harris
Most assessments of physiology in medical school use multiple choice tests that may not provide information about a student's critical thinking (CT) process. There are limited performance assessments, but high-fidelity patient simulations (HFPS) may be a feasible platform. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether a group's CT process could be observed over a series of HFPS. An instrument [Critical Thinking Skills Rating Instrument CTSRI)] was designed with the IDEAS framework. Fifteen groups of students participated in three HFPS that consisted of a basic knowledge quiz and introduction, HFPS session, and debriefing...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138080/muscarinic-receptor-subtype-distribution-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-relevance-to-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
E P Lebois, C Thorn, J R Edgerton, M Popiolek, S Xi
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the metabotropic actions of acetylcholine (ACh). There are five subtypes of mAChR, M1 - M5, which are expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) on numerous cell types and represent promising treatment targets for a number of different diseases, disorders, and conditions of the CNS. Although the present review will focus on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a number of conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD), schizophrenia, and others represent significant unmet medical needs for which selective muscarinic agents could offer therapeutic benefits...
November 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138050/a-systematic-review-on-the-effect-of-serious-games-and-wearable-technology-used-in-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-traumatic-bone-and-soft-tissue-injuries
#16
REVIEW
Henriëtte A W Meijer, Maurits Graafland, J Carel Goslings, Marlies P Schijven
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects on functional outcomes and treatment adherence of wearable technology and serious games (i.e., interactive computer applications with specific purposes useful in the 'real world') currently applied in physical rehabilitation of patients after traumatic bone and soft tissue injuries. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and CINAHL were searched without publication date restrictions for the terms 'wearable', 'serious game', 'videogame' or 'mobile application', and 'rehabilitation', 'exercise therapy' or 'physiotherapy'...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137936/the-field-of-medical-anthropology-in-social-science-medicine
#17
Catherine Panter-Brick, Mark Eggerman
Conceptually and methodologically, medical anthropology is well-positioned to support a "big-tent" research agenda on health and society. It fosters approaches to social and structural models of health and wellbeing in ways that are critically reflective, cross-cultural, people-centered, and transdisciplinary. In this review article, we showcase these four main characteristics of the field, as featured in Social Science & Medicine over the last fifty years, highlighting their relevance for an international and interdisciplinary readership...
October 31, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137933/cd4-t-cell-differentiation-in-chronic-viral-infections-the-tfh-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Laura A Vella, Ramin S Herati, E John Wherry
CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the response to chronic viral infections during the acute phase and in the partial containment of infections once chronic infection is established. As infection persists, the virus-specific CD4(+) T cell response begins to shift in phenotype. The predominant change described in both mouse and human studies of chronic viral infection is a decrease in detectable T helper type (Th)1 responses. Some Th1 loss is due to decreased proliferative potential and decreased cytokine production in the setting of chronic antigen exposure...
November 11, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137682/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#19
Lauren E Payne, David J Gagnon, Richard R Riker, David B Seder, Elizabeth K Glisic, Jane G Morris, Gilles L Fraser
BACKGROUND: Cefepime is a widely used antibiotic with neurotoxicity attributed to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and exhibit concentration-dependent ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonism. Neurotoxic symptoms include depressed consciousness, encephalopathy, aphasia, myoclonus, seizures, and coma. Data suggest that up to 15% of ICU patients treated with cefepime may experience these adverse effects. Risk factors include renal dysfunction, excessive dosing, preexisting brain injury, and elevated serum cefepime concentrations...
November 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137602/behaviour-change-interventions-to-reduce-second-hand-smoke-exposure-at-home-in-pregnant-women-a-systematic-review-and-intervention-appraisal
#20
Mukesh Dherani, Syeda Nosheen Zehra, Cath Jackson, Veena Satyanaryana, Rumana Huque, Prabha Chandra, Atif Rahman, Kamran Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy and foetal outcomes. Theory-based behaviour change interventions (BCI) have been used successfully to change smoking related behaviours and offer the potential to reduce exposure of SHS in pregnant women. Systematic reviews conducted so far do not evaluate the generalisability and scalability of interventions. The objectives of this review were to (1) report the BCIs for reduction in home exposure to SHS for pregnant women; and (2) critically appraise intervention-reporting, generalisability, feasibility and scalability of the BCIs employed...
November 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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