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Critical Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934724/integrating-health-into-local-climate-response-lessons-from-the-u-s-cdc-climate-ready-states-and-cities-initiative
#1
Mary C Sheehan, Mary A Fox, Charlotte Kaye, Beth Resnick
Public health has potential to serve as a frame to convey the urgency of behavior change needed to adapt to a changing climate and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Local governments form the backbone of climate-related public health preparedness. Yet local health agencies are often inadequately prepared and poorly integrated into climate change assessments and plans. We reviewed the climate health profiles of 16 states and two cities participating in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative (CRSCI) that aims to build local capacity to assess and respond to the health impacts of climate change...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934594/noncoding-rnas-in-polycomb-and-trithorax-regulation-a-quantitative-perspective
#2
Leonie Ringrose
The question of how noncoding RNAs are involved in Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) regulation has been on an extraordinary journey over the last three decades. Favored models have risen and fallen, and healthy debates have swept back and forth. The field has recently reached a critical mass of compelling data that throws light on several previously unresolved issues. The time is ripe for a fruitful combination of these findings with two other long-running avenues of research, namely the biochemical properties of the PcG/TrxG system and the application of theoretical mathematical models toward an understanding of the system's regulatory properties...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934584/principles-and-benefits-of-explicitly-designed-medical-device-safety-architecture
#3
Brian R Larson, Paul Jones, Yi Zhang, John Hatcliff
The complexity of medical devices and the processes by which they are developed pose considerable challenges to producing safe designs and regulatory submissions that are amenable to effective reviews. Designing an appropriate and clearly documented architecture can be an important step in addressing this complexity. Best practices in medical device design embrace the notion of a safety architecture organized around distinct operation and safety requirements. By explicitly separating many safety-related monitoring and mitigation functions from operational functionality, the aspects of a device most critical to safety can be localized into a smaller and simpler safety subsystem, thereby enabling easier verification and more effective reviews of claims that causes of hazardous situations are detected and handled properly...
2017: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#4
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934416/transporter-engineering-in-biomass-utilization-by-yeast
#5
Kiyotaka Y Hara, Jyumpei Kobayashi, Ryosuke Yamada, Daisuke Sasaki, Yuki Kuriya, Yoko Hirono-Hara, Jun Ishii, Michihiro Araki, Akihiko Kondo
Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934284/correlation-of-dapk1-methylation-and-the-risk-of-gastrointestinal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Wenzheng Yuan, Jinhuang Chen, Yan Shu, Sanguang Liu, Liang Wu, Jintong Ji, Zhengyi Liu, Qiang Tang, Zili Zhou, Yifeng Cheng, Bin Jiang, Xiaogang Shu
OBJECTIVE: One of the critical mechanisms of gastrointestinal cancer pathogenesis is the silencing of death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), which could be caused by aberrant methylation of the promoter. However, the relationship between DAPK1 methylation and the risk of gastrointestinal cancer is still controversial. Hence, we conducted this study to determine the potential correlation. METHODS: Eligible publications were searched in the Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library through November 2016 according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933999/minimal-residual-disease-assessment-in-lymphoma-methods-and-applications
#7
Alex F Herrera, Philippe Armand
Standard methods for disease response assessment in patients with lymphoma, including positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans, are imperfect. In other hematologic malignancies, particularly leukemias, the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) is increasingly influencing treatment paradigms. However, in many subtypes of lymphoma, the application of MRD assessment techniques, like flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, has been challenging because of the absence of readily detected circulating disease or canonic chromosomal translocations...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933871/neuropsychology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-in-the-fmri-era-a-recapitulation-of-localizationist-and-connectionist-views
#8
Matthew J Sutterer, Daniel Tranel
OBJECTIVE: We highlight the past 25 years of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the impact to the field of the introduction in 1992 of functional MRI (fMRI). METHOD: We reviewed the past 25 years of literature in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, focusing on the relation and interplay of fMRI studies and studies utilizing the "lesion method" in human participants with focal brain damage. RESULTS: Our review highlights the state of localist/connectionist research debates in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology circa 1992, and details how the introduction of fMRI into the field at that time catalyzed a new wave of efforts to map complex human behavior to specific brain regions...
September 21, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933763/a-critical-review-of-surveys-emphasizing-on-routing-in-wireless-sensor-networks-an-anatomization-under-general-survey-design-framework
#9
REVIEW
Waqas Rehan, Stefan Fischer, Maaz Rehan
A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS)-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs...
July 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933674/critical-healthcare-management-studies-green-shoots
#10
Martin Kitchener, Aoife M McDermott, Simon Cooper
Purpose While critical approaches have enriched research in proximate fields, their impact has been less marked in studies of healthcare management. In response, the 2016 Organizational Behaviour in Health Care Conference hosted its first-ever session dedicated to the emergent field of critical healthcare management studies (CHMSs). The purpose of this paper is to present five papers selected from that conference. Design/methodology/approach In this introductory paper, the authors frame the contributions as "green shoots" in a field of CHMS which contains four main furrows of activity: questioning the taken-for-granted; moving beyond instrumentalism; reflexivity and meanings in research; and challenging structures of domination (Kitchener and Thomas, 2016)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933365/milk-s-role-as-an-epigenetic-regulator-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik, Gerd Schmitz
It is the intention of this review to characterize milk's role as an epigenetic regulator in health and disease. Based on translational research, we identify milk as a major epigenetic modulator of gene expression of the milk recipient. Milk is presented as an epigenetic "doping system" of mammalian development. Milk exosome-derived micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) that target DNA methyltransferases are implicated to play the key role in the upregulation of developmental genes such as FTO, INS, and IGF1. In contrast to miRNA-deficient infant formula, breastfeeding via physiological miRNA transfer provides the appropriate signals for adequate epigenetic programming of the newborn infant...
March 15, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933281/influenza-virus-small-molecule-therapeutics-and-mechanisms-of-antiviral
#12
Julianna Han, Jasmine Perez, Adam Schafer, Han Cheng, Norton Peet, Lijun Rong, Balaji Manicassamy
Influenza viruses cause severe upper respiratory illness in young children and the elderly during seasonal epidemics. Influenza viruses also have the potential to cause pandemics with significant loss of life in all age groups. Although vaccination is one of the most effective methods to protect against seasonal epidemics, seasonal vaccines afford lowered protection against emerging variant strains and no protection against novel strains. Moreover, the efficacy of influenza virus vaccines is considerably lower in the elderly population...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933243/drug-targets-in-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-can-the-conquest-against-tuberculosis-become-a-reality
#13
Vivek Kumar Gupta, M Madhan Kumar, Dharmendra Singh, Deepa Bisht, Shweta Sharma
Targeting M. tuberculosis (Mtb) in latent form of infection is a major obstacle and big challenge in tuberculosis (TB) eradication by current chemotherapy. A better understanding of the physiology of Mtb and of the metabolic state of the bacillus during the dormancy, is a primary need in finding drug targets against non replicating persistent (NRP) form of the Mtb. Identification of potential drug targets against dormant state of Mtb is critically important to achieve the goal of complete eradication for shortening of anti-TB therapy...
September 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933147/antimicrobial-chitosan-and-chitosan-derivatives-a-review-of-the-structure-activity-relationship
#14
Priyanka Sahariah, Már Másson
This review gives an updated overview of the current state-of-the-art for antimicrobial chitosan and chitosan derivatives and the effects of structural modifications on activity and toxicity. The various synthetic routes introduced for chemical modification of chitosan are discussed and the most common functional groups are highlighted. Different analytical techniques used for structural characterization of the synthesized chitosan derivatives are discussed and critically evaluated. For the purpose of this review, the antimicrobial chitosan derivatives have been classified on the basis of the type of functional group conjugated to the polymer backbone...
September 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933065/cerebrovascular-disease-consequences-of-obesity-induced-endothelial-dysfunction
#15
Liliana Letra, Cristina Sena
Despite the well-known global impact of overweight and obesity in the incidence of cerebrovascular disease, many aspects of this association are still inconsistently defined. In this chapter we aim to present a critical review on the links between obesity and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and discuss its influence on functional outcomes, survival, and current treatments to acute and chronic stroke. The role of cerebrovascular endothelial function and respective modulation is also described as well as its laboratory and clinical assessment...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933001/redefining-aging-in-hiv-infection-using-phenotypes
#16
REVIEW
David M Stoff, Karl Goodkin, Dilip Jeste, Maria Marquine
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article critically reviews the utility of "phenotypes" as behavioral descriptors in aging/HIV research that inform biological underpinnings and treatment development. We adopt a phenotypic redefinition of aging conceptualized within a broader context of HIV infection and of aging. Phenotypes are defined as dimensions of behavior, closely related to fundamental mechanisms, and, thus, may be more informative than chronological age. Primary emphasis in this review is given to comorbid aging and cognitive aging, though other phenotypes (i...
September 20, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932919/how-does-homelessness-affect-parenting-behaviour-a-systematic-critical-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-qualitative-research
#17
REVIEW
Caroline Bradley, John McGowan, Daniel Michelson
The adverse social and physical conditions of homelessness pose significant developmental risks for children, which may be compounded or buffered by the quality of parenting behaviour they are exposed to. There is currently a limited understanding of how parents approach their care-giving role and responsibilities while adjusting to the experience of homelessness. Advancing knowledge in this area is essential for developing acceptable, appropriate and effective interventions to support highly marginalised and vulnerable homeless families...
September 20, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932912/behavioral-cognitive-and-emotional-coping-strategies-of-women-with-endometriosis-a-critical-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Cristina Zarbo, Agostino Brugnera, Luigi Frigerio, Chiara Malandrino, Massimo Rabboni, Emi Bondi, Angelo Compare
Endometriosis is a disabling and long-term medical condition affecting quality of life and mental health. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition could in part explain the link between the disease and impaired psychological and life functioning. This critical narrative review aimed at examining the state of the art of the relationships between endometriosis and these factors. According to PRISMA principles, we performed a systematic search for quantitative and qualitative studies on multiple electronic databases as regards coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition in women with endometriosis...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932908/the-impact-of-specialized-palliative-care-on-cancer-patients-health-related-quality-of-life-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Angelos P Kassianos, Myria Ioannou, Marianna Koutsantoni, Haris Charalambous
PURPOSE: Specialized palliative care (SPC) is currently underutilized or provided late in cancer care. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to critically evaluate the impact of SPC on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Five databases were searched through June 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies using a pre- and post- assessment of HRQoL were included. The PRISMA reporting statement was followed...
September 20, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932844/environmental-performance-of-bio-based-and-biodegradable-plastics-the-road-ahead
#20
REVIEW
Scott Lambert, Martin Wagner
Future plastic materials will be very different from those that are used today. The increasing importance of sustainability promotes the development of bio-based and biodegradable polymers, sometimes misleadingly referred to as 'bioplastics'. Because both terms imply "green" sources and "clean" removal, this paper aims at critically discussing the sometimes-conflicting terminology as well as renewable sources with a special focus on the degradation of these polymers in natural environments. With regard to the former we review innovations in feedstock development (e...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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